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GFIartnnon ^{Jrrss Series 




©larentron |toss Series 





(9 if oi)) 

Clamtiron ^xm j&eries 







Fellow and Lecturer of Lincoln College '\0 * - '/jV V 



-V" *_*- 




[dtf rights reserved} 


This Fourth Greek Reader is intended to give specimens 
of the principal Greek dialects, Homeric, Ionic, Aeolic and 
Doric. It comprises selections from the Iliad, so arranged 
as to present something like a consecutive story of the for- 
tunes of the Greeks before Troy. This is followed by a 
number of tales from Herodotus. A few illustrations of 
Aeolic dialect are given from Alcaeus, Sappho, etc.; and 
the specimens of Doric are taken from Theocritus, Bion, 
and Moschus. 

It seemed to me that a more intelligible idea of the various 
dialects could be gained from such specimens, than from 
shorter fragments, or from the elegiac or lyric writers, in 
whom so great a mixture of different forms is to be found. 

A general introduction to the whole seeks to give a sketch 
of the geographical distribution, and of the characteristics of 
the different dialects, as compared with the standard of the 
best period of Attic literature. A separate table of dialectical 
forms accompanies each group of specimens,' constant re- 
ference being made to these in the text. I have been glad 
to make use of Abicht's edition of Herodotus and Fritzsche's 
Theocritus. (Teubn. Schul-Ausgab.). References are made 
in the notes to Curtius' Students* Greek Grammar (Murray, 


W. W. M. 

Oxford, 1875. 


General Introduction 



Use of Mixed Dialects in Poetical Composition . xxv 

Forms of Homeric Dialect 
Selections from the Iliad 

Forms of Ionic Dialect 

Selections from Herodotus 

Forms of Aeolic Dialect 

Selections from Alcaeus, Sappho, etc. 
Forms of Doric Dialect . 


Selections from Theocritus, Bion, etc 
Notes to Selections from Iliad 
Notes to Selections from Herodotus 
Notes to Selections from Alcaeus, etc 




. i73 
. 177 
.. 186 
. 192 
. 223 
. 281 
. 348 

Notes to Selections from Theocritus, etc. 



or THE 


The Greek language is one of those comprised under 
the name of Aryan or Indo-European. In ages long past, 
a people, which we now speak of as the primitive Aryan 
stock, had its home in the steppes of upper Asia, and in- 
cluded the ancestors of Indians and Persians, of Germans 
and Slaves, of Greeks, Italians, and Celts. 

The Indians and the Persians remained in their Asiatic 
home, spreading only eastward and southward, retaining, 
more closely than did any of the western emigrants, the 
oldest forms of the original Aryan language. 

No question is harder to decide than the order in which 
the different western migrations parted off from the primi- 
tive stock. The latest results of Comparative Philology 
seem to mark as the earliest offshoot that division which 
included the ancestors of Germans and Slaves, the Slavic 
element being subdivided at a later time into Lithua- 
nian and Slavonic. The next great offshoot that spread 
over south-western Europe contained the Greek, Italian 
and Celtic families, of which the Greek was perhaps the 
first to break away, the Italian and the Celtic remaining 
still together until their separation which took place at a 
later date. 





Clarmbun |)r*ss $mt* 







Fellow and Lecturer of Lincoln College '\0 » U/l^,\ 


[4tf right* res€rved"\ 

(ZDIarentron press Series 







Clamttom |)mss Smes 







Fellow and Lecturer qf Lincoln College -<0 \ *.//' »*'\ 

.<* v ■»' 

ICC " '. - fc . : '-M 

V"" : "3 

4 V ^ 


[All rights reserved} 


This Fourth Greek Reader is intended to give specimens 
of the principal Greek dialects, Homeric, Ionic, Aeolic and 
Doric. It comprises selections from the Iliad, so arranged 
as to present something like a consecutive story of the for- 
tunes of the Greeks before Troy. This is followed by a 
number of tales from Herodotus. A few illustrations of 
Aeolic dialect are given from Alcaeus, Sappho, etc.; and 
the specimens of Doric are taken from Theocritus, Bion, 
and Moschus. 

It seemed to me that a more intelligible idea of the various 
dialects could be gained from such specimens, than from 
shorter fragments, or from the elegiac or lyric writers, in 
whom so great a mixture of different forms is to be found. 

A general introduction to the whole seeks to give a sketch 
of the geographical distribution, and of the characteristics of 
the different dialects, as compared with the standard of the 
best period of Attic literature. A separate table of dialectical 
forms accompanies each group of specimens/ constant re- 
ference being made to these in the text. I have been glad 
to make use of Abicht's edition of Herodotus and Fritzsche's 
Theocritus. (Teubn. Schul-Ausgab.). References are made 
in the notes to Curtius' Students* Greek Grammar (Murray, 

W. W. M. 

Oxford, 1875. 




The Greek language is one of those comprised under 
the name of Aryan or Indo-European. In ages long past, 
a people, which we now speak of as the primitive Aryan 
stock, had its home in the steppes of upper Asia, and in- 
cluded the ancestors of Indians and Persians, of Germans 
and Slaves, of Greeks, Italians, and Celts. 

The Indians and the Persians remained in their Asiatic 
home, spreading only eastward and southward, retaining, 
more closely than did any of the western emigrants, the 
oldest forms of the original Aryan language. 

No question is harder to decide than the order in which 
the different western migrations parted off from the primi- 
tive stock. The latest results of Comparative Philology 
seem to mark as the earliest offshoot that division which 
included the ancestors of Germans and Slaves, the Slavic 
element being subdivided at a later time into Lithua- 
nian and Slavonic. The next great offshoot that spread 
over south-western Europe contained the Greek, Italian 
and Celtic families, of which the Greek was perhaps the 
first to break away, the Italian and the Celtic remaining 
still together until their separation which took place at a 
later date. 


This view of the mutual relation of Celtic, Italian, and 
Greek, is suggested by the results of the most recent 
studies in Celtic, which show some closer relations be- 
tween that language and the Italian, than between Italian 
and Greek. We must remember however that under the 
name 'Italian* is included not only the old Latin but 
also the Umbrian and Oscan> and some other dialects. 

But our business now is not to examine the Greek lan- 
guage in relation to the other branches of the Indo- 
European stock: but rather to glance at its internal 
development ; to class its principal varieties or dialects ; 
and to endeavour ta see how far the particular character- 
istics of these dialects may be connected with the physical 
features of the districts in which they were spoken, or 
how far they may have been affected by contact with 

Greece is practically separated from the mainland of 
Europe, on the North by the Cambunian mountains — the 
range that begins with Ceraunia on the West,, and ends 
with Olympus in the East A glance at the map will show 
how completely the country is marked off into well-defined 
divisions, partly by the complex system of mountain- 
chains^ and partly by the deep indentations of the coast, 
by which whole districts are more or less isolated upon 
projecting peninsulas. The different heights and charac- 
ters of the mountains and hills, and the frequent bays and 
inlets of the sea produce within the narrow boundaries of 
Greece a greater variety of climate than can be found on 
any other portion of the globe of similar extent. 

Within the two hundred miles between Mount Olympus 
and Cape Matapan, we pass from a climate almost Alpine 
to one in which the palm will flourish : and, while the 
area of Greece is less than that of Portugal, the extent of 
coast line more than equals that of Spain and Portugal 



together. This variety of climate, and the physical con- 
formation of the country, make it easier for us to under- 
stand the phenomena we have now to notice in the 
language. As the people were divided by the natural 
features of their country into a number of independent 
states or cantons, so their language presents itself to us, 
not in the form of one undivided Hellenic Tongue, but 
split up into various dialects, of which each claimed to be 
in an equal degree Hellenic. 

Not only accent and pronunciation, but the very mate- 
rial of language, is modified by soil and climate. ' One 
class of sounds is wont to predominate on the hills, 
another in the valleys, and again another on the plains, 
and such influences of locality naturally prevailed in the 
highest degree where the component parts of the country 
are divided off from one another by sharp boundary lines ; 
for in mountain-valleys and on peninsulas and islands 
peculiarities of language are most apt to arise and con- 
tinue, whereas in widely extended plains,, contact causes 
them gradually to vanish V 

But among all varieties and subdivisions of dialects, we 
can identify two main forms of the Greek language,- — 
Doeic and Ionic, — just as in later times there is the con- 
stant contrast and rivalry between Doric and Ionic in art 
and philosophy, as well as in modes of life and govern- 
ment. The Doric is the dialect of mountaineers : it is 
rough, terse and strong, and the frequent use of the broad 
A (Tr\aT€uurft6s r Theocr. 15. 88) seems characteristic of 
bodily strength and vigour of lungs. It impresses us with 
a sense ofearnestness and concentration. The Ionic is 
the dialect of the plain and the coast, spoken by men who 
enjoyed an easier and softer form of life.. And this seems 

1 E. Curtius, History of Greece, 1. 26. 


to be reflected in their speech ; for the loss of aspirates, 
the frequency of the sibilant (S), and the concurrence of 
vowels are all characteristic of a dialect that has replaced 
much of its abruptness by an easiness and variety of tone. 
The influence of these causes on language was in full 
operation in a very early period when the organs generally 
evinced greater pliancy in adapting themselves to the 
various peculiarities of situations. In later times Doric 
was spoken in maritime towns, as low-German is now 
found in mountainous and highland districts. 

It is usual to follow the traditional division into four 
dialects ; Aeolic, Doric, Ionic and Attic : the Aeolic and 
Doric being nearly related together ; and the Attic closely 
connected with the Ionic. Nothing is more difficult how- 
ever than to form any clear idea of the Aeolic dialect. We 
have few literary remains of it, and those few seem to sug- 
gest a considerable number of subdivisions. Some philo- 
logers regard Aeolic not as a distinct dialect at all, but rather 
as the remains preserved in different localities of a more 
ancient state of the language, coming nearer in form to 
the common language spoken by the Greeks and Italians 
before their separation. But such a view is untenable; 
for not only do we find many older forms retained in 
Doric, but the whole weight of evidence points to the ex- 
istence of a great Aeolic stock of which the Doric is a 
subdivision; just as Attic is really a subdivision of the 
Ionic. But their native power, and the part they played 
in political history, brought these two subdivisions into the 
foreground, and secured them all the importance and all 
the privileges of a great original race ; so that their literary 
and political life has eclipsed that of the great stocks from 
which they sprung. Though the Doric and Aeolic are 
closely related, there are very characteristic differences 
noticeable between them. The broad pronunciation of 


the Doric is foreign to the Aeolians, who spoke faster and 
more trippingly. This shows itself in the peculiar rhythm 
of the Aeolic verse, which prefers the lighter measure of 
dactyl and anapaest. Aeolic was the dialect of Macedonia, 
Thessaly, Boeotia, Arcadia^ etc. ; but the most polished, 
indeed the only literary, Aeolic was spoken in Lesbos and 
in the colonies of Asia Minor, where the cultivation of 
lyric poetry, and the contact with Ionians, exercised a 
powerful influence. In later times, however, the Lesbians 
seemed to the Greeks — at least to the Athenians — to speak 
unintelligibly. (Cp. Plat. Protag. 341.) 

It was noticed by ancient scholars that the Aeolic 
dialect showed some remarkable analogies to Latin. So 
Quintilian (1. 6. 31) speaks of Aeolica ratio, cui est sermo 
noster stmilltmus. This is generally explained by a re- 
ference to the Aeolic system of accent, to the paucity of 
aspirates ; the substitution of v for o ; the genitive in 01, 
like the Latin in ei or i; the form of the preposition iv, 
used both with dative and accusative cases; and the 
absence of a dual number. Where we can compare 
Aeolians and Dorians together, we see in the former more 
of fire, passion, and sensitiveness ; they are wanting in the 
calm and reserve of Doric on the one hand, and the plas- 
ticity of Ionic on the other. There is something peculiarly 
masterful in the Doric stock. As they appear in the 
Peloponnese, the glory of the Achaean name fades away ; 
new states arise on the ruins of old chieftainships, and 
gradually the whole Peloponnesus becomes Dorized. Nei- 
ther the Aeolians nor the remains of the Ionic stock seem 
able to resist them ; wherever they set foot, their physical 
and moral power asserts itself, till they assimilate every- 
thing to their own stamp. 

The Dorian characteristics are simplicity both in religion 
and home-life; a strong practical valour; a spirit of self- 


sacrifice, obedience, and submission to law, and, above all, 
an intense conservatism. But these peculiarities could not 
remain so marked in large and populous cities, nor in the 
Dorian colonies abroad ; indeed, the Dorian Sicilians are 
described as being 6/xowr/xwrot rots 'Afyvaiois (Thuc. 8. 96). 

The Doric style is cramped by a want of ideality, but it 
is full of strength, earnestness, and a sort of reserved 
brevity. Cp. the description of the oratory of the Spartan 
Menelaus, II. 3. 213, and the phrase, tov 'ApyciW rpfaw 
€lpri<T€Tai, nav ip flpaxlarois. The Ionian character offers a 
remarkable contrast to this* as we have noticed before; 
but the Ionians of the coast of Asia Minor, affected by 
climate and intermarriages with Orientals, lost much of 
their distinctive Greek character. The lower position of 
the women in society, as well as the dress of the men in 
Eastern drapery rather than the short Greek Chiton, is an 
illustration of this. Commerce, industry, and the luxury 
which wealth brings with it, aided still further in moulding 
the character of the easy versatile Ionian. The Athenians 
were a branch of the Ionian stem who stayed in their old 
home, under very different influences both of climate and 
of political surroundings. 

The selection from Greek authors in this book are in- 
tended to exhibit some of the principal dialectical pecu- 
liarities. Such peculiarities are generally characterized by 
contrasting them with the forms of the best period of 
Attic literature — the period of Thucydides and the Trage- 
dians, of Xenophon, Plato, and Demosthenes. But this 
literary language of the Athenians is very far removed 
from the original form of speech which the first settlers in 
Greece brought with them. It must be carefully remem- 
bered that we are only speaking conventionally, when we 
treat the different Greek dialects as variations from the Attic. 

Historically speaking, all the dialects are so many dif- 


ferent developments of that particular stage of language 
reached by one great branch of the Indo-European stock, 
when the Greeks parted from it What this particular 
condition was, we can only guess at here and there. 
Comparative Philology supplies us with valuable hints, and 
with a certain amount of evidence ; but the greatest diffi- 
culty in such research lies in this, that the Greek language, 
before its forms are arrested and fixed by the use of 
writing, is in a state of continual growth and change : 
not only is pronunciation being constantly modified, but 
old forms are becoming obsolete every day and new ones 
are growing up. The advance of civilization, the necessi- 
ties of town life as well as of country life, the development 
of family life and political relations, the introduction of 
military, naval, and commercial terms, — all these things 
are daily supplying the repertory of the original language 
with new material. Such processes are especially easy while 
the dialects exist only as spoken language ; for, although 
public assemblies, popular songs, religious rites, and 
(somewhat later) laws, treaties, and oracles, exercise an 
influence in fixing the forms of a language, it is impossible 
for the process of change to be arrested, or definite forms 
to be settled, before the introduction of a written literature. 
Therefore, instead of feeling surprise at the wide diver- 
gence of the Greek dialects, we shall rather be inclined to 
wonder how, with such unbounded freedom for develop- 
ment, these various dialects were able to preserve, so 
characteristically, the general linguistic laws and gramma- 
tical structure of the original language \ 
The early history of the dialects is necessarily meagre 

1 Remarkable illustrations of the rapid process of change that is 
constantly at work in producing divergences in the dialects of 
Northern and Southern Asia and of Polynesia may be found in 
Max Miiller's Science of Language, vol. i. chap. a. 


and unsatisfactory from the extreme scarcity of material 
on which to work. The oldest Greek inscriptions, and 
the dialectical forms preserved by Grammarians, are often 
only attempts to express phonetically the particular pro- 
nunciation in vogue in different places. But though the 
light thus afforded is but scanty and dim, yet the tendency 
of larger research and the discovery of new inscriptions is 
constantly to strengthen our belief in the existence of a 
general unity that underlies the multifarious differences in 
dialectical forms. 

For example — Scholars have generally concurred in 
admitting only three representatives of the Aeolic dialect ; 
the Lesbian, Thessalian, and Boeotian ; and in including 
under the name of Pseudo-Aeolic the Elean, Arcadian, 
Cyprian, etc., because they did not seem to be reducible 
to the same general laws. But an Arcadian Inscription, 
recently discovered at Tegea, throws a new light upon the 

Exhibiting in itself different forms, that had previously 
been considered as peculiar to different groups of Aeolic, 
it suggests the possibility of a harmony between subdivi- 
sions of dialects, that had hitherto appeared irreconcileable. 
A connection has been thus shown between Arcadian and 
Cyprian forms ; between Lesbian and Boeotian ; and be- 
tween Cyprian and Thessalian ; and a general similarity 
in the character of the vowel systems of all the Aeolic 
stems has been established — the use of the o and Y sounds 
having been shown to preponderate largely over that of 
A or E. 

Which is the oldest of the Greek dialects? This 
is a question often asked : but it implies a mistaken 
conception. The Greek dialects do not come one after 
another in regular sequence. They are rather like parallel 
streams, than like geological strata; and no one dialect 


can have the preference for superior antiquity over the 
rest. All that we can say is that the Doric seems to retain 
most strictly the older sounds, and the Aeolic, on the 
whole, the older forms; while the Ionian, from the 
first, exhibits mos't strongly the tendency to variety and 

It will add fresh interest to the study of the Greek dia- 
lects if we are able to detect in them something of the 
action of natural laws, rather than the arbitrary caprice of 
this or that tribe or community. And nothing is more 
suggestive in this direction than a few illustrations of the 
way in which the dialects have often preserved the fuller 
forms of the original language, after they had disappeared 
from use in Attic literature. 

In the declension of the noun, the Ionic genitive in o-to 
(=00-10) comes much nearer the Sanskrit a-sya, than the 
common form in -ov. The oldest form of the accusative 
plural is -ams, being the accusative singular with the addi- 
tion of s : this is closely kept in the Aeolic accus., e. g. 

rats T€ifiais , =iTas Tipas, Or rols \vicots~Tavs \vkovs, the i in 

each case representing the lost v } as rtOcU represents 
Ti6ev[r]9, rtOcvT-os, and the Aeolic form of the aorist parti- 
ciple, viz. rptyats for Tptyas is a further illustration of the 
same principle. In inscriptions of the Cretan Doric, the 

v is actually retained, as in irpciyevravs = 7rpfo#fvra9, rbvs 

v6fxovs=rovs vofxovs. The old instrumental case in bhi 9 or, 
perhaps, the datival termination in bhjam, is preserved in 
the suffixes -o^and -cf>w. The primitive form of the ist 
personal pronoun, agham, Sanskr. aham, is, perhaps, seen 
in the Doric eyov, and the Boeotian tow, and the dative of 
the same, ma-hyam, with its full termination, resembles 
the Doric ifuv, and c/uVya. The second personal pronoun 
had originally an initial /, not yet softened to s, viz. tvam, 
which we may best compare not with <ri> but with the 




Boeotian rovv and Laconian rvvrf, and Aeolian rv as used 
by Sappho. The full form of the accusative of the same 
is tvdm, which, while wholly obliterated in arc, is kept in 
the Boeot. riv; and the dative tva-bhyam retains its 
characteristic initial and termination in the Doric riv and 
Tflv, which latter, though found in Homer, is quoted by the 
grammarians as a Dorism. In the verb, the older present 
tenses in -/u are so carefully preserved in Aeolic, that a 
grammarian tells us 'that some have thought that all 
Aeolic presents ended in -/it.' We may quote yeXat/iu, 

aovverripi and Kdkrjpi as representing yfkdca, davvcrem and 

KoAea), and similar old forms are found of the ist person 
of the conjunctive in Homer, as dydyapt, ™x«/«, cOckupt. 
One of the oldest forms of the 2nd person-ending is -tha, 
retained in oMa, and in such dialectical forms as tfrtkrjorQa, 
Doric xpijotfa (Ar. Ach. 778), Homeric ridrjarda, biboivOa, 
chrOa. The true ending of the third person, in It, is only 
kept, in ordinary Greek, in the word i<m, but the Doric 
dialect furnishes us with such forms as ridrjTi (Theocr. 3. 
48), e<£iV* (Pind. Isthm. 2. 9), *<rari, bid&Ti. The same 
termination, softened to cri, appears in dialectical forms of 
the conjunctive, as in ippiyyari (II. 3. 353), ^y^o-i, T ^p^u^h 
P € '6/<™ (Hesiod, Frag. 185), onmrcviivi (Theocr. 23. 10), 
and the Ionic optative form irapa<\>OaLji<n (II. 10. 343). In 
the 1 st person plural the Doric termination -/*«* (cp. Lat. 

~tnus) % as in evpla-KOfus, ctpwopcs, jpfiakovfJLfs, dunreipapfs, has 

preserved the old form in -masi, or Sanskr. -mas ; and the 
termination of the 3rd person plural in -anti, -nti (cp. 

Lat. -«/) is found in Doric (j>d-vri, \cyo-vn, chrd£o-vrt, iroto- 

vri, and in the old Boeotian forms tx&vBi (=?x 0VTl )i <"rofc- 
&W&. The process of change from -ovti to -overt is best 
seen by a reference to Arcadian forms Kplvavan, jeeXeiWcrc. 
Comparative Philology leads us to believe that the earliest 
form of the augment was a and not *, and this view is 


supported by an Elean (Aeolic) inscription, which gives 

K0I02 MAI10E2E, that is, Katts p dir6rjare=:iiroiriar€. Hesy- 

chius too, in his Lexicon, quotes as Cretan forms Sdeiptv, 
ZPpaxcp and fofco-dt, in each of which the initial d repre- 
sents the augment. A study of the different dialects 
serves also to throw light upon the use of the Digamma 
(see Homer. Dial. § 2) in the Greek language, and often 
shows the different vowels and consonants by which its 
place was represented after it had itself disappeared. We 
are also able to establish, from an examination of dialec- 
tical forms, the original existence of a palatal spirant/ (or 
jod) in the primitive Greek language. But this letter was 
lost far earlier than the Digamma, and can only be detected 
by the compensating letters that supply its place. Such 
facts are sufficient to show that a real and fruitful study of 
the dialects belongs to the science of Comparative Phi- 
lology, no less than to Greek scholarship. 

But the history of the dialects is connected also with the 
geography and with the heroic legends of Greece. What 
is the picture that Greece would have presented to the eye 
of an observer at the beginning of the historic age? He 
would find the Dorian dialect occupying nearly the whole 
of the Peloponnese, with Dorian colonies in Crete and 
Rhodes, and on the South-west coast of Asia Minor. 
North of this and in the adjacent islands of Samos and 
Chios were the homes of Ionians who also occupied 
Attica and Euboea : while Boeotia, the North-west coast 
of Asia Minor, and the island of Lesbos, were ^cplonised 
by settlers of the Aeolian stock. How were these pheno- 
mena to be accounted for? Tradition supplied some 
information about the early movements of the tribes, and 
where tradition is silent, legends are readily framed to 
explain existing facts. 

Out of such a combination of legend and tradition the 



story of the movements of the Greek tribes was woven, 
of which the following is an outline. Leaving undiscussed 
the mythical accounts of the primitive Pelasgic inhabitants, 
who form a sort of cloudy background to the picture, we 
find the Hellenes early in the forefront ; but at first the 
name of Hellenes is limited to the people of Hellas, a state 
or district of South-eastern Thessaly. (II. 2. 684.) The 
myth that introduces them begins with Deucalion, king of 
Phthia, whose descendants are thus represented — 





Doras Xuthus Aeolus 

r «- n 

Ion Achaeus. 

Hellen, who had ascended the throne of his father Deuca- 
lion, is succeeded by his son Aeolus, under whom the 
Aeolians spread over Thessaly and over the western part 
of central Greece, including Aetolia, Acarnania, Phocis, 
and Locris, and extending to parts of the Peloponnese, as 
Elis, Corinth, and Messenia. 

Dorus settled near Mount Oeta, and founded the Doric 
Tetrapolis, while another portion of the Dorians migrated 
to Crete, which received a Doric constitution through their 
king Minos. 

Xuthus went to Attica, where he espoused the daughter 
of Erechtheus, by whom he became father of Ion and 
Achaeus. Achaeus returned to Phthiotis, and there re- 
sumed his ancestral kingdom ; his descendants, the Achaei, 
appearing, at a later period, in the Peloponnese and 
spreading themselves over Argolis and Laconia. At the 
time of the Trojan war the Achaeans were at the height 
of their fame. 


Ion, the elder son, is represented as having remained 
in Attica, and as having further given his name to that 
strip of northern coast that was afterwards called Achaia, 
but then Ionia. This earlier group of legends represents 
the Dorians and Ionians as of far less importance than 
the other two tribes. A different series of events made 
them afterwards the leading tribes of Greece, but, at this 
early period, the Dorians lay within the limits of Doris, 
between Thessaly and Phocis, and the Ionians were con- 
fined to Attica and the northern extremity of the Pelo- 
ponnese. It is not the place here to examine the stories 
which connect Greek history with the East. Cecrops, 
from Sais, is said to have civilized Attica and built 
Athens ; Danaus the Egyptian to have settled in Argos ; 
and Pelops the Phrygian to have founded the kingdom of 
Mycenae. The fact that the Greeks used a Phoenician 
alphabet, besides the hints in the Homeric poems of in- 
tercourse between Greece and Phoenicia, give a meaning 
to the story of the landing of Cadmus in Boeotia, and the 
establishment of his Phoenician colony in Thebes, the 
citadel of which was called the Cadmea. TheSe stories 
serve also to remind us that the general spread of civiliza- 
tion has been from East to West ; and therefore we shall 
accept with caution the statement, so flattering to Athenian 
pride, that the prosperous Ionian colonies on the coast of 
Asia Minor were but offshoots from Attic soil. There are 
many reasons which might induce us to believe that the very 
reverse was the case, and that these colonists dropped, as 
it were, out of the line of march that was setting towards 
Greece, and were content to find their resting-place on 
the extreme western edge of their old Asiatic home. 

Nor have we here to deal with the so-called heroic age 
of Greek history, which immediately succeeds the group 
of early legends concerning the spread of the Greek tribes. 


The Argonautic expedition, of which Jason is the hero, 
deals principally with the fortunes of the Aeolian stock, 
as does also the war of the Seven Chiefs against Thebes, 
and the renewal of it by the Epigoni (descendants of the 
heroes who fell in the war); though at Thebes the 
Achaeans also appear on the scene, and Achaean princes 
form some of the principal characters of the Homeric 

The second batch of legends begins, according to 
mythical chronology, some fifty years after the Trojan 
war. The Thessalians first forced their way from Epirus 
to the valley of the Peneus, conquering the original 
Aeolian inhabitants, some of whom became serfs under 
feudal Thessalian princes, and others pushed southward 
into Boeotia, dispossessing the Minyans, Cadmeans, etc., 
and settling there. 

The next great movement is the southward migration 
of the Dorians into the Peloponnese, otherwise called the 
Return of the Heracleidae, because the Dorian invaders 
are represented as having for leaders the descendants of 
Heraclesj chieftains who had sworn to vindicate their claim 
to those dominions of which their great ancestor had been 
robbed by Eurystheus. 

Warned by an oracle not to enter the Peloponnese by 
the Isthmus, they crossed the gulf from Naupactus, having 
been joined in their expedition by the Aetolians and Ozo- 
lian Locrians. A single battle sufficed for the overthrow 
of the Achaeans under Tisamenus, son of Orestes, and 
the defeated troops occupied and gave the name of Achaia 
to that strip of northern coast which was formerly called 
Ionia. By this pressure the Ionian inhabitants were 
driven back upon their kinsmen in Attica. 

The next stage in the story is that a migration of Ionians, 
accompanied by remnants of other Greek clans, took 

• •• 


place from Attica to the islands of the Aegean and the coast 
of Asia Minor. They are represented as having formed 
settlements in the Cyclades, in Chios, and Samos, and on 
the south coast of Lydia, and north of Caria, where the 
colonists founded twelve cities, united by the bond of a 
common sanctuary (Panionion) at Mycale. The principal 
cities were Miletus, Ephesus, and Phocaea. 

The Dorian conquest of the Peloponnese was probably 
the work of time, but the story represents all the inhabit- 
ants as submitting tamely to the invaders, with the ex- 
ception of the Arcadians, who lived undisturbed within 
the rampart of their mountain-walls. 

Sicyon, Corinth, and Megara became Dorian settle- 
ments at a somewhat later period. From this date the 
stream of migration is represented as setting steadily 
across the Aegean, and dropping various colonies in the 
islands and on the Asiatic coast. The Aeolian colonies 
are described as being established by the fugitive Achaeans, 
who migrated in company with the Boeotian Aetolians to 
Mysia and Lydia, where they founded twelve cities or 
states, of which the most important were Cyme and 
Smyrna, the latter afterwards passing into Ionian hands. 
At the same time they spread over Lesbos and several 
neighbouring islands. 

The earlier migration of the Dorians to Crete has been 
already allude^ to. After the conquest of the Peloponnese, 
Dorian colonists settled in Rhodes, Thera, and southern 
Caria, and founded a confederacy of six cities, the Doric 

The history of the Ionic and Doric dialects must also 
be the history of different styles of Composition. The 
old Ionic, as used by Homer, is preeminently the dialect 


The Argonautic expedition, of which Jason is the hero, 
deals principally with the fortunes of the Aeolian stock, 
as does also the war of the Seven Chiefs against Thebes, 
and the renewal of it by the Epigoni (descendants of the 
heroes who fell in the war); though at Thebes the 
Achaeans also appear on the scene, and Achaean princes 
form some of the principal characters of the Homeric 

The second batch of legends begins, according to 
mythical chronology, some fifty years after the Trojan 
war. The Thessalians first forced their way from Epirus 
to the valley of the Peneus, conquering the original 
Aeolian inhabitants, some of whom became serfs under 
feudal Thessalian princes, and others pushed southward 
into Boeotia, dispossessing the Minyans, Cadmeans, etc., 
and settling there. 

The next great movement is the southward migration 
of the Dorians into the Peloponnese, otherwise called the 
Return of the Heracleidae, because the Dorian invaders 
are represented as having for leaders the descendants of 
Heracles] chieftains who had sworn to vindicate their claim 
to those dominions of which their great ancestor had been 
robbed by Eurystheus. 

Warned by an oracle not to enter the Peloponnese by 
the Isthmus, they crossed the gulf from Naupactus, having 
been joined in their expedition by the Aetolians and Ozo- 
lian Locrians. A single battle sufficed for the overthrow 
of the Achaeans under Tisamenus, son of Orestes, and 
the defeated troops occupied and gave the name of Achaia 
to that strip of northern coast which was formerly called 
Ionia. By this pressure the Ionian inhabitants were 
driven back upon their kinsmen in Attica. 

The next stage in the story is that a migration of Ionians, 
accompanied by remnants of other Greek clans, took 

• •• 


place from Attica to the islands of the Aegean and the coast 
of Asia Minor. They are represented as having formed 
settlements in the Cyclades, in Chios, and Samos, and on 
the south coast of Lydia, and north of Caria, where the 
colonists founded twelve cities, united by the bond of a 
common sanctuary (Panionion) at Mycale. The principal 
cities were Miletus, Ephesus, and Phocaea. 

The Dorian conquest of the Peloponnese was probably 
the work of time, but the story represents all the inhabit- 
ants as submitting tamely to the invaders, with the ex- 
ception of the Arcadians, who lived undisturbed within 
the rampart of their mountain-walls. 

Sicyon, Corinth, and Megara became Dorian settle- 
ments at a somewhat later period. From this date the 
stream of migration is represented as setting steadily 
across the Aegean, and dropping various colonies in the 
islands and on the Asiatic coast. The Aeolian colonies 
are described as being established by the fugitive Achaeans, 
who migrated in company with the Boeotian Aetolians to 
Mysia and Lydia, where they founded twelve cities or 
states, of which the most important were Cyme and 
Smyrna, the latter afterwards passing into Ionian hands. 
At the same time they spread over Lesbos and several 
neighbouring islands. 

The earlier migration of the Dorians to Crete has been 
already allude^ to. After the conquest of the Peloponnese, 
Dorian colonists settled in Rhodes, Thera, and southern 
Caria, and founded a confederacy of six cities, the Doric 

The history of the Ionic and Doric dialects must also 
be the history of different styles of Composition. The 
old Ionic, as used by Homer, is preeminently the dialect 


of Epic poetry, as the Lesbian Aeolic is of amatory verse. 
The Asiatic Ionic appears as the natural vehicle for 
history and elegiac poetry. For the mingled gravity and 
impetuosity of triumphal or religious song, for the serious- 
ness of the first essays in philosophy, and, later, for idyllic 
pictures of rustic life, the Dorian dialect was felt to be 
appropriate. But the genius of Athens, fostered by a A 
happy independence, and elevated by her proud position, 
seemed able to excel in almost every department of litera- 
ture, and to exhibit the grandest forms of the drama, 
with its choric odes, of prose narrative, and of oratory. 
The instinctive perception of Athenian taste was able also 
to mould the language of her citizens into the most per- 
fect instrument for the expression of thought, and to tune 
it to the best proportioned rhythm and harmoniousness 
of sound, avoiding on the one hand the roughness and 
abruptness of the Doric, and, on the other, retaining more 
strength, solidity, and concentration, than appears in the 
speech of her Ionian kinsfolk. Thus the Attic became a 
standard to which all other dialects were referred. 



It has been very rightly remarked that the difficulty of 
dealing with a subject like the Greek dialects is materially 
increased by the use that has been made of the dialects in 
literature. For we have to take into consideration not 
only the diversities that depend upon times or places, but 
also the particular style which each author may adopt. 
We cannot deal from the same point of view with the 
writings of a historian, an orator, or a philosopher. And 
the difficulty reaches its height when we come to the study 
of Greek poetry, so much of which exhibits to us a pecu- 
liar combination of several dialects together. As there 
are dialects of different tribes or communities, so are there 
dialects of different poetical styles. It does not neces- 
sarily follow, because a poet was an Ionian by birth, that 
his poetical compositions were therefore in Ionic dialect. 
The language of his home was not without its influence 
upon him, but the subject-matter and poetical form of his 
composition did far more towards determining the parti- 
cular language in which it should be cast. A few illus- 
trations of this fact will be of use towards the solution 
of the question proposed at the heading of this chapter. 

It must be remembered that at the beginning of the 
historical period of Greece, which is conveniently sup- 
posed to commence with the First Olympiad, there was 
only one dialect, the Ionian, which had made any advance 


towards literary cultivation. No doubt the first notes of 
those melodies, which by and by were the glory of the 
Aeolian lyre, had been struck; and Dorian hymns and 
Choric songs might be heard at rustic festival and re- 
ligious rite, before Alcman and Stesichorus raised them 
to the level of literary composition: but the influence 
they exercised on the dialects could hold no comparison 
with the effect that the Homeric Epic produced on the 
Ionic dialect. 

The language of Epic must be described as a sort of 
common dialect (koivtj dtaXaero?) for all poetry of that 
era; and its influence spread in ever- widening circles. 
In Boeotia the Epic of Hesiod reproduced the metre, 
and, to a great extent, the language of the Homeric 
poems. In Ionia, Elegiac poetry, taking its rise with or 
before Callinus ( ? 730 B.C.), was a true offshoot of the 
Epic, both in metre and language. Nor was the influence 
of Epic altogether absent from the Iambic and Trochaic 
metres which Archilochus produced in the Ionian faros. 

Elegiac poetry, both in subject and rhythm, comes 
nearest to the Epic. Accordingly, we find that the dialect 
used by the Greek Elegiac writers is, in the main, Epic, 
that is, the Ionian and not the Boeotian Epic ; the regular 
language of Homer, not the variety of it used by Hesiod. 
But in Elegiac poetry the personality of the writer comes 
out far more strongly than in Epic, and thus we find 
distinct changes from the ordinary Epic diction ; some of 
these changes being due to the instinctive feeling of the dif- 
ference between the Epic as representing heroic times and 
the Elegy as belonging to more modern days ; and others 
being traceable to the effect of each poet's native dialect. 

Under the head of these general changes we may quote 
the disuse in Elegiac poetry of several old Epic forms, 
such as case endings in -<pi, and some forms of the in- 


finitival termination in -e/uvcu; or the absence of such 
instances of diaeresis, as 6p6a> for 6pS>. Among the changes 
depending on each poet's age or nationality, we may 
mention the younger Ionic forms in k6tc, k&s, etc., em- 
ployed by Cratinus and Mimnermus ; the occasional use 
of the a for 17, and of the contraction of co into ov, not ev, 
by Solon, Melanthius, Critias, etc. ; while in the case of 
Tyrtaeus, the Doric dialect is visible in such words as 
btiftAras, fc<nr6ras; and in the writings of the Megarean 
Theognis a considerable number of Dorisms may be 

Seen, SUCh as pip, X17, ft&ardat, elfiev. 

In the Epigram, a particular branch of Elegiac poetry, 
the form of dialect depends to some extent upon the 
nationality of the person addressed. In the Epigrams of 
Simonides there is a larger admixture of Dorisms in 
those addressed to persons of Dorian birth. But still, 
in the Epigram, as well as in other forms of Elegiac, the 
Epic dialect forms the basis of the diction. 

Iambic poetry, inspired by the personal interests of 
daily life, has much less in common with Epic. Thus we 
find that the compositions of the Iambographi generally 
represent exactly the native dialects of the writers. The 
fragments of Archilochus, Hipponax, and Simonides of 
Amorgos, are specimens of the pure Ionic dialect of the 

Trochaic poetry stands in a sort of middle ground 
between Iambic and Elegy, and thus exhibits, as might 
be expected, more leaning towards Epic diction than 
Iambic, and less than Elegiac poetry. 

The passionate lyric poetry of the Aeolian school of 
Lesbos is as complete an expression of personal feeling 
as, in another direction, is the Iambic. Consequently we 
find here also little if any admixture of Epic. 

The fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho are pure Aeolic. 


Aiiacreon is closely related to the Lesbian lyrists. He 
transferred much of the Aeolic fire and passion to his 
native Ionian tenderness and lightness. His dialect is 
the Ionic of his own time, modified to a considerable 
extent by the spirit, and somewhat by the language of the 
Lesbian Aeolic. 

In the other lyrists, the Doric dialect is used by poets 
of a Dorian stock, but largely mixed with the forms of 
Epic. Thus Tyrtaeus in his anapaestic embateria, or 
'marches/ exhibits the Epic dialect modified by Dorisms; 
and Stesichorus, the father of the Choric lyric, the true 
predecessor of Pindar, is more distinctly Dorian, though 
he too constructs his language upon a basis of Epic. 

A similar compound of Epic and Doric is noticeable in 
the works of the Dithyrambic poets. The earliest writers 
in this style were Dorians, as Cydias, Lasus, Pratinas and 
Telestes ; the home of this species of poetry being in the 
N.E. of the Peloponnese. No trace of Aeolic is found in 
the Dithyramb, though Arion of Methymna was one of 
the most famous masters in this school of poetry. At an 
early period the Dithyramb made its way to Athens ; and 
we consequently find the lyrical parts of the Athenian 
drama closely allied to it, both in language and spirit. 

It is well that we should here bear in mind the dis- 
tinction between the relation of the earlier and the later 
poets to the different dialects. 

We must suppose that the first inventors, or the earliest 
masters of some special style, adopted the particular 
modification of dialect which they used, from an in- 
stinctive feeling of its peculiar appropriateness to their 
subject and rhythm. 

The next stage to this is the regular appropriation of 
different forms of dialect to different literary styles. 

In this sense Archilochus was a master; adopting the 


Iambic composed in Ionic dialect, as the true vehicle for 
personal addresses. This invention of Archilochus passes 
into the literary rule of the Attic stage ; where Iambic is 
retained as the natural medium for converse between the 
' dramatis personae.' And even many forms of Ionic dia- 
lect remain fixed in the Attic Iambic, as though inseparably 
connected with it since the time of Archilochus. 

Stesichorus too is the first master of the Choric Lyric. 
It was the work of his genius to adapt a language that 
should be in perfect harmony with the subject. It is 
Epic, because of all its heroic surroundings ; it is Aeolic, 
because of its lyric form and passionate feeling; it is 
Doric, because of its stateliness. It was natural that 
Pindar should appropriate this Stesichorean language as 
the fitting vehicle for his odes. Hermann (De Dialect. Pind. 
Opusc. i. p. 247) speaks of the language of Pindar as being 
blended by a happy admixture of almost all dialects. 
i Est Pindari dialectus epica, sed colorem habens Doricae, 
inter dum etiam Aeolicae linguae, A His verbis, fundamentum 
hujus dialecti est lingua epica, sed e Dorica dialecto tantum 
adscivit Pindarus, quantum et ad dictionis splendor em et ad 
numerorum commoditatem idoneum videretur.' But Pindar 
probably far outstripped his master Stesichorus in assimi- 
lating for his purpose a multitude of dialectical forms. 
In his use of the Epic dialect he does not employ all the 
older forms, but seems to observe the limits that we have 
already noticed in treating of the Elegiac poets. His 
Aeolisms are mostly those of flexion, as pot<ra for /toOcra, 
-o«ra for -ov<ra in the feminine of the participle, -oto-t for 
-overt in the termination of the verb, -at* for -a*, and -twos 
for -eivos. His Dorisms are more marked than those of 
Simonides ; but they are not the full forms of the stricter 
Doric, as he does not write -pes for -/xcv, nor %* for fy % nor 
*> and 17 for <w and «. 


Among his peculiar usages we may quote the employ- 
ment of the accus. plur. in -os (01. 2. 71 ; Nem. 3. 29), 
of iv for cfe, of mp, the apocope of vept. It has been 
proposed to describe his Doric as being of the Delphic 
type, because of his connection with Delphi; and the 
Aeolisms that he uses are rather Lesbian than Boeotian, 
probably because a school of poetry of the Lesbian- Aeolic 
style had been founded in Delphi. 

Before the appearance of the Attic dramatists, the first 
efforts in prose composition had been made. These, like 
Epic, had had their origin on Ionian soil. The earliest 
representatives of this form of composition were the 
Philosophers and the Historians, who were then known 
as Logographi. In beginning to write prose the first 
great conscious change is, that new rules of composition 
have to be followed, unlike the rules of metre which partly 
tend to fix and partly to multiply forms. It is this sense 
of the importance of rule, as distinct from metrical licence, 
or metrical necessity, that induced Herodotus, among 
other changes, to confine himself to the use of the dative 
in -oiai, and not fluctuate, as Homer, between forms in 
-0101 and -<hs. 

In the case of the early philosophers who wrote in 
prose, as Pherecydes, Anaximander, Anaximenes, their 
sentences were short, and gnomic in form. We may 
even say that they give the idea of being written with a 
sense of awkwardness. It was still necessary, for those 
who sought to throw their philosophy into a more artistic 
form, to retain the use of verse, as did Xenophanes and 

The language and the syntax of the earliest Logo- 
graphi, are a clear proof that the first efforts in historical 
composition were really attempts at reproducing the Epic 
style in prose. If we put together the facts, that the 


Homeric poems formed the great repertory of Greek 
history for the mythical period, that the earliest Logo- 
graphi seemed to adopt the Epic dialect or an Ionian 
modification of it, as the natural language for historical 
narration ; we shall not be surprised to find the Argive 
Acusilaus (550 b.c), the Milesian Hecataeus (5i°)> Charon 
the Lampsacene (465), and lastly the Dorian Herodotus 
himself, adopting the Ionic dialect as the proper vehicle 
for history. (See Table on next page.) 




2 e 


• •-* 










o t> o 


§;|S gill i 
P* 5 s S ^»«tM 


IA tl 

O (A 

•5 8 

• ih r-n o >*-• 
P ^•W 




O w O 
O V O 














o <u 







^ o 





3 (A 
° § 




8. 1 
g >,p 

.a *G -° <u 






.5 a 

(A B 


IA . 4> 


J3 £ O 




P o 

o • §■» 













S ° S 


4) O 

O.H O <U 


o o <u 

t—* y ** .I-* 
3} ° 

• » ' s ts 
o o o o rt 



O . 

° 2 

O d rt 

<U 4> l> 













"* <j t* 

O (A 

.A ^ 


• •^ <L) 



(A O 


H C O 
O G* 

- a* 







§•8 -8 

g « « 
is rt o> 
fro -5 

< P 

IOOOOO l>il>.l>.n « M .3 «S 

00 VO vo vovovovosovo 

•^- c>vo NrtO 00 O 
C\ 10 10 •<*■ "^-VO rO t^ 
«OiO»0*0*0*0 tO^- 



It is wrong to speak of a Homeric dialect in the same* 
way in which we speak of Ionic or Doric Dialect. The 
latter come before us as particular modifications of Greek, 
determined by local, political, or ethnological influences. 
The Homeric dialect is something more than this : more 
factors enter into its composition. It is impossible to 
read a page of the Iliad or Odyssey without remarking 
the peculiar multiplicity of different forms of the same 
word. In the declension of the noun we find both wnrov 
and imroiOy fidxjjs, an ^ / JL ^XV (ri t &r«nri, and eWfcri, fjpaxri and 

r)pa>€(T<ri. In the personal pronoun we find such forms as 

€/xov, e/zeO, cpe&ev and e/xtto, app*s and $/*/£*?, as well as T)pcU 

and vpcts. In the verb we notice the indifferent use or 
disuse of the augment, the extension of reduplication to 
several tenses : various forms of the infinite, as ^evycftcwu, 
<j)tvy€fjL€v, <j>cvycip: of the conjunctive, as cdcXo and e'&Xo/u, 
tBtXrjs and iOikovOa, with a further variation between forms 
in o and », c and 17, as rev^ofxep and revf©/^*, Xe£ercu and 
Acfip-oc: while in verbs in -a<o we have contracted and 
uncontracted forms as 6pd<o, 6pS>, and by diaeresis, 6p6a>. 
There is a similar uncertainty in the metrical value of 
vowels, a frequent doubling of consonants to make short 
vowels long by position, a shortening of diphthongs before 
succeeding vowels, a free use both of hiatus and elision : 
— in a word, the widest poetical licence. 

Such phenomena are not the natural characteristics of 
a spoken dialect ; they are rather the expression oil ^ 



particular style, the conventional usage of minstrels. It is 
no part of the present question to discuss the authorship 
or the age of the Iliad and Odyssey, which are our records 
of Homeric language. It is sufficient to be able to see 
that the polish of the style, the artistic perfection of the 
composition, and the elaborate nature of the syntax, point 
back to a long series of years of development, during 
which poets and schools of poets composed and passed 
on by oral tradition many lays in honour of national 
heroes, which lays in course of time grew into more com- 
plete Epic poems. 

Forms of speech had not then been fixed by the general 
use of writing: the poet willingly adopted any of the 
floating forms in common use around him, or caught 
and preserved for his purpose those older forms bequeathed 
by past generations ; so that in this way we have an ex- 
planation of the remarkable fact that in Homeric Greek 
there are forms in use of such different ages — archaisms, 
as we might say, by the side of modernisms. 

The Epic minstrels drew unreservedly from the store- 
house of the past, while they made as unrestricted an use 
of all the treasures of the present. 

These various compositions were not then committed to 
writing, but kept alive in men's mouths by the metre in 
which they were set for purposes of recitation. It is 
scarcely possible to overrate the effect of metre upon Epic 
dialect. The words must all be adapted for use in the 
dactylic hexameter, and where one form is unsuitable, 
another is ready at hand instead. A remarkable proof of 
this is seen in the use of heteroclite forms of words sug- 
gested by the needs of the metre : cp. comwJr cV /llcW# 

uojunrj brjioTrjros (II. 20. 245) with pcficurav 8' uojuki fid^eadai, 
(II. 2. 863). 

But, notwithstanding all these peculiarities of Homeric 


Greek, we may still trace a broad linguistic law through 
its various forms that will bring it under the general head 
of Ionic dialect. The Epic poet is a native of the Ionian 
colonies of Asia Minor : the schools of Epic poets have 
their head-quarters in Chios. 

The Epic Greek has for its basis the older form of the 
Ionian, (of which the Herodotean dialect is a later develop- 
ment, and the Attic the perfected condition under circum- 
stances of unusual advantage), and is thus distinct in 
character from the Aeolic, and still more from the Doric. 
But the fact that Smyrna, the very centre of Ionian life, 
was itself an Aeolo-Ionic colony, reminds us that there 
were many points of contact between the Ionians and 
Aeolians of Asia Minor, and prepares us to accept another 
remarkable phenomenon in the Homeric poems, namely 
the existence of an Aeolic element in their language, not 
' v -working as a generally diffused influence, but rather 
showing itself by the presence of a number of isolated 
words and forms that must be referred to the more archaic 
Greek of the Aeolian stock. 

[The following may be quoted as some of the most noticeable 
Aeolisms in Homeric Greek. 

i. Particular words or forms of words: XvKdftac, 'a year,' Od. 
14. 161 ; fa= pla, II. 4. 437 ; irbrupct = Wccapcf, Od. 5. 70 ; ircpird- 
(caOai, *to count by fives,' Od. 4. 412 ; |tc(t « M y » H« I 9« IX 7 J 
p6X.op.ou. for Pov\ofiai, II. n. 319 ; ctyvpif for ayopd, Od. 3. 31. 

2. Particular inflexions of nouns and pronouns. 

It is probable that we may refer to Aeolic such forms as the short 
vowel in the vocative of 1st decl., e.g. vvfjups, the Gen. plur. in cW, the 
Nom. in ra t e. g. vfcpiXrj^pira Zcvt, and the Gen. in ao for ca, as 
ArptiHao. In the forms of the pronoun, as iywv, %pc$tv, £/*fU, £/*/*«t 
fyt/ict, v/A/u, tf/i/*«, we find traces of the same tendency, as also in the 
use of the conditional particle kc for 6m, A few of the inflexions of 
the verb come under the same head, as e. g. (on the authority of the 
older grammarians) the reduplication of the Aor. II. and Fut. kIkoZov, 
KtMaMj<ra>, &c ; the termination 0a in 2nd Pers. Sing. Pres. Act., as 

B 2 


TitojoBa, Od. 9. 404; <f>tjc$a t II. 21. 186; SiMa0a t II. 20. 270; the 
Aeolic Aor. of the Optat. in -ciot, -uav ; the terminations -aro for 
•vro, and -€v for -jycrav, as clpvaro, Sajicv ; and possibly the Aor. I. 
and Fut. with <r, in verbs with K, p t v % p for their characteristic con- 
sonant, as Kikffco, fcipcra}, &c] 

It would seem natural to refer to Aeolic usage the 
presence of the Digamma in the Homeric poems; but 
this letter is common to all the dialects in primitive times, 
though its traces are naturally most strong and its use 
most lasting in the specimens preserved of the Aeolie, or 
archaic, dialect. This letter, which fell early into disuse 
in the written language, originally occupied the sixth 
place in the Greek alphabet. It was called from its sound 
Vau (equivalent to our v or w\ and from its form (f i.e. f ), 
the double-gamma, or digamma. Though it fell into dis- 
use at so early a period that it is not found in the Homeric 
text, yet there are indisputable traces of its previous exis- 
tence there. We must be content with pointing out the 
commonest. In such a combination as rhv 8* rmtifci* 

hreira ava£ t OX pcya firjaaro epyov, we should expect to find 

exreir &va£ and ft^o-ar tpyop. Instead of such forms as 
mrociKa, dirouirov, we should naturally write aire'uuo and 
mrtinov. But there was a time when the words were pro- 
nounced fava£, F*pyov t airofeUto, aitoftiiTov, so that no elision 
took place. The presence of an original digamma may 
be inferred not only from its effect upon the metre and 
the forms of words, but from a comparison of Greek 
with cognate languages, e. g. foiKos, Sanskrit vegas, Lat. 
vicus : folpos, vinum ' wine : ' f eWcpor, vesper : fibcw, 
videre : fcpyop, ' work/ 

This complex and conventional dialect which we call 
Homeric was carried into every part of Greece by the 
public reciters or rhapsodists, who chanted the national 
Epics at the courts of kings and at the public assemblies 


and feasts. It was accepted as the true vehicle for Epic 
poetry, and not only is it reproduced by all later writers of 
Epic poetry, but its forms and expressions may be found 
colouring the compositions of authors of different ages and 
various styles. It forms the basis of the language used by 
Stesichorus and Pindar ; its influence is distinctly traceable 
in the writings of the Attic dramatists; and the prose 
narrative of Herodotus is so penetrated by the Epic diction 
that it has been called, not without reason, a prose Epic. 


§ i. Vowels. 

(a) The a in Attic generally appears in the Homeric 
dialect as 17, e.g. ayoptj, Trciprjo-opm, 7rp^cr(ra>, \irjv. Some- 
times a is changed to 17, as h* ?**!* qvepocis : or to at, as 

irapal, KarcufiaTos. 

(b) c may be lengthened to «, xpvo-etor, K €iv6s, vciaros, 

cuts, 'EpfielaSy (Tttcios, cudcto, Qe'uo ; into rj, Ti3f)p.cvos, rjv. 

(c) o lengthened to ov, irovXits, povvos; to ot, nvoiri, rjyvoirja-€y 
to a>, Atawwo?, avmoros ', to at, V7rat. 

(d) rj shortened to c, as in Conjunctives 18vv€T€, etdeTc, 

piayeai: a> to o, as in Conjunctives Tpcmtiopcv, iyelpopjev, 

(e) Before or after 17 the addition of f is not uncommon, 
as trjKc - ?jk€, rjekios = tfXios ; as also before e, as «5i/a, ieUoat, 


(_/*) ao (170) often changes to co>, as 'Arpfi'Sao, 'Arpeifea>. 

This interchange between short and long vowels is called 
Metathesis quantitatis; as in e<os often read as che. Cp. 

dnfipea-LOS and aVfpet'crto?, a€KT]\ios, and detKeXtos. 

§ 2. Contraction. 
(a) Contraction generally follows the ordinary rules, 


with the exception that eo and «w may contract into «/, as 

Bapo-evs, yeymv€w y jSdXXev. 

($) Frequently words remain uncontracted, as dejcew, 
rr&is, oorca; sometimes contraction takes place when it 
does not occur in Attic, as in tpoy (Up6s) y pao-as (pofja-as). 

(c) When two vowels which do not form a diphthong 
come together, they are often pronounced as forming one 

Syllable, as *p«x, 'ATpciflco), Btj ad, &rj e/9do/io?, €7T€t ov. This is 

called Synizesis. 

§ 3. Hiatus. 

When two vowels come together without elision or 
contraction taking place, it is called Hiatus. This gene- 
rally occurs when one word ends and the next begins with 
a vowel. Hiatus, which is rarely admissible in Attic 
poetry, is frequent in the Homeric hexameter, especially 
(1) after the vowels 1 and v, as naiSi \ onao-o-fv: or (2) when 
there is a pause in the sense between the two words, as 
'OXvftxrif. I oVwf 'Otvaaivs: or (3) when the final vowel is 
long, and stands in Arsis, as avridca | 'oWj)i : or (4) when 
a final long vowel or diphthong is made short before a vowel 

following, as 7r\dyx0rj | «Vci (— w u — ), olkoi | taav (— w w -). 

Many apparent cases of Hiatus are only traces of a lost 

§ 4. Elision. 

In the Homeric hexameter not only are the vowels o, € , o, 
elided, but also frequently the diphthongs <u, as povkop ryo>, 
rcipcB' Sfxov, and 01 in poi and rot, as well as 1 in the dative 
and in on. The v tytkKvtmKbv stands before consonants 
as well as before vowels. 

§ 5. Apocope. 
Before a following consonant, the short final vowel in 


apa, irapa, dva, Kara, may be dropped. This is called 
Apocope. The r of jcar[a] so shortened assimilates itself to 

the following consonant — Kcwrxrfo-f, icappopos, Kern iredtop, kok 

Kopv<t>rji>, KaXkinc ; and similarly the v of a»\f\ before a fol- 
lowing ir Or X, as &fi neftiop, aXKv€(TK€. 

§ 6. Consonants. 

We often find — 

(a) Metathesis, especially with p and a, e. g. Kapdirj and 

Kpabirj, Qapcros and Bpdaos, KaprurTos and Kpdrurros. 

(£) Doubling of a consonant, especially of X, ft, i>, p, as 

cWaftov, tppa6op 9 P€fi€(T(ri 9 evpprjros, roaaos ) SO, also, (wnrcor, 

otti, 7rcXcKiea<0, eSScio-c. A short final vowel is often made 
long when followed by a word which begins with, X, p., », 
p, <r, 8, or which originally began with the f as irdXXh \ur- 

(jopcvos, trl vvvy ivi p.cydpoia-1. 

(c) Conversely, a single X or a may take the place of 
the doubled liquid or sibilant, as 'A^tX™*, 'Odvo-cw. 


§ 7. First Declension, 

(a) For o in the singular, Homer always has 17, Tpo/17, 
&)pT} y P€T)vtr)Sy except B(a and some proper names. 

(6) a remains unchanged, as j3ao-iX«a, except in abstract 

nouns in ria, 01a, as aKrjBeirj for aXq&tci. 

(c) The Nom. sing, of some masculines in 99, is short- 
ened into o, as wnrora, vecpekTjyepera, /Ltqrtera. 

(d) Gen. sing, from masc. in 9s ends in ao or «o ; some- 
times contracted to a>, as ivppt\l«>. 

(e) Gen. plur. ends in a&p or ea>v, sometimes contracted 

to coy, as ycudtop, vavreayv, nape ta>v. 

(/) Dat. plur. 0<ri or ys t as irvX#<n, crxi'&s; but deal*, 


§ 8. Second Declension, 

Special forms — 
(a) Gen. sing, in oio. 
(6) Gen. and Dat. dual oup. 
(c) Dat. plural oun[V]. 

§ 9. Third Declension. 

(a) Dat and Gen. dual oiiv. 

(b) Dat. plur. co-4, eo-o-i, and, after vowels, cr«n. 

(c) Nouns in rjs («) and os (Gen. cos) and as (Gen. aos) 
retain for the most part the uncontracted forms; cos is 
often contracted into cvs. In the terminations cos, ccs, cas, 
the e often coalesces, not with the vowel of the termination 
but with a preceding c, into a or rj, as cvppc-tos contracts 

into cvppclos, oirc-cos into orrijos, 'HpaitXc-cos into 'HpajcXfJos, 
-f)i, -))a. 

(d) Words in €vs form their cases with 17 instead of *, as 
£ao-tXi}os, -iji, -rja; the Dat. plur. often ends in fjco-at. But 
proper names may retain the c, as Tvbci, 'oSvoWa. 

(*) Words in i* generally retain t in their cases, as 7rAis, 

ttoXioj, irdXei, 7T(SXifs, iW, car, iW<rt. But we find also 71-0X770? 

(cp. pdpTTjos), irSkfji, 7t6\t)cs } 7r6\rjas. The Dat. plur. some- 
times makes to-i, and the Ace. plur. is. 

(/) For vavs Homer uses vfjvs, declined with both c and 
17. Gen. veos or vr)6s, Dat. vrji, Ace. vco or vi)a, Dat. plur. 

VrfVai, PTJCCCi, and V€€(TOl. 

(g) Among anomalous forms may be mentioned: — 

Kaprj, Gen. Kapryros, Kaprjaros, and Kpdaros (as if from 
Kpaas, neut.), and Kparos, Kpari, Kpara (from Kpas, 


y6uv and &6pv make yovvaros, yovvbs, and bovparos, 


vBr , besides the regular forms in Second Declension, 
has Gen. vlos, Dat. vli, Ace. via, Nom. plur. vies, 
Dat. vldai, Ace. vlas, Dual. vie. 

§ 10. Special Terminations. 

(a) The termination <j>t[v\ (appearing with nouns of 
First Declension as i$>i, of Second Declension as o0i, and 
of Third Declension as, generally, ccr<£i) serves for a Geni- 
tive or Dative sing, and plur.; e.g. Gen. cf cvw$>i, mf 

lKpt6<f)lV, but OTT)0€(7<pLV, OOT€6<f)lP &IS \ Dat. dvprj<f>l, filT)(pl, 
<f>dlVOfJL(V7)<f)l, 0€O<plV, <TVV ItHTOHTIV KCU ^CO^l, TTpOS KOTv\r)bov6<f)lV 

(KOTvkrjboai), and, in anomalous form, vaixpi. 

(b) There are three local suffixes : — 

Answering to the question where? in Bi, as o'koGi, 

% 1\i60i irpo, KTjpoOi. 
To the question whence? in 3tv, as oIkoBw, fcSQev: 

also with prepositions, as car ovpavSBev, Kara Kpr}3cv. 

To the question whither ? in 8* , as dyoprjvbc, Tpolrjpfc, 
Skafe (also (Is SXafc), and analogous forms <f>vyab(, 
oUabc . With *At86<rBc supply bS>pa, l to the house of 
Hades/ Another form of the termination is £*, 
as in xapJafr. 

§ ii. Adjectives. 

(a) The Femin. of Adjectives of Second Declension is 
formed in y instead of o, as ofwiij, alaxpy, except bla. 

(b) Adjectives in os are sometimes of two, sometimes of 
three, terminations. The Attic rule is not strictly observed, 
for an uncompounded Adjective may have but two, as is 
the case with micpbs, etc., and the compounded three, as 

€v£tOTT) t aTrcipcaiT). 

(c) Adjectives in vs are also often of two terminations 
only, and often shorten the Femin. aa to ea or «;, as jSodn/, 




(d) A common termination is €k, eo-o-a, ev. In this form 
r}€is may contract to #?, as Ttfii5«$, Tiprjs, and o«y may con- 
tract oe to €v, as \<0T€vvra for Xwrocira. 

(*) irclkvs is declined from two stems, irokv- and 7roXXo-, 
so that we have as Homeric forms irokios Gen. sing., irokces 

Nom. plur., ttoXcw Gen. plur., iroXecow, TroXecro-i, 7roXecrt 

Dat. plur., and noXcas Ace. plur. 

(/") In the Comparison of Adjectives, the termination 
corep-, oirar-, is admissible in the case of a long vowel 
in the penult, of the Positive, as Xap&Taros, oi(vpa>TaTos. 
The Comparative and Superlative forms in t<ov, taros are 
more frequently used than in Attic. 

§ 12. The Article. 

Special forms of the Article are : — Gen. roTo, Dual Gen. 

Toiiv, Nom. plur. ro\ t rat, Gen. rd<oi> f Dat. ToTcrt, rgcrt, rrjs. 

§ 13. Pronouns. 

Special forms of the Personal Pronouns are as follows. 

(a) First Person. 

(b) Second Person. 

(c) Third Person. 

Nom. Sing. 



Gen. „ 

Ipfo, €fJL€V t fJLCV 

ffio t 0€V, <Tcfo 

to, (V, €V, Ctb, t$€V 

I/mo, kpiOev 


Dat. „ 

■ • • • 

TOt, Ttlv 

of, lot 

z\.CC. 11 

• • • • 

• • • . 

I, &t iuv 

N. A. Dual. 

van, voJ (Ace.) 

<T(pafi, a<poj 


G D. „ 


ocpwiv, o<p$v 


Nom. Plur. 



Gen. „ 

fjixiojv, jjptiwv 

vniw, tifxeiojv 

(T(p€ ow, (Tcpfiajv, a<pwv 

Dat. „ 

&M"(?\ ft*** 

VfJ.pi(v), IfUV 

ff<f>t(v), 0<plfft(v) 

Ace. „ afifi€ t Ijpias, fjfULS 

(//*/*€, vfxias 

a<t>ia$ t a (pas, a<pt. 

(d) Special forms of th 

e Possessive P] 





First Person 

• • • • 

apbs and &pbs 1 

[a), 1), bv 


Second Person 

T€^», fj, bv 

vfjibi, r), bv 


Third Per 


kbt, fj> bv 

a<pds, ^, bv 



(e) Special forms of the Pronoun to. 


f in S\ 

TtO, T€V 





(/) Special forms of the Pronoun oaris. 


5ti#, trri 
Urcv, Srrto, $tt€v 

Znva, 5tti 


trivat, aaaa. 

(g) Special forms of Relative Pronouns. 

Gen. 5ov, (al. 5o), trj» . Dat. plur. yci, jjt . 


§ 14. Augment and Beduplication. 

(a) The syllabic and temporal Augments may be 
omitted. After the syllabic augment X, /*, v, a- are often 
doubled ; p may be doubled or not at will, as cpfcov, cpef a. 

(5) Reduplication of the Second Aor. Act. and Med. 

is common. Cp. €-V€-(j)pabov (<f>pdfa), cntcfiPov and ire<f>pop 

(<j)€V(d), 7T€7rl0<tifl€V (7T€L0<o) y TTf^lSfV&U (<^€l'do/4<u), ipVKtO makeS 

a sort of reduplicated Aor. in cpvuaKov and wlm-a in rjpivanop. 
Some of these forms are shortened by the omission of a 
vowel, as k&Xcto for c-Kt-KeXero, see § 18 d. 

(c) Some of the reduplicated Aorists give also a redu- 
plicated Future, as 7r€7ri0i}cra>, n€(pibr]aofxai, K€Kabrjtr<o. 

(d) The forms Zpfiopa (/uft'po/uu) and to-o-vpai (o-€v<o) follow 
the analogy of the reduplication of verbs beginning with p. 

But cp. p€pV7rcop€va f Od. 6. 59* In #ry/xai (d/go/urn) the 

reduplication is lost, in foiScy/uai, 8«'8ia (root 81) it is 


§ 15. Terminations. 

(a) The older forms of the termination of the verb 
(Sing.) pi, <r3a, at are common in Homer ; cp. Mekapi, 

idcofu, idekgo-i, /9aX#<n, iQikfla&a, bibola&a. 

(b) The termination of the third person Dual in historic 
tenses is top as well as ttjp, in Pass, a&op as well as a3rjv, 
8ia>K€TOP, 3<opti<r<rea8oi'. In the plural pea-da is frequently 
used for p*0a, Dual first person pxaQop. 

(c) In the second person sing. Pass, and Med. a is 
omitted from the termination crai, ao, as AiXaieai, povXccu, 
Conjunct, cxw- This mostly remains uncontracted. co, 
as in ZnXto, often makes ev, viz. «rXev. In Perf. Med. for 

Pi&Xrjaai we find /3«/3X»7ae. 

(d) The third Plur. in ptcu and pro mostly appear as 

arai and aTOy as Sefiaiarcu, kIoto {ckcipto), airokoiaro. 

(e) The termination of the Inf. is frequently pevai, or 

p*P. PreS. dKOV'€'fl€v(at) f Fut. K€\€V(T-€-fJi€v((u) y Perf. TeBpd- 

pep(ai), Pass. Aor. 0Xtyi«>(ai), fiixdfjfi€p(at) f Second Aor. Act. 
e\0€peif(at). Another termination is eew, as wuW, Baveciv, 
but also itu\k*v. 

{/) The terminations cticoj/ and aKoprjp express repeti- 
tion of the action (iterative form). They are attached to 
Imperf. and Second Aor. of verbs in a> by the connecting 

vowel €, or sometimes a, BeXyeaicop, fXco-Koi/, atQeo-Kov, pin- 
rao-Kop, nepvcKTKOP, KpinrraaKOP. In the First Aor. Act. the 
termin. follows the aoristic vowel a, iXdaa-anop, pprjad-aiccTo. 
In pi verbs the terminations are attached directly to the 
stem, 86-o-KoPj oTd-(TKOp, ta-Kou for €<t-(tkop (dpi). These 
forms are rarely augmented. Cp. <j>dp€o-K€, Od. n. 587, 
from (<f>dprjp. 

§ 16. Contracted Verbs. 

(a) Verbs in e'u (for the most part uncontracted) change 
cc and e« into «, sometimes c* into 17, eo or fov to ev. In 


the uncontracted form the stem vowel c is sometimes 
lengthened into €t, as ercAc/cro for eYcXcero. 

(6) Verbs in da> are for the most part contracted. In 
these verbs the long vowel produced by contraction has 
often a corresponding short (sometimes a long) vowel 
inserted before it, as 6p6a> (£/>£>), 6pda (6^9), Kayxa\6a><n, 
dpaxtxri (dpoHTi), pvdao-Oai (ppaaOai). Occasionally this short 
vowel appears after the long vowel of contraction, as 


(c) Verbs in 6<*> are generally contracted. In forms 
that remain uncontracted the o is often lengthened to «, 

as birvdxnnts. Such forms as apoaxri (apov<Ti) and drjiocpev 

(tyioUv) follow the rule of verbs in da>. 

§ 17. Future and Aor. I. Act. and Med. 

(a) Pure verbs which do not lengthen the vowel of the 
stem in forming their tenses, often double the <r in Fut. 

and Aor. I. Act. and Med., as (v€ucea>) vfUeacra, (aldeoficu) 

atScWo/xm, (yeAaa>) eye'Aao-o-a. This is sometimes the case 

with verbs in f», as (ai/a^ofo/Licu) dpaxa<r<rdfifvos, (<f>pd£oficu) 

typdo-aaTo. (b) Or the o- may be altogether dropped in 

the Fut., as reXeei, ipv oven, fiax* 0VTa h dvriow, i. e. dvTidato, 

dvTida>, dimSi, expanded by the principle explained in § 16 b. 

(c) The future of liquid verbs, i. e. that have for cha- 
racteristic X, /*, v, p, commonly have the Fut. uncontracted, 
as /SaXeoirt, Karaicraviovo-i, arjpapeco. Some liquid verbs have 
a 0- in Fut. and Aor. I., as clXo-a, eKcpo~a, Kvpo-co, K€\<rcu, and 
there is an anomalous form *eWai (xeprea)). 

(</) Conversely some verbs, not liquid, form an Aor. I. 

without <r, as x** *X €va %X €a > * at&) * KT ) a , o-tvao ecrcrcva. Cp. 
€iira for elirov. 

(e) The First Aor. Conjunct, has a short form with 
c and q, as well as the longer one in 17 and », so we find 


cVt/3^o-6T€ as well as «ri/3q<np-e, Bapfigopev as well as $<»$£&- 
pw, etc. This sometimes is found in other tenses also. 

§ 1 8. Aor. II. 

(a) The Aor. II. contains the root of the verb in its 
simplest form. The present tenses to which certain Aor. 
II. are referred are often of later formation, e. g. Ztmryov is 
more primitive than orvyea, (ktvttov than #eTwe«, cpaKov than 

fXTjKaofjLcu y eyrjpav than yrjpda-Ka, %xP aop than XP™*> °^ Ta than 
ovtcuo, ffKa\€ than axa^tfa). 

(6) Reduplicated Aor. II. Act. and Med., see § 14 b. 
{c) Aor. IL with o- on analogy of ftreo-ov. We find such 

forms as i$ov (uea>), e/3q<rero (/9atVa>), ibinrero, Svaopcvos (Suva*), 
opao (Spw/u), \e£o (Acya>), a£er€ («fyfi>), oiitrc (oi» = </>e/>a>), 
agepcv, ip&pev. 

(d) Syncopated Aor. IL An Aor. is common, formed, 
on analogy of Aor. of verbs in /u, without connecting 

VOWel, as (Act.) eierav (ktc/wh)),' (ypffKrirrjv (£dXXa>), oura 

(ovraa>). In the Med. these forms are generally without 
augment, and are distinguishable from Plpf. Pass, only by 

want of reduplication, e.g. ibeyprjVy btypcvos (de^o/tiai), (fitiipTju 
(Opt. from </>Bivto) f Avto (Xva>), ?xvro, x^l UV05 (x* *)* ot^ 
(<rct/a>), &/>ro (8pwpi). 

§ 19. Perfect and Pluperfect. 

(a) The First Perf. is only found with verbs having 
a vowel stem. The Second Perf. is the commonest, and 
is formed without aspiration, as *ce#c<wra. Even in vowel 
verbs the Perf. is often without a «, as pcpaprj&s, *re</>tWi, 

iorrjias, -SedioreSj eara&rts, etc. 

(5) The Pluperfect is found with the uncontracted ter- 
minations €a, eas, cc(v) = ei(y) ; sometimes «« becomes 17, 
as in jiffy. 



§ 20. Aor. I. and II. Passive. 

(a) The 3rd pers. plur. Indie, often ends in cv instead 

of rja'av, as tfuxQev, Tpdfav, exra&i', and the Infin. in Tjfitptu 

and rjpcv instead of rjpai. 

(6) In the Conjunctive the uncontracted form in e« is 
generally used, and c is often lengthened to a or n, while 
the connecting vowel in Dual and Plural is shortened ; 

e. g. baeito (edaiji/), a-airrjrj (ai\n<o), fuyrnjs, (al. /uycifls), /uyeoxrt, 

§ 21. Verbs in ju. 

(a) The principal peculiarities of the verbs torrnu, ti'^/u, 
117/it, bibafti, are given as follows. 





Indie Pres. 

2nd Sing. . 

• • • • 




yd Sing. 

• • • • 




yd Plur. 

• • • • 




Indie. 1st Aor. 

• • » • 

. . • • 


„ Imperf. 

• • • • 

. . . • 





. . . • 

• • • • 


Infin. Pres. 





„ 2nd Aor. 





„ Perf. 



1 Aor. 

1st Sing. 

ffrioa ((TTtiaj) 

9ioj (faioj) 


2nd Sing. 


%« (fi*h*) 


yd Sing. 


% V*i V ) 

7pi % fo-4lV 


1st Plur. 


Oiatfifv (Oeiopey) 

. . . . 


2nd Plur. 

. . . • 


. . . . 

yd Plur. 


. . • . 

• • . . 




(5) In the Third Plural of Past tenses *v is a common 
termination for t<rav, as rtfc?, Up : also foray and arav = 

toTntraVy €<f>av = fycurav, €<fwv = €<f>v<rap, tfiav and fiav = efSnirav. 
Notice also the forms eoraeta, corar*, and for TiBrffitPos, see 




(c) Et/ii (tbo) has the following peculiar forms. 


Second Sing. 
Third Sing. 
First Plur. 

Pres. Indie. 


Third Sing. ijt€(y) t k(v) 


Imperf. First Sing, 4jut, jjtov 
Dual, ittjv 

First Plur. fopcv, tfifv Third Plur. fyaav, JW, fyov 
Fut. etcoficu Aor. I. elaafirjv, Uiadfirjv. 

(d) Ei/At (sum) has the following. 

Pres. Indie. 

First Sing. 

Second Sing. 
Third Sing. 
First Plur. 
Second Plur. 
Third Plur. 

laaty tit 

• • * . 

• • • • 

Inf. ififi€v[ai] and %pcv[ai]. 

ca>, fi€T-(ioj 






Particip. I&v, iov<ra t ibv, Gen. k6vros. 

Imperf. First Sing, ijo, la, lov, Second tyaOa, Third jjfv, ir\v, ^r\v. 
Third Plur. 4W. 

Iterative tense taicov, Fut. eVcro/iai, Third Sing, kaaurcu, 

(e) Under fopl we find ^fa (Third Sing. Conjunct.), 
<l>as (Particip.), <f>do (Imp. 2 Sing.). 

(y*) Under Ktlfiai we have KiaTat, KCicrrai, and Keovrai, = 
K6MTCU : K€aro, Kfiaro = Zkiivto ; /d}r<u = Kerjrai. Iterative tense 

K€o~K6fiT]v, Fut. K€a>, *c«o>, Inf. Kticpcv, Particip. KeW. 

(^) Under fjfxai ) carat, etarat for ^vrai, taro, ctaro, for 

(h) Under oi!Sa. Pres. Indie. Second Sing, oldas, First 
Plur. IBficv. 

Conjunct. First Sing, et6Va>, First Plur. €t8o/xfi>, Second 

€ioVT6, Particip. tdvta, Inf. ifyifvcu, tbfitp. 

Imperf. Second Sing. fc/oV, Third #&*, rjci'Sr/, Third 

Plur. Mrav, Fut. €t8rjo-a>. 





The theme of the Iliad is the Wrath of Achilles. The 
story tells how it began, how fatal its results were to the 
army of the Greeks, and how at last reconciliation was 

The opening scene is the camp of the Greeks, before 
Troy, where Chryses, the priest of Phoebus, is praying 
for the release of his daughter Chrys&s, who has been 
taken captive in a foray, and given as a prize to Aga- 
memnon. But Agamemnon drives him from his presence, 
whereupon he calls on his master Phoebus to avenge him ; 
and the god visits the host with nine days of sore pes- 
tilence. Achilles, in this strait, summons an assembly of 
the people, and seeks the advice of the soothsayer Calchas, 
who tells them that the pestilence will not cease till 
Chrys&s is restored to her father. Agamemnon dares 
no longer keep her in his possession ; she must be sent 
home at once : but he declares that he will make up the 
loss to himself by taking away for his own, Bris&s, the 
darling of Achilles. 

The sword of Achilles half leaps from its scabbard at 
the insult; but Athena checks the outburst of his wrath. 
He turns bitterly to Agamemnon, and swears by the staff 
in his hand to leave the Greek host to its fate, till the 




day comes when they shall feel their helplessness without 


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optcos. 15 

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(B. i. 225-245.) 

HOM. XL. §§ i, 2. 19 

Thus Achilles withdraws in anger. But his mother 
Thetis, the goddess of the sea, appeals to Zeus to avenge 
the insult done to her son, by giving the victory to the 
Trojans, till the Greeks in their distress shall come as 
suppliants to the hero whom they have dishonoured. 

Zeus answers her prayer by sending a lying spirit in 
a dream to Agamemnon, to tempt him to make an assault 
upon the city of Troy. Agamemnon tells his dream in 
the council of elders that have met by Nestor's ship : he 
shows how he will raise the martial ardour of the army 
by pretending to advise an inglorious return to Greece. 


" K\5t€, <f>l\or Oeio? fioi evwrviov %X0ev oveipo? 
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c % 


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vjULeh S' aXXoOev aWog epqrveiv eTreetrtTi? 20 

(B. ii. 56-75.) 

But this pretence became terrible earnest, when the 
people, catching eagerly at the chance of return, flock 
down to the ships, to make ready for sailing home : 


Kivydy S* ayoprf <f)ri Kv/mara fxaicpa OaXaereri/y, 


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(B. ii. 144-154.) 

And indeed they would have sailed away, had not Odys- 
seus been inspires! by Athena to check their ardour, and 
to make their captains listen to reason. Speaking before 
the assembly he cries shame on their faintheartedness, and 
tells them of the prodigy which Calchas has seen, and the 
interpretation of it. 

BOM. IL. a 3, 4. 21 

TX?Te, (plXoi, Kai fielvar eiri yjpovov, o<ppa SaZfiev 
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(B. ii. 299-335.) 

Then the heralds summon the armies on either side to 
battle. And now as Greeks and Trojans are about to 
close, Paris steps forth and challenges the best champion 
of the Greeks ; but the sight of Menelaus, whom he has 
so deeply wronged, strikes him with terror, and he slinks 
back to the Trojan lines, only to meet the scornful taunts 
of his brother Hector. 


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(B. iii. 1 5-57.) 

But, after all, the challenger must give battle ; and the 
two heroes meet in the space between the armies, who 
make a covenant to abide by the result of the combat. 
Paris is soon felled by the spear of Menelaus, but, even 
as he is being dragged off by his conqueror, Aphrodite 
rescues him and carries him away to Helen's bower. And 
now, by right, Helen should have been restored to her 
own husband, since Paris has been defeated. But the 
gods are not willing to have the war thus decided. Athena 
is sent to tempt the Trojan Pandarus to break the truce 
by shooting an arrow at Menelaus. Nor is Pandarus at 
all loath. 

BOM. IL. §5 s, 6. 25 


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(B. iv. 105-147.) 

Thus the truce is broken, and the signal given to renew 
the fight Agamemnon hurries from captain to captain, 
to exhort, rebuke, or inspirit ; and as Diomede, the mighty 
son of Tydeus, leaps from his chariot, spear in hand, the 
ranks of Greeks and Trojans close. 


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BOM. IL. §§ 6, 7. 27 

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(B. iv. 419-456.) 

Diomede is now the central figure of the war. Through 
the thickest of the fray he bears a charmed life. Pandarus 
wounds him indeed with an arrow, but Diomede gives 
him his death-blow in return, and would have crushed 
Aeneas with a huge stone, had not Aphrodite sought to 
save him. But Diomede does not spare even the goddess 
in his fury, but drives her wounded from the' field, and 
she leaves to Phoebus the duty of rescuing Aeneas. 

But now the Trojans rally, for Ares inspires them with 
fresh courage. Nor do the other gods hold aloof from 
the conflict. Hera encourages the Greek army, and 
Athena stands by the side of Diomede, while he wounds 
Ares and turns him to flight. 

As the Trojans fall back discomfited upon their city, 
Hector bids his mother and the Trojan dames to seek 
the favour of Athena by the offering of a splendid robe 
and other costly gifts, that she may withdraw Diomede 
from the battle. 

HOM. IL. §§ 7, 8. 29 

Meanwhile, Hector has gone to the palace of Paris, and 
finding him there in Helen's presence dallying with his 
armour, he sternly bids him to the fight. Helen, full 
of sorrow and shame, would fain detain Hector; but he 
hurries on to take his leave of his wife and child. 


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aAA away M raj^a a<m/ irvpo? orjioio uepfjrai. 



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aXX 9 aye vvv eTrl/meivov, aprjta Texr^ea Svw 
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tov $' f E\ei/*7 fxvOouri TrpocnjvSa imeiXi^toicrt. 
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oi^ecrQai Trpotyepovcra Kcucrj avi/1010 OveXXa 
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evQa fie Kvfi airoepcre irapog TaSe epya yevecrQau 
avrap eire) TaSe y wSe 6eo\ /ca/ca TeKfiypavro, 
avopo? eireiT w(peAAov* D ajxeivovo? etvai cikoitis, 
09 j]3t] 19h vifiea-lv re kcu ouoyea tto'XX* avOpwTrwv. 
TOi/Tft> oi/t ap iw fppeveg ejxireooi our a^o 
ovlarcrm 40 

ecraovTai* Ttp recti jjliv eTravptitrecruai oiw* 
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oaep 9 hcei <re /xaXifTTa irovos (pp€i>a$ a/m(pt/3€/3rjK€v 

HOM. IL. §§ 8, 9. 31 


oi&iv eiri Ztev$ Otjtce kclkov fiopov, a>? koi oTrlcrcrto 45 
avQpwTroKTi iriXdfieff aolSip.01 ecrcrofiivoicri" 

1 171/ fifieiper eirevra /meyag KopvucuoAog htKTwp' 
"(1*1 jme K<i6il£% 'EXimjy <f>i\eov<ra irep 9 ovSe /me 


%$ij yap fi.01 Ovp.09 eireo-a-VTai o(pp iirafxvvao 
r Fpd>e<nf 9 cu fiey i/xeio irodriv cnreovro? eyovcriv. 50 
aXXa vv y opwOt tovtov, eveiyeo-Oo* Se kcu ai/roj, 
«9 Kev e/uL evrotrQev ttoXios Kara fxa pyfry iovra. 
kcu yap iydw oitcovS 10 * ecrcXeucrofJLai, o(ppa ISoo/mai 
oitcijag 9 * ako^ov re (f)i\fjv ical vyittiov vlov. 
ov yap t old q €Ti (rtpiv VTroTpo7rog i^o/utai 
avrts, 55 

$ q$y fA vico X^ptri Qeoi Safi6(aa-iv 16h 'A^cwon/." 

(B. vi. 313-368.) 

As Hector reaches the Scaean gates of Troy, his wife 
Andromache* meets him, with his only child Astyanax. 
There, after tender words of farewell from husband and 
wife, Hector kisses his child, and with a prayer for his 
future fame, gives him back into Andromache's arms, 
and quits his home, never to enter it alive again. 


E?T€ flrvXa? "icave Step)(Ofjievo? fxeya aorrv 
Zjrcua?, rij ap efieWe Sie^lfxevai 15e ireSlovSe, 
evff aXo^og irokvSwpo? evavrirj ?X0e 6eov<ra 
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'Hcrlcov og evaiev viro TiXaKta vXiyeererjy, 5 

GjJjSj; f Y7T07rXaic/j7, JZiXiKecrcr avSpecrcriv avatrcroov* 
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tov p H J*jKT(t>p KciXiecrice 15 * ^KafiavSpiov, avrap oi 

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ev t apa oi (pv X €l P l > €7ro ? T c( P a T o €K t ovo- 
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curat OaXirwprj, eirel aV crv ye iroTfiov etciair^ 
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aXX apa jj.iv Karetcrje avv evTecri SaiSaXeoiaiv 
tjo €tti arm eyeev irepi oe TrreAeag ecpvrevcrav 

HOM. IL. § 9. 33 

vvfMpai SpecrriaSeg, Kovpai Aios alyio^oio. 

01 Se fJLOL etna Kacrlyvrp-oi ecrav ev fxeyapoiariv, 30 

01 fxev iravTeg up kiov tjfxaTi J\ioo$ eicrw 

iravras yap KaTeiretyve 14 * 7roSapK*i9 810$ Aj^iWevy 

povcriv 67T ciAiTrooeerert tcai apyevpy? 1 * oietrcru 

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ttjv eirel ap Sevp 9 qyay afi a\\oi<ri KTearecro'tv, 35 

a\fr o ye Tqv atreXvare Xafitav airepelari 1 * airoiva, 

irarpog 8* ev fieyapoicri )3aX 9 "Apre/iis lo^eaipa. 

"ElCTOjO, OLTap (TV jULOl eCTCTl 21d ITaTtJp KOI TTOTVia MTvip 

ySe KaarlyvrjTos, <rv Se fioi daXepbg irapaicoiTris. 
a\\' aye vvv eXeaipe kcu avrov julijulv 9 hrl irvpy(p 9 4° 
M iralS 9 6p<pavitcov 6^9 21a yjipw re yvvaitca. 
Xabv Se (TTtjcrov Trap epiveov, evOa /xaXicrra 

a/AjSciTO? eOTl 7ToXl9 KOI €TTlSpOfJ.OV CTrXeTO 14b T€£ J(09. 

rpig yap rjj y eXOovreg hreip^cravO 9 01 apicrroi 
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yd afJLCp Arpeioag icai 1 i/oeo? clAki/ulov viov 
fj ttov t*9 cr(f>iv evicnre OeoTrpoiricov ev elSw, 
ff vv ical avT&v Ovfios etroTpvvei koi avcoyeu 

Trjv 8? avre irpocreenre le /xeya? KopvdaloXos 


" % teal ifjiol TaSe nravra fieXei, yvvar olXXol fiaX 9 
aivws 5° 

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ovSe fxe aiwyey, hrel fxaQov ejuLfievai ecrdXo? 



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apvv/ievog irarpos T.e fieya KXeog %$ c/ulov ainov. 55 
ev yap iy& toSc o78a Kara (ppeva kcu kotol 6vfiov 
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out CM/TJ79 'E/cajSiy9 oirre Ilj0£a/xo*o avaKTog 60 

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kolI kcv ev "Apyei iovcra 21d irpbg aXXyg Iotov 
v(f>alvoig 9 65 

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eKXivQri iaj£»v, irarpog (JhXov o^iv aTwxfbe\g 9 
rapfiqcrag ^oXkov re ISe X6<pov iTTio)(aiTtjv 9 

HOM. IL. § 9. 35 

Seivbv air* cucporanff tcopvOo? vevovra vofaas. 
&c S' eyiXaow* irarrip re <plXo$ Kai irorvta fiy- 
T*ip. 80 

avriK cnro Kparbf 98 KOpvO* elXero <£a/o*t/A09 *Ejcra>p, 
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avrap y ov (ptXov vlov inrei kv&c 7T9JXe re xep<riv 9 

€IT€V eTT€\t%afJL€VW Alt T SXXoiCTlV T€ OeOtCTl' 

" Ze5 aXXoi re 6eo\ 9 Sore Sq Kai rovSe yevecrOai 85 
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€K TrdkejULov aviovra* (pepoi S* evapa PpoToevra 
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iraio eow ij o apa /uuv Krjoodei oe^aro koatto) 
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" Sai/JLOulrj 9 /xri /xol ti Xijjv otKa^H^eo dvfifp* 95 

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fjiolpav 5* ov riva (prj/mi iretyvyfievov emmevcu avSpwv, 
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aXX 619 oiKov tovcra ra ar avrw epya ico/uu^e, 
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A Qs apa (ptovfoas Kopvff eiXero (f>alSijUL09 tr lSiKTwp 


"inrovpiv aXo^og Se <f)i\ij oikovSc /Sefiyicei 
ivTpOTra\i^ojui.€Vfi 9 OaXepov Kara Scucpv yeovo-a. 105 

(B. vi. 392-49 6 -) 

Hector now challenges the Greeks to send a man to 
fight with him ; but at first no one is found willing to go. At 
last nine of the Greek chieftains offer themselves, and, when 
the lots are cast, Ajax, son of Telamon, is taken. Night 
puts an end to the combat of the two heroes, and they 
part with chivalrous courtesy. A truce is made between 
the two armies for the burning and burial of their dead. 
The Greeks spend the hours of early morning in throwing 
round their ships a rampart and a ditch, which moves 
Poseid&n to jealousy when he sees the greatness of the 

§ 10. 

'HeXioj 16 fJiev eireira veov Trpoo-eftaWev apovpa?, 
e£ aKaXappelTaoi* /3a6uppoov 'Qkcclpoio 
ovpavov €i<ravi<iv 01 <T fjvreov aXXq\oi<riv. 
evOa Siayvwvcu j(aXe7rft>9 %v avSpa ckckttop" 
a\\' vSan vifyvre? airo f&pOTOv alfxaToevTa, 5 

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ovo e?a icXaUiv Tlpiafxog ixeyay ot Se ukatt^ 
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iv oe 7rvp\ 7rpy<ravT€9 c/Hav TrpoTi*I\iov Ipty. 
wg o avTQ&s erepwOev evicvrj/uLiSe? 'Amatol 10 

v&cpov? irvpKaXrjg iirevyveov a^vixevoi Krjp, 
ev Se 7rvp\ irpfoavres efiav Koi\a$ eiri i/jjay. 

*Hjj,og out ap 7Tft> 17(09, ert $ a/ucpiXmrj w£, 


HOM. 1L. §§ 9, 10. 37 

rrjfio9 cLp cLficpi Trvprjv icptros eypero 1 ** Xaoj 

TVfi/SoV $ o,jUi<j) avrijv eva iroUov e^ayayovreg 15 

aicpiTov €K ireSlov, ttoti $ avrov rei^o? eSeipav 

irvpyovf ff vyfrriXovg, etXap vtjwv 9 * tc kcu avrObv. 

ev S? avroiari wvXa? eveiroleov ed apapvla^ 

o(ppa 01 avracov nnrfjAacrii] 0009 eiy* 

e/croaOev Se (HaOeiav eif avrw ratypov opvj~av 9 20 

evpeiav /jLeyaXfjv, ev Se crKoXoirag KaTewrj^av. 

d Q? 01 jmev iroveovro KaptjKO/jtowvreg 'Abator 
01 Se deoi Trap Zujvl Kady/uievoi aoTepoinfr^ 
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tov o rj toi K\eo9 e<rrai ocrov t eTriKiovarai rjw 
rod S> eTriXija'ovTai to eyd tcai <&oi(3o$ AttoWodv 
qpq> AaofxeSovri TroXi&o-aftev aOXycravre?. 

Tov Se fxey oxOfaa? Trpocreiptj veipeXtjycpera ZeiV 
00 TTOTroi, hivvotriyai evpvcrueveg, oiov eenres 1 *. 35 
a\Ao? icev T£9 tovto OeZv Selcreie vorj/xa, 
og a-eo TroXXbv a(f>avpoTepo9 X € 'P a S T€ V-** ? Te * 
crov fj to* kXco9 ecrrai ocrov r eiwudvarai ^w« 


aypei fiav, or av adre KaprjKo/jLooovres 'A^cuol 
ol^vrat avv vijvrl (f>t\ijv e? icarpiSa yaiav, 4° 

tcij(09 avappji%a$ to eiV aXa irav Karay&ku 17d , 
owns <5' rjiova fxeyaXrjv ^/a/xdOoicri /caXiA^at, 
a>9 Kev rot fJiiya Tetyog afxaXSvyrp-ai *Aj(aiwv. 

(B. vii. 421-463.) 

Now Zeus bids the Gods to take no further part in the 
fray, while he terrifies the Greeks with volleys of thunder- 
bolts, till even Diomede, on whose chariot Nestor is 
mounted, dares not go against Hector in open defiance 
of the wrath of Heaven. So Hector advances in triumph, 
and the Greeks retire behind the shelter of their rampart. 
The Trojans bivouac upon the field, keeping watch upon 
the camp of the Greeks lest they steal away under cover 
of the dark. 

§ U- 

O/ Se fxiya <ppoveovT€$ ai/a TToXifioio yc(f)vpag 
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leal vairaiy ovpavodeu $ ap vTreppayy aarirerog aiOrjp, 
iravra Si t elSerai acrrpa, yiytjOe Si re (ppiva 


roo'cra jtA€(Tfjyu vewv tjSe AavOoio poacov 
Tpcbwv KawvToov Trvpa (JMxlvero 'IXi66i 10l> too. 
yi\i ap ev ireoiq) irvpa Kaiero, Trap oc eKacrrio 10 
eiaro TrevTqKOVTa <ri\ai wvpos aWoficvoio. 

HOM. IL. §§ ii, la. 39 

Ittttoi $€ Kfu Xevtcov epeirro/JLevoi ical oXvpas, 
icrraorei trap oyea-^iv, evQpovov jJ£ /jlijulvov. 

(B. viii. 553-5 6 5) 

It seemed as if the Greeks must really now return home 
discomfited. They cannot stand before Hector. There 
is yet one hope : if Agamemnon will send an embassy of 
reconciliation to Achilles ! So Odysseus, accompanied by 
Ajax and Phoenix, the foster-father of Achilles, proceeds 
to the hut where the hero lay, and puts before him 
Agamemnon's offer. Bris&s shall be honourably restored 
to him, and Agamemnon will give him one of his own 
daughters to wife, with a princely dowry, and an inheritance 
of seven Argive cities and many treasures for his house. 
But Achilles turns a deaf ear, and answers bitterly : — 

§ 12. 

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T€pTT€(r6(a. rl Se Sei 7roXefJu^€fjL€vai 15e TpdeororiP 30 
'Apyelov? ; ti Se Xaov avyyayev €j/0a^ ayelpa? 
ArpelSrjg; § ovj( e E\ei7/9 cvck yvKojutoio 11 * ; 
§ jutovvoL (ftiXeovar aXo^ov? f/Lepoiro&v avOpdnrow 
Arpeioat ; 67rer 09 t*9 gh/»7jO ayauo? kcu e^ecppcov, 
t*jv avrov (piXeei kcu KySercu, tag k<m eyw rrjv 35 

€K OvflOV (frlXeOV SoupiKTfJTfjv TT€p €OV<J(XV. 

vvv 8 eirel ck ^eipoov yepa? etXero Kal /jl airaTtfcrej 
/ajJ juev TreiparcD ev €i$6ro9' ovSi fxe irelcrei* 

HOM. IL. § 12. 41 

aXX' 'OSvtrev avv <rol re kcu aXXotcriv fiao'ikeucri 
<f>pa^e(rdoi> vtjecr<riv aXe^efjievai Syiov Trvp. 40 

17 ixev Sij jUiaXa iroWa iropycraTO vocr(f)iv efieio, 
kcu Srj T€?vo9 e5ei/xe, kcu qXacre racppov eir avrS 
evpeiav juLeydXtjv, ev Se (TKoXoirag Kareir^ev 
aXX* ovS* $>$ Svvcltgu crOevos Ejctojoo? avSpo(f>6voio 
"<r)(eiv. ocppa $ eya> fxer 'A^atolo-iv TroXefJufyv, 45 
owe eOeXecrKe fid^p cltto rel^eog 6pvvfiev i5e9f EKrcop 9 
aXX oarov e? ^Kcudg re 7rvXas kcu <f)tjyov "iKavev 
evOa 7tot oiov €/jli/ulv€, jmoyig Se fiev €K<pvyev opfxrjv. 
vvv o^, €7reJ ovk iOeXoD t iroXeiuu^efX€v rf J*jKTopi Sl(p 9 
aupiqv ipa Ait pej-ag kcu iraai 6eoi<ri } 5° 

vtpl<ra$ ev V9Ja$, eirqv aXaSe 7rpo€pv<r<r<ti 9 
oxfreai, tjv eQeXrjarOa 16 * kcu al Kev toi tcl fiefxrjXri, 
yjpi /xaX' 'JSiXXqcnrovTOv eir I'^Ovoevra 7rXeovcra$ 
vtjag e/ias, ev $' avSpag e peer ere fjtevat /Aquaanw 
el Se Kev ev7rXolfjv Suy 21 * kXvto? 'Evvoo-iyaios, 55 
fj/j.aTi Ke Tpirara) <P6irjv epl/HooXov iKol/uLrjv. 
etrri Se fioi fAaXa ttoXXcl, tcl koXXittov evQaSe eppw 
aXXov 8 evdevSe xpverov kcu x<olXkov epvOpov 
ySe yvvaiKa? evtyvov? iroXiov re ariStjpov 
a^, acr<r eXa^ov ye' yepas Se /mot, 09 7rep 
eSoDK€V 9 60 

aSrig e<pvfipfi£<av eXero Kpelcav 'Ayafiefivdov 
'ATpelSfjg' T(S irctvT ayopeve/jL€V 15e 9 cog ewiTeXXa), 
a/u.(pa8ov, ocppa kcu aXXot eiricrKvCtoVTai A^cuol, 
ei riva ttov Aavawv en e\7rercu e^airaT^o'eiv 


alev avaiSelrjv hrieijj.ivos. outf av efioi ye 65 

TerXaifj Kvveos irep iwv eig wira tSicrOai. 
ovSe ti 01 (HovXa? <rvju,<ppd<T<ro/J(.ai 17a , ovSe M-ev epyov. 
kgu 8 av toi$ aXXoicriv iydb 7rapafJLv6q<rai/j.riv 
o?/cao aTTOTrXeUiv 1 * , eirel ovtcert Sqere T€K/uLa>p 
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aXX vfJLeig julcp lovres apio'Tyeo'O'tv AjfcuaV 
ayyeXltjv airotyavOe — to yap . yepa? e<rr\ yepov- 

twv — 
o<pp aXXrjv (ppd^oovTCu evi (ppeal julijtiv atielvoo, 
*j kc <r<piv vrja? re <roip Ka\ Xaov 'A)(aicov 75 

ptjvorlv em yXa(f>vp*j$ 9 eirel ov crfao-w rjSe y y erol/JLtj, 
fjv vvv e<Ppa<ra'avT0 9 ifxev airofXfjvia'avTO^' 9 

(B. ix. 309-373; 417-426.) 

Thus all hope of help from Achilles falls through. 

During the night Diomede and Odysseus are sent to spy 
out the Trojan lines, and there they fall in with a Trojan, 
Dol6n, who was coming to reconnoitre the Greek camp. 
They rush upon him and force from him all they want to 
know about the Trojans. 

§ 13. 

w ficp eireopafJLeTrjpi o o ap eerri; oovttov a/eoi/crar 
eXirero yap Kara Ovjjlov aTroarrptyovTa? iraipovs 
ck Tpdwv Uvai, iraXiv "Etcropos arpivavros. 
a\\' ore 8y p airetrav Sovprjveich ^ ical eXacraov, 
yvw p av$pa$ St] low, Xai>\njpa Sc yovvar 98 ivwfia 5 

BOM. IL. §§ i2 9 13. 43 

(j)€vye/j.€vac toi $' at^a Suiiceiv op/m^Otjcrav. 
£>S $ J ore tcapxapoSomre $va> icvve, elSore dypw, 
tj KejmdS' ye Xaywov iireiyerop ififieve? atei 
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'TvSelSy, iva yJi r*y 'AyatS>v ^aXKo^ircovtav 
(pOalt] eirev^a/JLevog fiaXeeiv, 6 Se Seurepos eXGot. 15 
Sovp\ 9e $ eTTCUcrcrwv 7rpo<T€(pt) Kparepo? AiofiqSw 

j/€ pep , ye ore oovpi Kixyao/ULai, ovoe ere (prjjuu 
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*H pa, /cat Zy^os a(f)iJK€i/, ckwv <J* qfidprave <f>arro$. 
oe£iT€pov vwep (vjjlov ev£pv coupon aicawcj/ 20 

ev yaiy crayy o ap ecrrtj Tappqo-ev re 
fiafifialvtov — apafios Se Sia aTOfia ylyver 6$6v- 

TtoV — 

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XeipZv $ dy^acrOtjv 6 Se SaKpvaag eirog quSa* 
" {J w 7f >€ ' T / civrap eydv efie Xvcofiar earn yap 
evSov 25 

^aXico? re xpveros re ttoAwc/aj/to? re <rlSrjpog 9 
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<* a 

el Kev e/xe tyoov ttcitvOoit 14b eirl v*jv<r)v 'Ay^aiZpJ 
Toy $ cnrafJLeifiojJLevos Trpoo-ecpii TroXvjULtjri? 'O^i/o*- 



For a time the wall is defended against their assault, till 
Hector breaks in the gates with a huge stone. 

§ 15. 

A Q$ pev rS>v ivl laa fiaj(rj riraro irroXefiog re, 
irpiv y ore dy Lev? kvoo? vireprepov EjKTopt owxe 
TlpiajJiiSy, 09 TrpSrros ea-fjXaro Te?j(09 lA^aicov. 
fjvcrev Se Siawpwriov TpaWo"* yeywm* 
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'Apyeiw, kcu vqvartp evlere deairiSae? irvp? J 

*£lg <pdr erroTpvwav, 01 S* ovcktl iravres cucovov, 
lOvvav S 9 hri reijfog aoXXee?, 01 fiev eireira 
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prj£e S* air an<f>orepov$ Qaipovr Treae Se XlOos elcr® 

BOM. IL* §§ 15, 16. 47. 

fiptOoarvvrj, fiiya 8 % afM(p\ irvXai julvkov 19 *, ov8* ap 

i<rj(€0€T9iv 9 aavlSes 8e SterfJiayev 20 * aXXvSis aXXij 25 
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<rjj.epSa\e(p, toi> eetrro wept XP°h ^oia Se \epa\ 
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vo<r(pi 6ewv t St i<raXro lsd nvXav Trvpl 8 9 Save 

SeSqei. 30 

K€KX€TO l8d Se Tpweo-criv eXtfcayLevo? Kaff SfxiXov 
reij(09 virepftalvew rot S' orpvvopri irldovro. 
q&tIkjol S J ol jjLev rei](os vTrep/3a<rav 9 oi Se kot avra? 
Troitrra? i<rexyPT0 18d irvXav. Aavaot <T eipofiqOev 
vrjag ava yXa<pvpa?, o/maSog 8* aXiaa-rog irvj(d^ 35 

(B. xii. 436-471.) 

Then the battle rages within the rampart with varying 
success, Zeus befriending the Trojans and Poseid6n giving 
secret aid to the Greeks. Meanwhile, Hera bribes the 
God of Sleep to seal the eyes of Zeus, that Poseid6n may 
be free to assist the Greeks still further. Hector, after 
hurling his spear at Ajax, is himself struck down by a 
stone and carried swooning from the ranks. 

§ 16. 
AHavrog St irpSrro? cucovTicre (f>aiSi/uio<; Etcrwp 
*yy?i% €ir€t rerpawTO irpos fflv 01 > ovS* acpafiiapre, 
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$ toi 6 fJLev <raK€0$, 6 Se <f>a<ryavov apyvpoyXov* 


to> ol pvaraarQriv ripeva yjpoa. X^ "** 7 " °* "Ekt«j& 5 
ottl pa ol /3eXo$ <£kv erdxriov €K<pvye xeipos 9 
a>\r §* erapoop els eOvos e^ce^ero K>jp 9 aXeelvwv, 
tov eireiT ainovTa fieyas TeXajmcbviof AZas 
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Trap 6 Tro<ri jULapvafievwv iicvXlvSeTO' rwv %v aelpag io 
arTqdo? jSe/8Xj}/cei virep avrvyos 9 ayypQi Seiprjs, 
(rrpofx^ov 8' &s eavevc jSaXcov, irepl <$' eSpafie 

cds 8* off viro wXtjyrjs irarpos Aioy ej-epiTry Spvs 
7rpoppi^os 9 Seipij Se deelov 1 * ylyverai SS/mrj 
£% avrrjs* tov 8* ov irep eyei Qpacros o$ tcev 

ISrjrai 15 

iyyvs ed>v 9 jfaXewos Se Aios fieyaXoio Kepavvos' 

$>S €7T€(T "I&KTOpOS WKa X a /* a ' fl€VOS €P KOVirjCTt. 

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Kal KopvSy aftfpl Se ol (ipa^e rev^ea iroiKiXa j^ceX/ccS. 
ol 8e fiiya la^ovreg eiriSpa/xov vies 'Aj^aifiy, 20 

eXirofievoi ipvecrOai, aicovTiCpv 8e dafieiag 
al^/mas. AXX* ov ns eSvvqo-aTO iroifieva XaS>v 
ovrdarai ovSe /SaXetV* irpiv yap TreplfSrjarav api<TTOt 9 
UovXvSafias re Kal Alvelas koi Slog 'Ayqvayp 
^ap7njSoip r apxps Avkiwv koi TXavKOS cl/jlvjuloov, 25 
t5*v 8* aXXtty ov rls eu 13c cwci/<We)>, a AX a irapoiOev 
ao"7rl8as cvkvkXovs a^eOov avrov' rov 8* ap' eratpoi 
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oJ/ceay, o? ol oiricrOe fJLaj(fjs ySe TrroXi/uLoio 

HOM. IL. §17. 49 

etrracrav fjvio'^ov re ical ap/xara iroiidX e^ovrev 30 
01 top ye irporl acrrv (pepov ftapea (rrevayovTa. 

(B. xiv. 402-432.) 

Then Zeus awakes and finds he has been tricked. He 
bids Poseid6n quit the field, and sends Phoebus down to 
encourage Hector and the Trojans. Phoebus leads them 
on across the ditch and the rampart, and the Greeks are 
driven back upon their ships. 

§ 17. 

rocppa S* 'Amatol 

rdcppw kcu (rKo\6'7ce<ro'iv evitrXfi^avre^ opvicry 
evQa ical evOa <pej3ovT0 9 Svovro Se rei^o? avayicy. 
Etcrwp Se Tptoeowiv e/cejcXeTO 18 * jxatcpov auorag* 
" vqvalv eiTKTcrevecrQaii eav $ evapa (ipoToevra. 5 
ov 8 av eywv airavevQe vewv erepcodi voyara), 
avrov ol Oavarov fitp'lo'onai, ovSe vv top ye 
yvwrol re yvoarai re irvpo? XeXa^axri 14b Oavovra, 
aXKa Kvve? epvov<ri llD icpo aarreog tjfxerepoio. 

*Qg elwwv jjLaarriyi KarcofiaSov tjXao-ev 77T7rot/9, 10 
K€kX6/ul€V09 TjOweo-<ri Kara crrl^ag. ol Se arvv avr£ 
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pet' oy(6a$ Kcnreroio (HaOelw woa-criv epeliriav 
h fxecaov icare/SaXXe, ye<pvp<o<rev Se KeXeuOov 15 

ixcucprjv rf$ evpelav, o<rov r eiri Soupo? epcot] 
ylyverai, ottttot avrjp crOeveos ireipdjuievos ^071/ 21a . 



tj5 p ol yc irpo^eovro <paXayyrjSov 9 irpo 8 AxoX- 


atyio e^u>v epiTifiov. epenre oe Tet^ ^ A>X aiWP 
peia fia\\ a>p ore Tip ^apaQov Troup ayyj. QaXacr- 

(TW, 20 

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Zeup, 35 

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1/170? virep Tolstoy KaTafiytreTai, ottttot hce'iyy 40 

EOM. IL. § 18. 51 

19 avepov fi yap re txaXicrra ye KvjmaT 9 6<f>eXXeC 
&$ TpSec ixeyaXy loiyji Kara Telyo? efiaivov, 
Ittttovq $ elcreXao'avTeg eVJ 7rpvfAvtjcri juLa-^ovTO 
eyjfea'tv a/jupiyvots avro(rj(eSov 9 ol fiev a(f) imrw, 
ol $* airo vrfiv fJ\|t jueXaivdcw eVi/SaiTey 45 

fxaKpoiai j~vcrTOi<ri 9 ra pa cr<t? eirl vijvcriv exeiTO 
vavfia^a KoXXqevra, Kara crro/ma elfxeva j(aX#c£. 

(B. xv. 343-389) 

And now Hector presses on and grasps by the stern the 
ship of Protesilaus, calling for fire to burn the fleet, while 
Ajax has to bear the whole brunt of the battle, keeping off 
the Trojans as they come on torch in hand. 

§ 18. 

"EiCTtop Se TcpvfjLvris i/eop q'fyaTO irovroiropoiOy 
KaXijg (OKvaXov, fj Upwreo'iXaov eveucep 
h Tpoltjv, ovS avTis airqyaye irarplSa yaiav. 
rod irep Srj nrepl 1/1705 Aj£a*o/ Te Tpihef re 
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woXXa Se (fxxa-yava KaXa fieXavSera KooirqePTa 10 
aXXa fxev ck -)(€ip5>v yafiaSif irearov, aXXa 8 air 


avSpwv fiapvafxevw pee S? al/tiart yaia fieXaiva. 
*I&KTtop Se TTpvpvriQev eire\ Xafiev, 01/^J fJLediei 

e 2 


a<f>Xa<rrov pera yeptriv e^ow, TpaKriv Se KeXeuev 
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X S\> * 9 tf f e / ft « / at .. MIX 

evu ap o y ecTTtiKei dedoKrj/uLevos, eyyei o aiei 

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" $ (piXoi rjpcoeg Aavaoi, OepaTrovre? * Aprjos, 30 

avipes ecrre, (plXoi, fxvriaraa-Qe Se OovpiSos aXicrjs* 

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i$€ ti ret^os a pet op, o k avSpa&i Xoiyov ajmvvai ; 

01; jjlcp ti o")(€$6v €<rri ttoXis irvpyois apapvia, 

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Ta iv X 6 / 00 "' (pOWy OV jUL€lXt)(llJ TToXefioio' 

H OM. JL. §19. 53 

jy, iccu fiaijULwtov 100 €<p€ir eyj^ei oquoevri. 
09 Tty 5e Tpwwv KOlXtJS €7r5 i/^i/a* (pepoiTO 4° 

ow Tri/pi icj/X«cp, lb xapiv "I&KTopo? orpvvavro^ 
rov 8* A?a? oirraoTce 16 ' SeSey/mevos ey^ei (xaicpS). 
SdSeKa Se wpoirapoiOe veS>v avrocr^eSov oi/ra 18 *. 

(B. xv. 704-746.) 

But even Ajax cannot singlehanded oppose a whole 
army. At last, overpowered, and with his spear shaft 
shattered, he is forced to retire, and in a moment the 
ships are wrapped in flame. 

Thus the threat of Achilles has been accomplished, that 
he would not forego his wrath till the battle had reached 
the ships. 

Patroclus, his trusty friend, is now suffered to take the 
chariot of Achilles and lead out the Myrmidons to turn 
the fortune of the day. The sight of Patroclus in the 
field acts like magic : the Trojan assailants fly before him, 
like clouds before the blast. 

§ 19. 
*I2y 5* or' air OvKviJLTrov i/i(pos ep^erat ovpavov elario, 
atOepo? €K Sit]? ot€ re Zevg \ai\cnra T€ivy> 
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€K(bepov (aiafaroSeg crvv review, \ei7re 8e Xaov 5 

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KTetve fieTato-arav, iroXetov 11 * S* aTrerivvro nroivriv. 

(B. xvi. 364-398.) 

HOM. IL. $ 20. 55 

Sarpedon, the great Lycian chieftain, falls before the 
spear of Patroclus, who, clad in the armour and wearing the 
helmet of Achilles, advances as far as the walls of Troy, 
in spite of the warnings of Phoebus. But now his hour 
is come. Phoebus lays his hand upon him and dashes 
the protecting helmet from his head, and loosens his 
armour. And as he staggers, faint and dizzy, Euphorbus 
is the first to wound him; then Hector deals him the 

§ 20. 

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(»9 8 ore avv aKajmavTa Xea>v eftiyo-aTO X^P^V^ 
w t opeos Kopvipyari /ueya (ppoveovre fia^eaQov 

HOM. IL. § 21. 57 

TiSaK09 ajm(p oXlyw eQeXovai Se Triejmev 166 afitffxio' 
iroXXa Si t aa-Qfiatvovra Xea>v eSajmacae /3lfi<f>iv 10 *' 
&g TroXeay 116 we(f)v6vTa Mevoirlov clXki/jlov vlov 45 
' E/ctcojO TIpiafJLiSrjg aryeSov eyyu Ov/jlov ainjvpa. 

(B. xvi. 783-828.) 

It is the moment of Hector's triumph. He calls on his 
comrades to continue the fight while he dons the armour 
of Achilles, stript from the body of Patroclus ; but even as 
he puts it on, the sentence of his own death goes forth 
from the lips of Zeus. 

§ 21. 

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*H, kclI Kvaveycriv eir 6(f) pvari vevare l&povioov. 

(B. xvii. 188-209.) 

And now the fight rages round the body of Patroclus. 
Hector and Aeneas on the Trojan side ; on that of the 
Greeks, Menelaus, and the Telamonian and the Ojflean 
Ajax, are the heroes of the day. 

At last, though the Greeks are overpowered, Menelaus 
succeeds in carrying off the corpse safe to the ships, with 
the help of M6riones. 

§ 22. 

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HOM. XL. § 23. 59 

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7ro\Xa cJe rev^ea icaXa irecrov irept t afj.(p[ re 

tyevyovTWV Aavaoov voXe/xov ov ylyver eoeojj. 

(B. xvii. 735-761.) 

The news of his friend's death is brought to Achilles, who 
is like one beside himself with grief. His mother Thetis 
comes up from her sea-caves to comfort him : but she and 
her son both know too well that his days are numbered — 
yet there is work still to be done, the avenging of the 
death of Patroclus. 

§ 23. 

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(B. xviii. 70-126.) 

The arms of Achilles had been stripped from the body 
of Patroclus, and were now worn by Hector; but Thetis 
prevails on Hephaestus to forge such new armour for her 
son as none had ever seen the like of — helmet, and 
greaves, and a shield wrought with manifold devices and 
pictures, in which the figures seemed to move and breathe. 

At last Agamemnon makes free confession of the 
injury that he has done, and Achilles is willing to forget 
the past and forego his anger. It is the time for ven- 
geance, not for brooding upon old wrongs. 

Soon the unwonted sight is seen of Achilles moving out 
to war, in his terrible armour, and carrying the great spear 
that none else could wield. But even as he goes forth, 
Xanthus, his chariot horse, speaks with human voice, and 
foretells the speedy fate that awaits his master. 

§ 24. 

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avSpiav ev Se nevoio-i Kopvararero Sio? 'A.^iXXci/9. 

HOM. IL. § 24. 63 

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HOitf. JL. § 25. 65 

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€§ vi; to£ o*5a icaJ avros o ^to* fxopos evOaS* 6Xecr6ai 9 

v6cr<f)l (f)lXoU TTCLTpOS KOU /JLtJT€p09' oXXo, KOI €fl7T9l$ 

ov \rjqu) irpiv I jOa>a? aoi/i/ eKaaat TroAe/xoio. 

'''H pa, /ecu iv Trp&TOi? laytav eye fidwyag linrovs. 

(B. xix. 357-424.) 

Now the deities of Olympus appear upon the field, but 
the end is not to be yet. In the moment of victory or 
defeat each hero seems to be baffled or rescued by the 
intervention of some god. 

At last Hector is seen near the gates of Troy, 
eager to encounter Achilles, though his aged father and 
mother beseech him with tears to come within the shelter 
of the wall. As Hector waits, Achilles draws near, and 
smitten with sudden panic, Hector flies three times round 
the walls of Troy, while the Gods look on in amaze. 

§ 25. 

*Qy wpfnaive fievwv* 6 Se 01 a-yeSbv ijXOev AyiX- 
lcro9 EwaXl<p KopvdaiKi irToXejuucrrij, 
aeiw JlrjXiaSa fxeklrjv Kara Sefybv qo/ulov 
Seivyv a/jL<fn Se yaXxb^ eXafjurero eliceXos ai/*yy 
tl TTVpos aiOo/mevov tj yeXlov aviovro?. 5 

"EicTopa S% ft>? evofjtrev, eXe rpofios' ovS* ap* It' erXq 
avOi peveiv, cV/(ra> Se irvXag XiVe, ($rj Se (poftyOelg* 



JlfjXelStjg 5' eTropovcre irocrl Kpanrpoicri TceiroiOtas. 

*IVT€ KipKOq 6p€(T<plV, e\a(j>p6TaT09 7T€T€1JP(0P 9 

ptjl'Slwg oijutjcre fjLera Tptipiava irikeiav 10 

fj $e G* viraiQa (fjo/HeiTai, 6 $' eyyvOep 6£v XeXtjKwg 

I 99 » .t. *x 9 ' * /V * ' ' 

Tapcpe eTrai<r<rei 9 eXceip re c uvjulo? avooycr 

009 ap o y efXjULejULacos iuus irerero, rpecre o rjicrcop 

T€i)(o$ viro TpaW, Xaiy^njpa Se yovvar evco/tia. 

ol 8e irapa vKOTnYfP kou epiveov yvejuoevra 15 

Tel'xeog alev vttck /car aju.aj~iTOP eo-creuopTO, 

KpOVVW $' *KOLVOV ICaXXlppOG), €P0a T€ TTfjyal 

Soiai avatcro'ovcrt ^Ka/mavSpov Sivyevros. 

tl ijl€V yap u voaTi \iap(p peei 9 a/uKpi oe kglttvos 

ylyverai e£ avrrjs 009 « 7rvpb$ aiOo/uLepoio* 20 

1/ o crept? uepei irpopeei eiKVia X a * a £p 

v\ yiovi ^v^py $i e£ vScltov KpucrraWw. 

epva eir avraoov ttKvpoi evpeeg eyyvy eacn 

KaXot Xaweoi, 061 elfiara criyaXoePTa 

irXvvecrKov Tpoicav aXo)(oi icaXal re Ovyarpes 25 

to irpiv eir elprjvr]?) irplv eXOeiv viag A^ata)!/. 

T*j pa TrapaSpafi€Ttiv 9 (pevycop, 6 o oiritrQe Sicokoop' 

irpocrOe pep ia-OXog e<f>evy€, SlwKe Si fxiv fxey' afielpwp 

Kap7raXi/jL<jo$j erei ofy leptfiov ovSe /Soelrjp 

appvcrOqp, a re 7ro<rcr\p aidXia ylyperai avSpcop, 30 

aXXa 7rep\ ^v)(*J9 Oeop "ILicTopos i7r7roSa/noio. 

a>9 8* or a€0Xo(p6poi irepl Tepfiara juicopu^eg Ittttoi 

pl/uiCpa fiaXa rpib'^Sicrr to Se jmeya KeiTat aeOXop, 

tj Tpnro? 17c yvp>) 9 apSpog KaTaTeOpfiStTOS* 

HOM. IL. § 26. 67 

&$ tco Tpi? Tlpiajuoio ttoXxi/ nrepiSiVfiO^rriv 35 

KapTrdkiyLOiM 7r6o€<r<ri. 6eo\ Se tc Trdvre? opwvro. 

(B. xxii. 131-166.) 
But Achilles never quits the pursuit of his foeman. 

§ 26. 

"J&KTopa 8* cKnrepxjes kXovccov ecpeir coKvg '4v£X- 
a>9 S* ore vefipbv ope<r(pi kvg&v eXd<poto Sltp-cu, 
operas 200 e$- evvqs, Sid t ayicea kcli Sid jSi/o-cray 
tov 6* e? irep re XdOycri icaTcnrrqi~as vwo Odfiva), 
dXXa t dvi)(yev(ev Oiei ejuTreSov, o(ppa kcv evprj' 5 
wy "EictwjO ov XrjOe iroSwKea TlrjXelwva. 
6<rcraKi X* op/uiijcreie irvXawv AapSaviawv 
avriov dii»a<r6ai 9 evSwTov? xnrb irvpyovs, 
ei iroog 01 Ka6v7rep6ev dXaXicoiev fieXeeo-cri, 
TO<r<raKi fxiv irpoirapoiOev diroaTptyacrKe irapa- 
<p6a$ 10 

TTpo? ireoiov avros oe iron tttoaio^ ttctct aiei. 
<»9 S* ev ovelpw ov Svvcltcii (pevyovra Sianceiv 
our ap o tov ovuarai vrrocpevyeiv ovu o oicotceiv 
&$ 6 tov ov Svvqto fiapy^rai tco<t\v, ovb* 09 dXv^ai. 
ircog Si Kev "E/cto)jO icfjpas vTT€^e((>vy€V OavaToio, 15 
el firi ol irvfiaTOv tc kcu SarraTov qvreT 'AicoXXwv 
eyyvOev, 09 ol eirHpo'e fievos Xai^rtjpa tc yovva ; 

Aaoinv $* dveveve Kaplan Siog Aj^XXevy, 
ovS' ea UfJLevai eirl "JSucTopi irixpa /8eXe/ii/a, 

f 2 


jUtf T£9 Kv8o$ apOVTO fioXdbv, 6 $€ $€VT€p09 eXOoi. 2< 

aAX' ore iy to T&raprrov eirl tcpovvov? atyUovTO, 
kol\ Tore 8rj xpvo-eia 1 * Trarqp eriraive TaXavra, 
iv <$* eriOei Svo icrjpe TavtjXeyiog Oavaroio, 
TflV fJL€P Aj£lXAjj09, Tfjv $ "IfjKTopos iTnrodafjLoio, 
c\k€ $e jxecrara \a/3<av' phre tf "J&KTOpos aicrifio] 
foap, 2] 

torero 6" €(V AfSao, Xiirev Si e <&oifio$ ^AttoWcov. 

(B. xxii. 188-213.) 

As Phoebus had unnerved Patroclus at the moment o 
danger, so Athena now deceives Hector in his sores 
need, and he falls, pierced by the spear of Achilles. Fron 
the walls of Troy his father and mother behold their son' 
corpse dragged along, with feet pierced and bound b 
thongs to the chariot of Achilles. 

§ 27. 
'A/j.(pOT€pG>v jULeroTTicrOe iroSwv rerpqve rivovre 

€9 <T<pVpOV €K 7TT€pV*J9 9 jSoCOW S* €^J7TT€V IflOLVTa^ 

€K SlcppoLO tf eStjo-e, Kaptj tf cXtcearOai eatrev 

e9 OiCppov avapas, ava re kAvto, rev^e aeipas, 

IAa<TTi£<£v p e\aav 9 rco o ovtc cucovre Trerea'Uijv, 

tov S ?jv ekKO/xivoio KOvl<ra\o$ 9 a/uL(fH Se yourai 

Kvaveai TrtTvavro, tcdprj tf airav iv Kovlyvi 

Ketro irapog \aplev Tore Se Ztevg Svcrju.evieoro'i 

SSttcev aeud<r<raa'9ai ey iv irarplSi yaly. 

<J>9 tov fxev kckovito Kapq airav tj Si w MTyp i« 

TiWe Ko/mrjv, cltto Se Xnraptjv eppi^re KaKvirrptiv 

HOM. il. § 27. 6g 

TijXdVe, KGOKvcrep Se jiaXa fieya iroutf icriSovcra. 
yixtafjev 8 eXeeiva Trarhp (piXos, a/uap\ Se Xaol 
KooKVTtS t elypvro Kal olfionyy Kara a<rrv. 
tg5 Se jjloXktt ap er\v evaXlyKiov, &$ el airaxra 15 
"IX109 6<ppv6e<r<ra wpl cr/Jtv^oiro kclt a/cprj?. 
Xaol pep pa yepovra jxoyis eypv aa-^aXowpra^ 
e^eXOetv fxefxaSyra irvXcaav AapSavtdcov. 
Travra? $ eXXtraveve KvXivSofievos Kara tcoirpov, 
e^ovo/JLCUcX^Sfjv ovofxaQav avSpa eKacrrov 20 

" oyearOe, (piXoi, Kal fx oiov eacrare, KfjSofievoi 7rep 9 
e^eXBovra iroXtjog iK€<rO' hrl vqas Ajfcuibv. 
Xl(T(rwfx avepa rovrov aracrOaXov ofipifjioepyov, 
*jv TTiog rjXiKirjp aiSea'trerai yS? eXeq<ry 
yrjpa?. Kal Se vv rqiSe Trarijp roiocrSe rervKraiy 25 
n^Xeuy, off puv eriKre Kal erpeipe Trrjfia yevecrOai 
TpwrL fAaXi<rTa S* ejmol irepl iravToav aXyc' eOfjKe' 
Tocrcrov? yap juloi vaiSa? aireKrave T*jXedaovra$ •. 
tS>v iravrwv ov toowov oSupofxai a^vvfxevog irep 
a* evo$ 9 ov fi a^of oqu KaroKrerai A* do? ei<r<a, 30 
"EktojOO?. <J>9 o<j>eXev Oaveeiv iv \ep(rlv ifjSj<rr 
t& Ke Kopeartra/jLeOa KXalovre re fivpojmev(o re 9 

9 A? 99 V 5» ' » W » * 1 ' »> 

Unrrip u 9 rj jj.iv eriicre ov<rafiju.opo9 9 qo ey<a avros. 

(B. xxii. 396-428.) 

The Ghost of Patroclus appears to Achilles, praying for 
burial, that he may be able to pass into the land of Hades. 
So, in the morning the Greeks build a mighty pyre, and 
laying the corpse thereon, throw on it their votive locks of 


hair, and place round the pile the bodies of many victims. 
Then Iris, in answer to the prayer of Achilles, calls upon 
the winds to come and fan the flame that the corpse 
of Patroclus may be burned. Zephyrus and Boreas are 
ready at her bidding. 

§ 28. 

01 o opeovro 
^X# Oe&ireo'iy, vecpea kAov€Opt€ irapoiOev. 
aiyjra Sc'ttovtov Ikclvov aqfievat, Spro lsd Se Kv/ua 
irvoiri U7TO Aiyvpy Ipoirjv o epipwAov iKe&uqv, 
ev Se irvpij Trecrerqv^ ixeya ft ?<*X e 6 €<r7ri Sae$ irvp. 5 
nravvvyioi 8 apa toi ye irvpijg afxvSi? (f)\6y 9 

(f)v<r£>VT€$ \iyew 6 Se iravvujfog &kus A^iXXei'9 
Xpvveov etc Kpqr*jpo? 9 eXwv Senas afXCpiKvireAAov, 
dtvov a<pvcr<r6iJLevo$ xajxaSw j^ee, Seue Se yaiav, 
^vxyv KucXticnctov Harpo/cAyo? SeiXoio. io 

o>$ Se TraTfjp ov TtcuSos oSvperai ocrrea kcuW, 
vv/uL(piov, oy re Qavwv SeiAovs aKa'^tjo'e TOKtjag, 
W9 Aj^Xeu? erapoio oSvpero otrrea /cazW, 
epwQov Trapa TrvpKa'ttjv, aSiva (rreva'^pQav. 

^HfjLOt 8* f Etaxr(f>6po$ euri (f>oa>$ epewv eirl 

yaiav 9 15 

ov re fiera KpoKoireirXog vireip a\a kiSvotcu i/aW 
Tripos TrvpKaXij e/xapaivero, iravtraro Se (j)Ao£. 

(B. xxiii. 212-228.) 

The funeral is followed by contests of skill among the 
heroes, in honour of the dead Patroclus. Then for twelve 

HOM. JL. § 29. 


whole days Achilles vents his anger on the body of Hector, 
by dragging it round the tomb, till Zeus bids him desist 
from his vindictive wrath. 

Meanwhile old Priam has left Troy, carrying with 
him priceless treasures, in hope of redeeming the dead 
body of his son from Achilles. As he went on his 
dangerous enterprise, Hermes met him, disguised in 
human form, and led him safely through the sentinels of 
the Greek camp, into the presence of Achilles. And as 
Achilles gazed at him with amaze, his strange guest sup- 
plicates him thus : — 

§ 29. 
" Mvijcrai irarpos crofo, Oeois ewieiKeX Aj^iXXei/, 
rrjXiKov &? irep eya>v 9 6X0$ cttI yypaos ovSqi. 


T€ipov(T 9 ovSe rig ecrTiv apqv kcu Xoiyov a/mvvai. 

aXX' $ toi iceivos ye aeOev Qooptos clkovoov 5 

X<*tpci> t ev Ov/ulS, eirl r eXirerai /frxara iravra 

oy^ecrdai <j>lXov. Oiov airo TpoirjOev lovra* 

aurap ey<a iravairoTfj.o^ eicei tckov via? apicrTOvs 

Tjpo/j; ev eupeiy, t£>v 8* ov riva (ptjjuu XeXei(p6ai. 

TrevrqicovTa juloi ijcrav, or %Xv6ov vies 'A)(cu£i/* IO 

ii/i/ecucalSeKa fiev fioi iJfc ck vtjSvos 17 era 1/, 

roue 8* aXXovg juloi ctiktov ev\ /ueydpoicri yvvatices. 

tS>v (lev woXXcov 6ovpo9 Apijs V7r6 yovvar eXvarev 

09 oe fJioi 0109 eqv 9 eipvro oe acrrv icai avrovg, 

toi/ <rv Trpooqv tcrehas ajuvvo/mevov irep\ 7raTprjg 9 l 5 

"EicTopa' rod vvv eii/ejf' ikovco i/jya? 9 Aj(cu&y 9 

\v<r6/uL€t>09 icapa (retq, (pepw $' aTcepeivi 1 * airoiva. 


iW aiSeio 1 * Oeovs, 'AyiXev, avrov t eXetjcrov 
jULvrjcra/uLevos <rov iraTpov iyw $' iXeeivorepog irep, 

€T\*IV S* oT OV TT<i T£ff €Tri^66vi09 j8pOT09 aXX09 9 20 

avSpbs 7ratSo(povoio irori (rrofxa yelp opiyecrOai." 

(B. xxiv. 486-506.) 

Achilles left the tent, and bade them take the ransom 
that Priam had brought, and lay the body of Hector 
decently on his father's chariot, and cover it with clothing. 
But while Priam sleeps, after Achilles had entertained him 
in his tent, he is awoke by Hermes, who commands him 
to carry away the body during the darkness of the night. 
In the early morning they reach the city, and Cassandra 
espies them from afar, and announces their approach. 
But Priam passes on through the mourners, and lays the 
dead warrior down in his palace. 

Then Hector's wife, AndromachS, bursts out into 
lamentation : — 

§ 30. 

"*Avep 9 air aiibvos veo$ coXeo, kolS 5 Si jme yfipw 
Xeiireis iv fieyapoicrr iral'g 8* eri vyirios auTwy, 
ov TCKOfiep ov r ey<a re Svaafx/ULOpoi, ovSe juliv oico 
ijfiqv l^ecrOar irp\v yap iroXig qSe icar aKprjg 
iripo'erar 1} yap oXcoXag e7rio7co7ro9, 09 re fxiv 
avrrjv 5 

pvo-Kev 2 *, ej^e? b* aXoypvg KeSvas teal vfiiria re/cva* 
a* St) roi raya vrivviv 6yfi<Tovrai yXaipvpyo'i, 
Kai fxev eyoD fxera ryot ov av, tocos, y\ ejioi avrfj 
Jtyecu, evQa kcv epya aeiicea epya^piOy 
aOXevoov irpo avaicrog ajmeiXiyov ?/ ti$ 'AyaiSiv 10 

HOM. IL. § 31. 73 

p/yet )(€ipos eXwv euro irvpyov, Xvypov oXe0pov 9 
Xwo/U€i/oy, w Sq 7T0U aSeX<f>ebv eicravev "Eicrcfljo 
*/ irarep tje icai viop 9 eirei fxaXa iroWot A^aicov 
"JZiCTopof ev TraXajjLyo'iv 6Sa£ eXov aenrerov ovSa?. 
ov yap /ue/X«^09 ecrice iraTtip Teo9 iv Sat Xvypij. 15 
tw Kal fxiv Xaol fiev oSvpovrat tcara arm), 
apyrop Se TOK€V(ri yoov kgu irevOog eOqicas, 
H ExTOp' ejJLol Se jULaXio'ra XeXe/xfrerac aXyea XvypaT 
ov yap fJLOi Qvrjcncoov Xe^iwv etc X € 'P a ? fy> € ? a $» 
ovSe t/ pot eiTra? tcvkivov eirof, ov Te kcv cuei 20 

fxefxvrjfxrjv vvtcraf tc tea) yfAara Saiepv j^eovtra.** 

And his mother Hecabg takes up the dirge : — 

§ 31. 

" "Eicrop, €jul<S Qvfxw iravrw tto\v (friXrare 1talSwv 9 

§ /jl€v juloi ^ft)09 irep ewv (plXo? %<rOa Oeoicrw 

oi 8 apa crev kJjSovto koi ev 6avaTOi6 irep alary. 

aXXovs pev yap iraioW efiovf iroSag (£kv$ 'AxiXXev? 

Trepvao")£ 9 ov nv eXeovce, Treprjv dXos aTpvyeroio, 5 

e? ^EafJLOV €? t' "Ifi^pov koi Arj/mvov ajuLt^OaXoeo-arav 

aev b* eirei e^eXero ^vyyv ravarjKeT )(aXKw 9 

7roXXa pvoTafycncev eov irep\ a-fjfi erapoio 

UarpoicXov, rbv eirefyver avecrnjorev Se fiiv ovS' c?9" 

vvv Se fioi epo-rjeig Kat ir poo-faros ev fJLeyapouri 10 

Keio-ai, T<p liceXo? ov r apyvporoZps AttoXXow 

of 9 ayavots /SeXeecro'iv €ttoi)(oiul€v09 KaT€Tre(f)vev" 

Last of all Helen, the fatal cause of the war which 
had brought Hector to his death, adds her lament :■ — 



§ 32. 

E/ctojO, efjL<£ Ou/jlw Saepcov ttoXv (plXrare iravrw, 

% ixiv fJLOi 7r6crig e<rr\v *A\e£ap$pos OeoeiSys, 

09 jul ay aye Tpo/f/i/o*. cos icpiv dotpeWov oXeerOai. 

%$*! yap vvv fioi ro$' eeucocrTOv eroe itrriv 

e£ ov icefflev efifji/ ical epLijg aireXqXvOa iraTpw 5 

aXX' ov 7roo (rev aicoucra kokov eiro$ ovS acrv([)fiXov 

aXX ei T*y /t€ Kai aXXos evi fxeyapoKTiv gvitttoi 

Saepwv tj yaXocov ^ elvareptav evireirXow, 

ij ewprj — eicvpos Se irariip wp rj7rio9 alel — , 

aXXa (rv tov y eTreecra'i 7rapai(pa/uL€vo$ Karepvices. io 

tw <re 6 ajua icXalto Kai Sfi afi/xopov a'^yvfievti Krjp* 

ov yap tis fiot er aWog evt 1 poitj evpeiy 

tjiriog ovSe $1X09, iravre? Se fxe 7r€(ppiKa<riv" 

(B. xxiv. 725-775.) 

On the tenth day of their mourning they burned the 
body of the dead on the pyre, and laid his ashes in a grave, 
and piled a huge cairn of stones above it. But the guards 
kept jealous watch over the hero's grave, lest the Greeks 
might renew the attack before the truce for the burial of 
the dead was ended. 



The Ionic dialect exhibits generally greater uniformity 
than the Aeolic ; yet there must have been many varieties 
of it, determined by local causes. Herodotus (i. 142) 
enumerates four forms, (irapaywyai, 'deviations,') spoken 
in Caria, Lydia, Chios with Erythrae, and Samos ; and he 
speaks as though these varieties were so divergent as to be 
mutually unintelligible. But there is something of exag- 
geration and perhaps of prejudice in his statement, as 
though he were overlooking the broad resemblance and 
fixing his attention upon minor differences. Yet, however 
we interpret his words, there can be no doubt that there 
were considerable varieties of dialect in the Ionic Dode- 
capolis. And the differences between these types could 
not have been produced by influences of climate ; as the 
general character of the coast and islands of the Aegean 
in that part, is substantially the same. But the differences 
may be satisfactorily explained by referring them to the 
contact of the Ionian immigrants with the old settlers of 
the country, as for example with Achaeans in Clazo- 
menae, or Minyans in Teos. The grammarians speak of 
an apx<w* and a via 'id*, but we have no data for making 
a division of different periods of Ionic, as we have in the 
case of Doric. It is probable that they meant by dp- 
xala 'Ids the Greek of Homer's poems; but while we. 



acknowledge Ionic to be the basis of his language, we 
cannot treat it as the dialect of any tribe or district, but 
the artificial creation of a school of minstrels, extending 
over a long period. Pherecydes, Hecateus, Hippocrates, 
and Democritus, are probably the representatives of 
the purest Ionic prose; but we do not possess a suffi- 
cient amount of their writings to decide the question with 
anything like certainty. The Iambics and Elegiacs of 
Archilochus, Simonides of Amorgos, and Hipponax, are 
reckoned as the purest specimens of Ionic in poetry 
(ZicpaTos 'las). The dialect of Herodotus is described as 
itoikiKt], the * variegated texture r of it being seen in the 
interweaving of many Epic words and phrases, with some 
Atticisms and a few Doricisms. Yet, after making allow- 
ance for this admixture, the Greek of Herodotus will 
serve as the best representative of Ionic. It is not without 
reason that he is called by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 
' the best model of Ionic/ (rrjs 9 l&8os aptaros kov&v), as 
Thucydides was of Attic prose. Analogous to the Greek 
of Homer, the dialect of Herodotus is a literary product 
that grew up with the growth of prose writing, and is 
doubtless different from any of the spoken varieties of 

In softness and harmoniousness Ionic stands pre-emi- 
nent, forming a marked contrast to the roughness and 
concentrated strength of the Doric; and thus it shows 
itself as furthest removed from the original character of 
the Greek language. The strongest evidence of this 
tendency to softness is the almost uniform substitution of 
rj for 5, which must have been an early change in the 
language ; but we have not the means of deciding whether 
the Ionians brought this usage with them from their home 
in Greece or whether they picked it up from their Asiatic 
neighbours. In the Ionian dialect, as we find it in the 


writings of poets and prose authors, there is a general 
dislike of spirants, the Digamma has fallen out of use, and 
the rough breathing is frequently toned down to the 
smooth. The older Ionic, in spite of its tendency to 
diaeresis, still retained many diphthongs which the younger 
Ionic not unfrequently replaces by the long vowel only. 
The concurrence of vowels is a constant feature in the 
dialect, while contraction is but sparely used, though there 
are instances of a distinct Ionic contraction as in oydvuovra, 
tfavt, 'etc. The freedom of usage respecting the aug- 
ment may come from the great influence of Epic poetry 
upon Ionic. 

We may suppose that there was originally no distinction 
between Attic and old Ionic ; that before the migration of 
the Ionian colonisers to Asia Minor there was but one 
broad form of Ionic dialect. According to this view, 
the Attic dialect is Ionic developed upon Athenian soil, 
growing up under the free institutions of Athens, and 
uncontaminated by the Oriental influences that modified 
the Asiatic Ionic. In this sense, Attic may be regarded 
as Ionic in its highest perfection, happily moulded by the 
exquisite taste of Athenian genius to a form that avoids 
both the roughness of Doric and the weakness of Asiatic 
Ionic. It is this condition of Attic that made it so 
admirable a vehicle for the highest creations of history, 
philosophy, and the drama. 

In Solon's time the language of Athens still showed 
strongly its old Ionic connection ; but with that epoch a 
great change begins, so that in the time of Peisistratus, the 
Athenians reckoned themselves as already distinct from 
the degenerate Ionians. The facts, that in the year 446 b.c q^\ 
Herodotus recited his history in the Ionic dialect, at the 
Panathenaea at Athens ; that he and Anaxagoras (although 
one had settled at Athens, and one was born in Attic 


Thurii), both used the Ionic dialect; and that the earliest 
philosophers and logographers wrote in the same, suggest 
a further corroboration of the belief, that the language of 
the Athenian people at that time was really Ionic. Attic 
must be regarded as a literary production, an artistic 
creation. It is the particular modification of Ionic created 
by the Attic dramatists, under two distinct influences, ist, 
that of the Homeric poems, especially under the form which 
they took in the Peisistratidean recension ; and 2nd, that 
of the Dorian choric poetry. If Aeschylus was so avowed 
a student of Homer that his plays were called repdxn 
lieydkwv bc'vnvw f Opfipov, and Sophocles so devoted a disciple 
as to have been named *Opr)po£ rpayucds, we shall not easily 
overrate this influence. The effect of the Doric may partly 
be assigned to the connection of the chorus in tragedy 
with the old Doric festivals of Dionysus, and partly to the 
instinctive appreciation on the part of the poet of the 
nobler sound of broader vowels. The age of Aeschylus 
and Sophocles sufficed to make this artistic language the 
classical ' Attic ' dialect. 

Symmetry and careful balance between extravagances of 
form on either side is the distinguishing characteristic of 
the Attic dialect. It reflects exactly that sense of fitness 
that marks the best creations of Athenian art ; that peatmis, 
or moderation, that plays so important a part in later 
Greek philosophy. 

Aristides (Panath. 294) assigns to the Attic dialect the 
qualities o-efivorrjs and x«/w> majesty and grace. 

In Attic, the use of d is partly restored, where the Ionic 
uses 17, as for example when a vowel or p precedes a at 
the termination of words. We may compare too the Attic 
forms \0xay6s, orratos, frvayds, 'A&fra, etc. The gram- 
marians speak of an Old and a New Attic. The beginning 
of the New dates with the Peloponnesian War, at the 


close of which the change is substantially established. 

The comedians generally adopt the newer forms, the 

tragedians, like Thucydides, however adhere to the older. 

In Plato both types are found combined. But the changes 

are not important, and, if they imply any distinct principle, 

it is an effort to introduce forms of greater strength. 

Thus in the New Attic there is a tendency to return to 

the use of r instead of the weaker <r,as in the combination 

tt for (r<r. Analogous to this is the substitution of pp for 

p<r. In New Attic crvu has supplanted £w, and the use of 

the simple vowel often represents what was a diphthong in 

the older Attic, as dc i, deros, iXad (and irotiv, in Inscriptions, 

for ttouiv). Another peculiarity was the effort to reject 

the vowel 17, which Aristides calls rj 0rj\v (Quint. 93). 

Thus cdv, which had been contracted into rjv, appears as &>. 

In the 2nd pers. Pass. pres. we find tcpvrrret for Kpvirry, 

SO tOO €iKa{ov for jJKa(ov 9 ftatrtkcU for /8ao-«X§9, Kkudpov for 

KkrjOpov, and in the termination of the dual, « for 1/, as 
07ceA«, (cvyu, for cr*eAi?, {evyq. As the separate life of the 
various Greek peoples gradually amalgamated, a similar 
process is noticeable in the history of the dialects. In 
some places the dialectical forms long resisted the levelling 
effects of time and extended intercourse. In Asia Minor 
the older dialects continued for a long while even under 
the Roman sway, the first to die out being the Ionic. 

The Aeolic dialect held out longer ; for in the time of 
Alexander we find the Boeotians still employing their own 
forms of speech, while the Aeolians in Lesbos retained 
many of their characteristics up to the Augustan Era. As 
might be expected from its character, the most stubborn 
dialect was the Doric, which was maintained in some 
places, such as Rhodes and Messenia, far into the period 
of the Caesars. 

But gradually the Attic dialect was spreading in every 


direction, which was but the natural effect of that rich de- 
velopment of universal literature, which, for two centuries 
before the time of Alexander, was almost wholly Attic. 

From his time forward Attic was slowly becoming the 
official dialect, — the common literary language— called, in 
virtue of this general character, Kourij (sc. 8*oX«cros). But 
as its idiom grew further removed from the original Attic, 
Kounj began to bear the disparaging sense of 'vulgar 
language/ for the use of the koiptj by people of various 
nationalities and classes soon contaminated it with pro- 
vincialisms and words and idioms from Oriental sources. 
But with the Alexandrian period the study of Attic as a 
literary language received a new stimulus, (especially under 
the auspices of the Ptolemies), and the founding of various 
libraries contributed further to this result. Scholars who 
studied and imitated the old Attic idiom were called Atti- 
cists. But the common Greek then in ordinary use, as 
distinct from the literary Attic, is the Greek of the LXX 
and New Testament, called Hellenistic. 

Principal Peculiarities of the Ionic Dia- 

§ i. The Consonants. 

(a) Dropping of the aspirate, as amKvcco-Bcu, cWopav, 

vmordwu, feara&rcp, Kara for kq0 a, eV <p, ovk xmep, avri?, 
d&oftcu, ovkL 

(5) Interchange of aspirates, as cvBavra, kiB&v, pdBptmos 

for cvravBa, x iT ® v > fiorpaxos. 

(c) Substitution of k for ?r, as koios, K6<ros, ovkg), forfrcpor. 
Of { for <ra- t as 8i£6s f Tpi£6s> for duraos, rpurads. 


§ 2. The Vowels. 

{a) Substitution of 17 for a, as irprjaaoDy rprjxys, dirjuovos, 
vcTjvirjs, Ka$aprj 9 roirjde. 

(&) Substitution of e for a, as rcW*/w, cpoipr, nepcos, and 

the converse as ptyaBos, rdpva> 9 rpdrra. 

(c) Substitution Of a for 17, as Xo^ofuii, apxfritrPaTcod. 

(d) Substitution of 17 for a, as alppriyLs, iro\\an\r)<rios. 

§ 3. The Diphthongs. 

(a) Substitution of <u for a, as cuei, aier<fc. 
(#) „ a> for av, as ^o)/ia, rpapa. 

(c) „ « for *, as £elvos, clvacev, ot€w6s. 

{d) „ € for «, as p-efau, c<j>0a } «riT^6Vo9, 

fiaOea, cdc£a. 

(e) „ ov for o, as povvos, vov<ros, ovpos, 

ovvopa, yovvaros. 

(f) „ © for ov, as &v, Toiyap&v. 

§ 4. Contraction, Diaeresis, Crasis, and Elision. 

(a) Contraction of orf to o>, as 6y8a>ieorai, fiaOrjcras, cwaxras. 

„ €0 to «/, as irkevns. 

(b) Diaeresis Of ft tO 17?, as jSao-iAijirj, pvrjprfiov, oiKrfios. 

[Note. — Proparoxyton nouns in ftfi as pcyaXoirpiircia fiatri\€id 
(queen), iX-ffltia retain «.] 

(c) Elision of prepositions, etc., as in ipov, an avBp&nap, 

«V W5, *x°v to. 

(d) Crasis, on the Attic system, as ra\\a y ravrd, TokyOcs. 

„ on the Ionic system, as ©i^p, rarepa, rZm6. 

(e) Crasis of €0 avrov to cowtov, ipeo avrov to iptavTov, 

(Teo avrov to o*€g>vtov, 6 avrds to g>vt6s. 

{/) Special contracted forms, Spry for copri}, ipoV for 

iep6v, oIkos for eotxoY. 



§ 5. The Declensions. 

First Declension. 

(a) Feminine nouns terminating in o, change the 5 to 
I except in accusative plural, as vf^'pVy X^PV v t Urroplg. 
Nouns terminating in a keep the a in nominative and 

accusative €vvoia, ewotqs, €vuoirj f cvvoiav. 

{b) Nouns masculine in as as veavtas, 'Apvrras, take the 
termination ?/*, as verjuirjs. The genitive is formed by ea>, 
as deoTr<JTca), v€rjpi€<o, and the accusative in r\v as well as ea. 

(c) The genitive plural ends in ca>v t as ykaurafoy. The 
genitive plural of feminine adjectives also ends in eow, but 
only when in Attic the accent would be perispomenon, as 

for trcuratv, iraaewv I XexOeia&v, Xcxdetxrcwv. 

(d) The dative plural ends in g<n, as tjJo-i, dccnnfogcri, 

Second Declension. 

(e) The dative plural is in otcri, as \6youri. 

{/) The so-called 'Attic' 2nd declension is used by 
Herodotus only in proper names, as M«*XeW, 'Afixfuapcw. 
For Xf<fo, vc&s, koKcos, Xaya>s he gives the Ionic forms Xtjos, 

vrj6s f koXos, Xayds, and for irXews, tXems, d£ioxp€6>s the forms 
TrXcoy, etc. 

Third Declension. 

(g) Neuters in or, substantives and adjectives in 17s, o> 
or v leave all cases uncontracted. Neuters in as (except 
yrjpas) decline with c instead of a, as Kepeos, Ktpci. 

(h) Words in cvs decline as follows — 

fiacriXevs — Xeos — Xct — Xea — Xev. . .Xctf— Xc op — Xcvtri — Xea?. 

In is mostly as follows — 

iroXis — tos — ( — iv — i...ics [is\ — ww — ten — tas [tyj. 

The word vavs (vrjvs) declines thus — 

V7JV9, VCOS, VTjl } V€a t VCCf, V€G)V, V^f CI, V€OS, 


{ 6. Pronouns. 

i^a) Personal Besides ipso, trco, Zo, we have cpeu, 0*0, 

«5. For avr<p or avrj we have 01, for avroV, avTT)v t avro, 

frequently /«*; for avrcHs or aureus, o-<£t, and for iavroU or 
cauraty, cr^iox. The form ot£« serves as the accusative of all 
genders and numbers, and there is a special neuter plural 

form cr^ea. 

(5) The nominatives rj^ls, vpcU, o-fals are always con- 
tracted, but in the oblique cases we have iJfteW, v/xtW, 

<t(J>€<dp: fjpeas, vficas, a(f)€as, 

(c) The relative pronoun is declined, 6V, £ to — ot, at, ra, 
all oblique cases have the initial r, but this rule does not 
apply to the declension of 6Vm*. For the Attic &rov, or<j>, 

otoictl, dVtva, Herodotus uses orev, Oreo), orcoiat, acrca. 

(</) In the declension of rfr, for nW, Ww, tiVcov, tut*, 

HerodotUS Uses reo \r*v\ y rcip, reap, Te'oKTt. 


§ 7. Augment. 

{a) The use of the syllabic and temporal augment 
in Herodotus, though not constant as in Attic, is more 
governed by rule than in the Homeric poems. It is 
regularly absent from certain words of poetical or of 
distinct Ionic form, nor is it used with verbs beginning 
with a*, av, €i, ev, ot, nor with the iterative tenses in o-kov, 


§ 8. Terminations. 

(a) The third person plural in arai, aro for itch, vto 
is found, (1) in Perfects and Pluperfects of the o> con- 
jugation, as Tcrfyarai, aVtVaro, fZc/Skcarai (with shortening 
of t} to «), wpfUaro. (2) In Optative, as fZovkoiaro, amKoiaro 

G 2 


(3) In Pres. and Imperf. Pass, of verbs in iu, as impcndta™, 


(b) Uncontracted form of Pluperfect Active, as cw&a — 

ear — cc — eaav. 

(c) Uncontracted form of 2nd Pers. Sing. Indie. 

Passive and Middle, as fn/geoi, co-ecu, drriicco, iyeveo, n€i0€O 
[Imperat.], £&c£ao f vneBrjKao. 

[Note. The second person of all these forms is contracted in the 

(d) In Aor. I. II. Passive Conjunctive, and Aor. II. 
Conjunct, of verbs in fu the contracted vowel & is opened 
into co. 

§ 9. Contracted Verbs. 

(a) In verbs in «», Herodotus leaves open many of the 
forms contracted by Attic rule, e.g. KoAcopew)*, icakcy, 
cKakeop, (f>iXoa-o(f)€a>v. In a few verbs in «o>, the vowels €0 
and cov contract into cv, to avoid the concurrence of three 
or more vowels, as 7ro-i— e-o-/Aei*>y, becomes noievftcvos, 
The impersonal 6>t is contracted, but the form of the 
Imperfect is ede*. 

(&) The same rules apply to the contracted future of 

verbs, as for pevcovert, KaTanXovrucw, xapieccrScu. But a 

similar contraction into tv (see above) takes place with 

some ' Attic' futures, as KOfucvptBa, dvraycovuvpevos. 

(c) In verbs in ao>, the Attic contraction into « is 
generally left open, but instead of the diaeresis appearing 
as a©, ao, aov 9 it mostly follows the. analogy of verbs in c«, 
and appears as eo>, to, eov, as 6p4a> f 6piop.€v t u>p€oi>, opcafiev, 
etc. But the Attic contraction 9 or 5 remains undisturbed, 
as Spas, opaaBai. Xpda> and xf** /"" however do not con- 
tract into r\ but a. 

(d) Verbs in oo> generally follow the Attic rules of con- 
traction, but in verbs in which a vowel precedes the letters 


liable to contraction, 00 and oov are mostly contracted to 

€V } as (dtKal-fvPy d£i€vvrai. 


§ 10. Verbs in ju. 

(0) The 2nd and 3rd Pers. Sing, and 3rd Pers. Plur. of 
riOrjfu, tarrjfu, and d&o/u follow the forms of the co conjuga- 
tion as Ti0€is f TiBeiy TtOiitTi] iarqis, lorq, Urrcuri; titdois, diboi, 
didova-i. The imperf. of r\Br\pi is crilca, irWccs, irifoe. 

Particip. Perf. of t(mffu t iarc&s. 

(&) Dialectical forms of dpi {sum) are — For copter, elptv ; 
for €iev, €?T)crav ; for &v and o&ra, i&v and covcra, etc. ; for Ijv, 
t<rKov y or sometimes ?a, cas, tare, 

(c) Forms of ot&a — oldas — Ubfuv — otdaai. Conj. ftdca). 
Opt €lbfir)v. Imperf. £fdea — ydce — rjdear€ — fibecrav. 

(d) Forms of efpu (ibo) Imperf. rfia — fjic — fjiaap. 

(e) dtucwfu and {cvywpu follow partly the conjugation in 

fu and partly that in a>. 



(B. i. chaps. 2<^$i ; 84-87.) 

The history of Herodotus is an account of the great 
feud between Asia and Europe* There were many stories 
told on either side about the various acts of violence that 
led to the quarrel, such as the rape of Io, of Europa, and 
of Helen : a woman, as usual, figuring in them, as the 
causa teterrima belli, Herodotus evidently considers the 
blame lay with the Asiatics ; and he proceeds to tell the 
story of Croesus, king of Lydia, the first historical ag- 
gressor (t6v rrp&rov xmap^avra abiKcov epycov is roifs "E'XXrjvas^ 

1. i. 5). Croesus, son of Alyattes, made himself master 
of most of the countries west of the river Halys. Like 
Solomon, in wealth if not in wisdom, he lived in magnifi- 
cent state, and his court was visited by great men from all 
parts, to partake of his splendid hospitality and gaze on 
his priceless treasures. Among the most famous of his 
guests was Solon, the Athenian. 

I. Interview of Croesus and Solon. 

I. §1. 

'AsiriKveovrcu 1 ** 9a e9 Hdp$i$ 5h afcfxa^ovcras tt\ov- 
r<p a\\oi re 01 iravres ck TJ79 f E\Aa<Jo9 <TO(j)i<rTai y 


©« tovtov tov ypovov irvy^avov eovT€t loh 9 »9 &a- 

<rro9 oiJtwv airwd/eoiTo 9 *' icac <J^ kcu SoXaw, ari^o 

A^jywifof, 85 'Adtivaioi(Ti vojJLOW KeXevcracri xot)?<ra9, 5 

aireS^fxtjcre erca 6 * <5e*:a, icara dewplfj? 6 * Trp6<f>acriv 

€Krr\(&cra$ 9 *va $h fiy riva twv vo/jloov avayKacrdy Xv<rai 

raw °° euero. ai/TO* «yap owe 0104 re rjaav avro irotiy- 

<t<m 'Adiqvaiov opKioicri 6 * yap /aeyaXoiart kot€i^ovto 9 

^cira erea 'xpycrecrOai vo/noicri TOU9 60 ay <r(f)i** 2oAaw 10 

O^cu. Ai/rwv <% a?v 3f tovtcov kou ti}$ Oeooplrjg 

iK$9UULycras 6 ^EioXwv etvetcev, €9 A?yv7rTOV airl/cero 

icapa "AfJLacriv, kcu Srj kcu €9 2aj0&9 6h irapa 

Kpotcrov. airiKojULevo? Se 9 e^eivl^ero ev rotcri 

(3aoriXtiioicri A * viro tov Kjoo/eroi/. 15 

(B. i. 29, 30.) 

After Solon had been taken round the royal treasure- 
houses, Croesus asked him who was the happiest man he 
had ever known, and Solon, to the surprise of his host, 
answered, " Tellos, the Athenian/' 

I. § 2. 

Mera 8e 9 w^/°J7 5a TpiTif tj TerapT*i 9 KeXeucravros 
J£pol<rov 9 tov SoXowa Oepcnrovres irepiijyov Kara 
tow Orjcravpow, kcu iireSeiKWcrav iravTa e6vTa loh 
fiieydXa re kcu oX/3ia. Offtjcrafievov Se fj.iv tcl iravTa 
kcu (TKey^afievov £9 oi 6a koto, xcupov ?jv 9 elpero 6 5 
J£poicro$ TaSe* "Save 30 'Adijvaie 9 Trap' ^/xea9 6b 
yap irep] <reo 6 * Xoyos airiKTai ttoXXo$ 9 koI crocpirjg 
dlveKev t?9 crrj? ko\ TrXavrjg, &9 <£iXoaro^>ea>* ,9a yrjv 


iroXkyv Oewplti? elvacev* hre\q\v6as. vvv Sv l/nepof 
10 hrelpeo'Oai fioi hrijXde, et Tiva iSij iravrwv cfSey 
oXfiu&TaTOv;" f O /xev, eXiri^wv eivai avOpwirmv oX- 
fiuiraTOS, Tavra eireipwra. 2oAa>v Se y ovSev wro- 
Oancewras, aXXa tw eovri 101 * ^Jftra/xevoy, Xeyer 
"*Q ftao-tXev, TeXXov 9 A0tjvaiov" 'A.Trod<0fia<ras zh 
15 ic Kpofcro? to Xe^Onr, etpero ejrioTpefftew " Koijf lc 
$7 tcplvei? TeXXov efpac oX/Hu&raTOv;" 'O 5c aw 

"TeXXft) TOVTO fl€Vj T9J9 TToXlOf 511 €1/ ^/COV(TJ79, XCUoW 

JTOW koXoi re jtayado*, jccu cr^u e?ic airatri r&cva 
acyevo/xeva, teal iravra Trapafielvavra* toSto 5e, tov 

20 )8/ot/ a; SjKOvrt, a>9 Ta Trap* 7M^> tcXcvt^ tov /Scot/ 
XafnrporaTti hreyevero. yevofievij? yap AOqvaioKri 
f JLa X^ 7r / > °^ tov? aarrvyeiTOva? ev ^EXevo'ivt, jSwdi/- 
cray 4 *, *a* TpoTrijv Troiq<ra$ tw 7roXc/i«W, aviOave 
jtaXXurra. jccu /*** !A0ip*i*o« SfjfJ.o<r[tj re e0a\|rai> 

25 avrov Trjirep** eTrea-Cy icai erifiijcrav ficyaXttf" 

(B. L 30.) 

Croesus, hoping he should at least come second on the 
list, asks Solon whom he considered next happiest Solon 
gives that place to Cleobis and Bito of Argos, and tells 
their story. 

I. § 3. 

'Q? 8e ra KaTa tov TcXXoy TrpoerpbfraTO 6 2o- 
Xmv tov Kj0oi(roy 9 e<7ra? iroXXa tc koi oXjSta, er«- 
p&rra Tiva Seirepov /act ckcivov *Soi 9 Sok€»v 9 * Tcayyy 
oWrepijia 4b yHv** oiacarOcu. 6 Si mre* a KXeo/8eV 


Te Kai Bcrwva. tovtoicti yop 9 eovci yevos Apyel- 5 
ouri, (5io$ re apicecov 9 * {nrtjv, kcu irpog tovtgj), pu>M 
catjULciTOs roiySe 2 ** ae6\o(p6poi re a/uKporepoi 6 /mo 100$ 
q<rav 9 kcu drj kcu Aey erai ode o \0y09. eovcrrj^ opTys* 1 
rrj "Hpjy TOicri 'Apyeioicri, eSee 9 * Travrw? Tyv fitjTepa 
avr&v ^euyei K0fjn<r6rjvcu eg to Ipov**' 01 Se <r(f)i jSoey 10 
€K rod aypov ov irapeyivovro ev copy €KK\rji6juL€P0i^ h 
oe tjj t*)p*i 01 vet]viai 9 viroovvreg auroi vtto Tt\v \evy- 
\rjv 9 cTXkov ryv aixa£av 9 eiri r?9 djma^g Se a(pi 
o^eero fj MTfjp. (TraSlovg Se Trevre kcu Teowepd- 
Kovra SiaicofJLicravTeg, clttikovto eg to Ipov* ravra Se I 5 
c(f)i Troi^cracriy kcu 6<$>Qu<ti biro rrjg Travtjyvpiog 511 , 
TeKevrrj rod /3lov apl<rnj eireyevero. SieSej*€ Zd re ev 
tovtokti 6 Qeog, wg a/ueivov ei*i av6p(&7T(p redvavai 
/jloWov t) Xfieiv. Apyeloi /xev yap TrepicrravTeg 
e/jLOLKapiCpv t5>v vetjviecw* t*iv p&Mv at Se Ap- 20 
yeiai, t*jv pyre pa avrZv 9 otwv reKvcav i/cup^cre. ij Se 
fJLtrrrip irepij^apfit eovcra tcS re epytp kcu tj} <f>w*i 9 
(rracra olvtlov rod aya\fiarog 9 eSj^ero, KXeojS/ re 
kcu "BItoovi, Toicri iuurw * e Teicvoi<ri 9 01 juav erlfiricrav 
fieydXcog, Sovvai t^v Qeov TO a ° avOpdira) Tv^elv 25 
apurrov earn, fiera Tavrffv Se tv^v eiytfv 9 cog eOvcrdv 
re kcu evco')(ji6ij(Tav 9 KaraKOififjOevreg ev avr^ t<£ tptp 
ol verjvlai 9 ovtceri ave<rTtjcrav 9 aXX ev rekei rovrtp 
ecr'XpvTO. 'Apyeioi Se <r(j)€at)v 6h eiicova? iroitifrafxevoiy 
aveOecrav eg Ae\(pov?, wg avSpcov aplcrnov yevo- 30 


(B. i. 4 i.\ 


Croesus is vexed that he is thus passed over, but Solon 
tells him that no one can be called happy till he has ended 
his days happily, and that great prosperity is jealously 
watched by heaven : the higher a man's estate, the more 
liable it is to a sudden fall. Then Croesus dismisses his 
Mentor for a fool. 

I. §4. 

ZoXaw fiev Srj evSaifiovlqg Sevreptjia 4 * evefie toi5- 
tokti. Kpoicrog Se (nrepyde\g 9 elire* " *Q %elve 
'AOtjvaie, j} Se rj/uLerepr] evSai/uLOvirj ovrw toi airep- 
pnrrai eg to fifjSev 9 warre ovSe ISiorrewv 60 avSpS>v 
5 a^lovg qpeag 61 * hroificrag ;" 'O Se dire* " T Q J£poiare 9 
hritrrajuLevov fie to Qeiov irav eov (pOovepov tc /cat 
TapajftoSeg, eireiporrag apOpwTrrjiw 4 * irptjyfiaTwv 2 * 
vrepi ; ev yap t£ fiaicpip \pov(p iroWa fiev e<rTi ISeeiv 
tol firj Tig eOiXety iroXXa Se kou iraOeeiv' ejmol Se av 
10 leal jrXovreeiv fiev fieya (f>alveai 9o 9 Kal fiaoriXevg eivai 

TToXXSfV avQpWTTWV' €K€lVO Se TO €*p€0 8c fl€ 9 OVKtO l ° 

are eyco Xe*y<0, irpiv av TeXevryoravra KaXZg top 
alwva irv6a>fiai. ov yap toi 6 fieya irXovcrtog fiaX- 
Xop tov eir qfieptjv e^ovTog oXfiu&Tepog ecrri. el [iq 

J 5 ol Tv^fj e7rl<nroiTo 9 iravTa KaXa e^ovra TeXevrqarat 
ev tov filov. iroXXoi fiev yap ^awXovTOi avQp<Hnra>v 9 
avoXfiiol elcri' 7roXXol Se fierplwg eypvTeg fiiov 9 
evTUj(eeg 68 . 6 fiev Stj fieya TcXova , iog 9 avoXfiiog Se 9 
Svoi&i Trpoe-^L tov evTv^eog 58 jmovvoiari**' ovTog Se 9 

20 tov irXovalov ical avoXfilov TroXXoiO't. 6 fiev 9 cm- 


dv/JLirjv €KT€\corai 9 koi artjp /meyaXrjv Trpo<nrea-ovarav 
evetKCU Swardrrcpo? 6 Se 9 roio-lSe ir pocket eicelvov' 
arfjv koi eTriOvtiirjv ovk ofAOioo? Svvarog eKelvia 
iveiKat, ravra Se t) evrv^lri 01 airepmer airqpog Se 
earri, avovaro? z * 9 airaOris kcikwv, gjttcus, eveiSqv ei Se 2 5 
irpos Tovtoktl en TeXevrfoci tov filov eS 9 ovtos 
€Keivog 9 tov 60 av fyreiSy oXfiios KCKXtjarOai afyog 
icrn. irp\v b* av TeXevrrjcrti, eTria"^eeiv 9 fxrjSe KaXeeiv 
*» l0 oX/3iov 9 aXX* evru^ea * g . tcl it avra fiev vvv 
Tavra ovXXafteiv avQpmirov eovra aSvvarov i<rrt 9 3° 

tocnrep ^upy 5 * ovoejula Karapiceei iravra eoovTg** 
Trapeypv<ra 9 aXXa aXXo fxev ex € '> erepov Se eiri- 
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fxev yap €%ei 9 aWov Se evSeeg cctti. 09 S' av avrZv 35 
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ra irapeovra ayaOa /iere?? 1 *, ttjv TeXevrrjv icavTO$ 
yjprjj&aTO? opav 9 * e/ce'Xeue. 45 

(B- i. 32, 33-) 


II. The Fall of Croesus. 

Solon's warning was soon to come true. Croesus first 
loses, by an untoward accident, the son whose life he had 
guarded like the apple of his eye : then, deceived by the 
ambiguous answer of the Delphic oracle, he resolves to 
attack Cyrus, for he was uneasy at the growing power of 
Persia. But he has to fall back upon Sardis, his capital 
city, and after an obstinate battle the aggressor finds him- 
self besieged. 

Sardis was deemed impregnable ; but a skilful climber 
found his way up to the citadel by an undefended path. 
The troops of Cyrus followed him, and the city was 

II. §1. 

^EapSieg 6h Se tjXaxrav ($$e. iireiSrj TewepevKaiSe- 

KaTfi eyevero ifiepfj TroXiopKeofieptp 9 * K^o/cro), Kujoo? 

T17 (TTpaTitj t;} mvrovy 8icnrifAy\ra9 iTnreag, Trpoetire, 

Tft> TTp&TW CTTlfiaVTl TOV TCl^CO? StOpd $(&<T€IV. fl€Ta 

5 Se TOVT0 9 ireipficaixevti^ ti?9 crrpari^ o>? ov irpoe- 
X&pee, ep6avTa lh t£>v aWwv ire-rav fxevuov, avhp 
M.apSo9 hreiparo Trpoo-fiaivwVy T<p ovvopa** ^v 
'Ypoia$w 9 Kara tovto t?9 cucpOTroXio? ry ovSel? 
ireraKTO (frvkaicor ov yap %v Seivov, Kara tovto d\<p kot€ 1 °. airoTO/ULOs Te yap €<tti Tavry j} 
aKpo7ro\i9 9 Kal afxaypv 'O (Sv 3t Sh 'YpotaSqg ovro? 
6 MapSog, IStav t*j irpoTepaiy 5 * tZv Tiva AvSStv 
/caret tovto t?s cucpoirdXios KaTaftamra inl tcvviyv 
avwQev KaTatcvKiadeia'av, koi ave\6fj.evov 9 ecppdcrdrj 


kou ig Qvfxov epakero. Tore Se Sq avrog re avefie- *5 

f$qK€€ 8h 9 KCU KCLT aVTOV aXXot Uep<r€WV 60 CLVefiaiVOV. 

Trpotr/SavTow Se ovyywv, ovrco S*i ^apSieg re ^Xot>- 

Ke<rav*° 9 Kai irav to acrrv eiropueero. 

(B. i. 84.) 

The son of Croesus, who was dumb, seeing his father 
on the point of being slain, regained his speech in the 
agony of the moment. 

II. § 2. 

K> » * S>* IT " > ft * f ^ t m 

ar avrov oe l\.poicrov raoe eyevero. tjv 01 iraig 9 

Ta /uei/ aAAa eirieiKtjg, adxavog oe. ei/ tji ftn> 01 

irapekOovcrri evecrroi 6 Kaotcro? to irav eg avrov 

€7re7rpi^K€€ 8h , aXXa T€ hruppa^pfxevog^ koi Stj Kai 

ig Ae\(povg irepl avrov iireirofi^ee j^pfjcrofievovg. 5 

jJ Se TlvOlri 01 etire TaSc 

AvSe yevos, ttoXX&v ftacriXcv, pAya vfjirie Kpoi&e, 

firj /3ovXev 4a iroXvevKTov Irjv dva doopar dicovctv 

waibos (frOcyyopipov, r6be aoi tto\v Xghov dpcfns 

cfificvat, avdqcret yap iv rjpari irpGrrov dvoXfia. 10 

'A\i<rKo/J.€Vov Se tov Tel^eog 9 ?ie 10d yap tSsv Tig 
Hep<reoov aWoyvdcrag KaoFcrov cog cnroKTevecov 9 *, 
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irXtjyevTi airoOaveeiv' 6 Se waig ovrog 6 acpcovog, 15 
ft>5 elSe iiriovra tov Tlep&qv, virb Seovg re Kai kglkov 
€ppq£e (poovrjv, elire Se' "*{}v6pay7r€ Ad 9 /ultj ktcivc 
Kpotcrov" OvTog fxev Sh tovto irpwrov i(f)deyi~aTO' 


I&era Se tovto rjSfi i<f)(&ve€ 9 * tov iravra yj)6vov tw 

V ' 

(B. i. 85.) 

Croesus was taken prisoner. His conqueror cast him in 
chains upon a pile of wood to be burned alive. Then 
Croesus, in the bitterness of his soul, remembered the 
warning words of Solon, and called three times aloud upon 
his name. When Cyrus learned the meaning of the cry, 
and heard the story, touched with pity and fear, he ordered 
the fire to be quenched. 

II. § 3. 

O/ Se Uepcrai ra? re Sij ^apSi9 5h ecrypv, kcu 

clvtov YLpoicrov e^wyptjcrav, ap^avra erea recraepea- 

KalSeKa, kcu Tccrcrepco'KalSeKa fjfxepas TroXiopKrjOevra, 

Kara to "xpfjcrrypiov re KaTcnravcravTa tv\v ecovrov** 

5 fJLeyaXqv apx^ 1 '* XaflovTe? Se avrov 01 Tlepaai 

rjyayov trapa JZvpov. 6 Se, crvvvycra? irvptjv fxeya- 

\tjp, avepipacre eir avTrjv tov ]\potcrov re ev Treoycri 

oeoejxevov, Kai oi? €7TTa Avowv Trap avrov Traioctf. 

ft) 0€ ]\pOlCr<p, €0-T€(t)Tl lu * €7Tt T»/9 TTUprj?, €CT€AV€IV 9 

io teal irep ev kclk(£ eovri toctovt(o 9 to tov 2o\a)i/09, wg 
ol eir] crvv Oew elprifJLevov 9 to " MySeva eivai tcov 
fyovToov oXftiov." s ft)? Se apa fj.iv irpocrTrjvai tovto, 
aveveiKafievov re kcu avacrTeva^avTa £k TroWfjs 
^(Tvj(ti75, ey Tpi$ ovofiacrcu SoAawa. koi tov J&vpov 

15 aKOVKravTO.) KeXeva-ai tov$ epfitjveag 6e eicelpevOai tov 
Kpoicrov, Tiva tovtov eiriKaXeoiTO' koi Tovg irpocr- 
eXOovras eireipurrav. J^polcrov Se Tews fxev a-iyijv 


€%€iv epcorecofievov' fiera Se, &>g tjvayKa^ero 9 elireiv 
"Toy 60 av eydo iracri Tvpavvoiari TrpoeTifAfi<ra 
fieyaXcov yjpruj.aT<av eg Xoyovg eXOeiv" *Qg Se <r(bi 20 
aarj/ma e<f>pcu£e, iraXiv hreipdreov ra Xeyopeva* 
XnrapeovTtav Se ch3t£v, kcu SyXov irap€j(ovTcov 9 eXeye 
Stj 9 cog tjXOe apyyv 6 2o\a>i>, ewv 'AOrjvaiog, kcu 
Oifflcra/uLevog iravra tov eoourou oXfiov cnrocpXaupiaeie 
ota Srj elirag, wg re civtm iravra airo^e^Koi TiJTrep 25 
exeivog elire, ovSev ti fxSXXov eg ewvrov Xeyoov 9 j? 
eg cnrav to avdpcbirivov, k<xi jmaXicrTa Tovg irapa 
<r(f>l<ri avToicri SoKeovrag oXfiiovg eivcu. Tov fiev 
Kpoiaov ravra aTnjyeea-Oar Tyg Se irvpyg fjStj 
d/JLfievtjs, KouecrOai ra irepiea")(aTa. kcu tov I&upov 30 
aKov<ravTa tUv epixtivewv tcl enre YLpolcrog /uLeray- 
vovra Te, kcu evvcbcravra** on kcu avTog avQpwwog 
edov 9 aXXov avdpwxov, yevofxevov eaovrou evSaifioviij 
ovk eXctcrcrw, tyovra icvp\ SiSolrj' irpog re tovtoicti, 
SeleravTCt rr\v Tieriv, kcu eiriXe^ajxevov wg ovSev e*q 35 
tS>v ev avdp&Troicri aercpaXecog eypv 9 KeXeveiv crfievvvvcu 
Tfjv raj(lcrT>jv to Kcuofievov irvp 9 kcu KaTafiifioXfiv 
Jtpoiarov T€ kcu Tovg fiera KpolcroV kcu Tovg ireipoo- 
fievovg ov SvvacrOai cti tov irvpog eiriKpaTtjercu. 

(B. i. 86.) 

But the fire was too fierce, and had the mastery. Then 
Croesus prayed to Apollo, and suddenly there came a 
torrent of rain from the clear blue sky, and the flames 
were extinguished. 


9 EtT€1 (Sv 6 /30Vk6\0S (TTTOvSij TToXXfj KaXe6fA€VOg 

10 aTTiK€To f eXeye 6 "Apwayog raSe 9 " J^eXevei <rc 
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ipflfjLOTaTov tZv ovpewv, OKoog 10 dv Ta^iora 01a- 
(pdapelrj. kcu TaSe toi e/ceXewre elireiv 9 qv fi*i airo- 
KTeipyg avro 9 aXXa T€(p 6d Tpoirw Trepnroifeyg, 
15 oXedpcp t£ Kcuclcrrq) o*e Siaypyo'ecrOai' hropav 1 * Se 
eKKeiixevov SiaTeTay/mai eyd>" 

(B. i. no.) 

Now the herdsman's wife had just had a child still-born, 
and when she saw the babe brought in, clothed in royal 
apparel, she could not bear to think that it should die ; 
so she put the dead child on the mountain instead of the 
living, and reared the little changeling at home. 

HI. § 2. 

Tai/Ta aKovaag 6 fiovKoXog, koli avaXaftdov to 
nraioiov ijie lva t^v avTqv owi^a ooov 9 kcu 
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appcoSecov jJ Se ywq, o ti ovk ecoOcbg 6 Apirayog 
Ixerairen^aiTO avrrjg tov avSpa. en-el re Se awovo- 
arqa'ag eirecrrfy ota ej~ clcXtttov iSovcra j} yvptj, eipero 
10 irpoTeptj, o ti fiiv ovtco irpoOufjLwg Apwayog fiera- 
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eXQwv kcu qtcovo-a to 60 pyre iSeiv o<f>eXov, fifae Korh 


yeveaOai e$ Secnroras rovg werepovg. oiKog fiev irag 
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iraiStoVy ofyecrOai (f>epovra 9 Kal Qeivai evQa Otjpioo- 
Secrrarov eirj rwv ovpeoov**' (fra? Aarrvayea elvai 20 
top ravra eiriOe/uLevov fioi, iroWa aireiXya'as el firj 
fr<f>ea 6 * iroifeatfAi* Kal eyw avaXaftobv e<pepov 9 
ookcoov Tcov nvo$ oiKeretav 00 eivar ov yap av Kore 
KareSoj-a ev&ev ye tjv. eOafjLpeov Se opecou yjpww re 
Kal el/macri KeKoar/uLfjfievov irpos Se 9 Kal kXcivO/ulov 25 
Karea-reoora 10a e/ucpavea ev Apirayow tcai irpoica 
re Sr] kot oSov irvvOavofxai rov iravra \6yov 
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h 2 


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ye apaytcfj ocpOyvai etacel/uLevov Teroica yap kgu 
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tov Se r?9 9 A.<rTvayeo$ Ovyarpos iraiSa a>9 e£ 

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eSo^e tw /3ovic6\(p trpo? Ta wapeovra ev Xeyeiv r\ 

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eOrjKe eV to ayyog iv tw e<pepe tov eTepov Kocrptjcras 
Se tw Koa/nw iravTi tov erepov iraiSos, (frepcov eV to 

55 epttfioTaTOv tcov ovpewv Tiuet 10a . 009 oe TpiTq weptj 
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twv Tiva Trpo/Socnco&v (pvXatcov avTOv KaTaXurdv. 
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etvai tov iraiSlov tov veievv. ire/jL^ag Se 6 "Apirayog 

60 tS>v cvdvtov Sopvipopcov Tovg wiO'TOTaTOVs, etSe re 
Sia tovtcov, Kal eOa>lre tov /3ovkoXov to iraiSlov. 
xai to fiiv ereOaTTTO' tov Se vcrTepov tovtwv l\vpov 
Svo/JLacrOevTa irapaXaftovcra erpecpe y ywrj tov 
/3ovk6Xov, ovvofxa aXXo kov ti ical ov Kvpov 

65 Oefievq. 

(B. i. 112, 113.) 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. § 3. 101 

• The young Cyrus is so imperious towards his play- 
fellows, that the father of a child whom he had beaten 
makes a complaint, and Cyrus is brought before Astyages. 

III. § 3. 

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40 eivexa afyos rei/ oa icaicov eifju, code toi nrapeifju. 

(B. i. 114, 115.) 

Astyages recognises Cyrus, and having extorted a con- 
fession from the herdsman, charges Harpagus with dis- 
obedience ; but he makes no show of anger, only he bids 
Harpagus to dinner with him. 

HI. § 4. 

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ttcuSIov, (f)ag ere re eivai tov KeXevovra airoKreivai 
avro. leal Xeywv tovto ye. ovk e^revSojuitjv' <rv yap 

40 evereXXeo 80 outgo. 7rapaSl§<*)/uu fxevroi TtSSe Kara 
Ta$e, ivreiXajULevov Oeival fJ.iv eg iptj/mov ovpog, Kal 
irapafievoi/Ta (pvXacrcreiv (*XP l °v TeXeirrycrer airei- 
Xfea? iravTOia TqiSe, tjv /nrj TaSe hriTeXea Trowey. 


45 ireXeuTfjcre to iraiSlov, Trefiy^ag t£>v evvov^wv tov? 

TTKTTOTaTOVSy KCU ClSoV 8l* €K€lVtoV, KCU cOd^Cl fJLlV. 

ovtoos €a"^e, 3 /3a<rtXev 9 irepl tov irp^y/maTog tovtov 
Kal toiovtu) /mo pop expycraTO 6 ira??." 

"Apirayo? /mev $*] tov IQvv e<paive Xoyov. Acttv- 

50 dyrjg $e, KpviTTCOv .tov 60 01 evei^e xpXov Sia to 
yeyovos, irpcora jxev KaTairep 1 * yKOvcre avros irpo? 
tov /3ovkoXov to 7rptjyjuia 9 iraXiv cnrtjyeeTO tw 'Ap- 
irayop' /xeTa $e, 009 01 eTraXtXXoyiiTO, KaTefiaive 
Xeywv, do? " TreplecrTi tc 6 irais, Kal to yey ovos 

55 eyei KaX£>$. Ta> re yap Treiroifjimevw, ecpq Xeycov, i? 
tov TraiSa tovtov eKafxvov fxeyaXtag 9 Kal OvyaTpl Trj 
ejuifj Sta/3e/3Xi]jUL€Vog ovk iv eXacppw eiroievfxrjv. oog (Sv 

TtJ9 TV^q? €V fX€T€CrT€O0Crijg LV& TOVTO fX€V, TOV CT€(t)VT0V 

STORY OF CFRUS. III. § 5. 105 

watSa airoTren^ov irapa rov TraiSa rov veqXvSa* 

tovto Se, (crSxrrpa yap rov iraiSog /meXXta dveiv 60 

Toicri Oewv Tifiq avTti Trpoaicierai,) TrapiaOi juoi eirl 


(B. i. 116-118.) 

But Astyages meartwhile slew the son of Harpagus, and 
made savoury meat of his flesh, and after the dinner he 
showed the horror-struck father what he had been feast- 
ing on. 

III. § 5. 

Apirayo9 jtiev y 009 qicovcre ravTa, Trpocncvvqcras, 
teal jmeyaXa Troiqcrafievog on re q djuLapra? 01 e? 
oeov eyeyovee 00 , tcai on eiri Tv^tjcri oa "Xp*i<rTV}<n 
€7ri oenrvov K€k\*jto 9 *]ie €9 ra oiklcl. eaeAucov oe 
t*jv Ta^lo-Tfjv, yv yap 01 irai? eh /jlouvos, erea rpla 5 
Kal Seica kov fiaXiorra yeyovco?, tovtov eKTrefiirei, 
levai re KeXevcov €9 AcrTvaye09, Kai icoieeiv o ti av 
eiceivos KeXevy. avro9 Se irepi)(api]9 ewv, (ppa^ei rrj 
yvvaiKi Ta avyKvpycravra. Acrrvdyw Se 9 ($9 01 
cnriKero 6 'Apirdyou irais, o-cfxi^ag avrbv, Kal Kara 10 
fjieXea SieXcuv, ra fiev wTTTtjcre, to Se e^^cre twv 
KpeS>v. evTVKra Se Troitjcrd/uLevo?, efye erotjuia. eicei 
re Se 9 r?9 (Sptjg yivofievrj9 rov Seiirvov, 7rapfjcrav 
o*i Te aXXoi Sairvfx6v€9 Kal 6 Apirayo9> toicti fiev 
aXXoicri Kal avrcp AoTvayei icaperiQeaTO** Tpa- 15 
ireS^cu €7rnrXeai fJLrjXeiwv Kpeihv Apirdyu) Se 9 rov 
iraiSo9 tov eoovTOv, irXriv Ke(paXt]9 Te Kal dxptav 


yeipoov T€ kcu iroSwp y tcl aXXa iravra 9 ravra Se 

'XOOpi? €K€lT0 €ir\ KCLP€(p KaTCUC€Ka\vfAfl€Va. 0)9 Se T(p 

^oApwayta eSoxee aXig €)(<eip tj}? fioptjg, A<rTvayw 
etpero fiiv, el fadel*! n r*j Oolpy (pajmepov Se 
Apirayov kou Kapra fivOrjvaj.> irapecfiepop, toici 

VpO<T€K€lT0 9 TW KctyaXtJP TOV TTCtlSog KaTCLK€KaXvfA- 

fievrjv, kcu raj yeipas kcu tov$ iroSag' 'Apwayop 

25 Se CKeXevop Trpoorrapreg cnroKaXvirTeip re kcu Xa/3eip 

to fiovXercu avrwp. weidofiepog Se 6 "Apirayos, 

kcu airoKa\iirT(av 9 Spy rod waiSog ra Xel/uLuaTa* 

ISdop Se 9 ovt€ e^eirXayri 9 evros re ewvrov ylpercu. 

elpero Se aurop 6 A<rTvaytj? 9 el yiptlxrKOi orev 60 

3° Oqplov Kpea fiefip&KOi. 6 Se kcu ywdxrKeip e(pti 9 kcu 

ape<rrop cipcu trap to ap /3a<riXevs epSy. tovtokti 

Se afJLei^aiJLepos, kcu apaXafiwp tol Xoiira tS>p KpeS>p 9 

fl'Ce eg to, oiKia. epOevrep 1 * Se e/ieXXe, cog eya> So" 

Keen, dXl<ra? Qa^eip ra irapra. 

(B. i. 119.) 

Meanwhile Harpagus nursed his revenge, and when 
Cyras was grown up, he sent him a secret letter, calling 
on him to put himself at the head of the Persians, and 
revolt from Astyages. 

in. § e. 

T<J> Se Kjjpw SiaiTcouip(p e*p TJep<r*i<ri fiovXouepog 
6 Apirayos SqXSxrcu t^p ewvrov yp&fxr\p 9 aXXtog 
uep ouSafJiS>$ eTj(e 9 are tcop 6SZp (fiuXacrcrofxepoop' 6 
Se hrireypaTai TOiopSe. Xayop 6 * jJLt}yavr}craiJ.€VO$ 9 

STORr OF CYRUS. III. § 6. 107 

ical avaa-yja-as tovtov Ttjv ycurripa, kcu ovSev airo- 5 
TiXag, o>9 Se et^e, ovtod eareOfjKe ftifiXlov, ypayfras 
t£ 01 eSo/cee. anroppa^as Se tov Xayov rhv *y«- 
<rrepa 9 kcu SiKTva $ov$, are Oijpevrij, tS>v oiKerewv 5 * 
t£ iria-TOTaripy aireorreiXe e? tow Tie paras* evrei- 
\a/j.€v6s 01 curb yXwararrj^ StSovra tov Xayov Kvpw 10 
hrenrelv, avroyeiplrj fj.iv SieXelv, kcu firjSeva 01 ravra 
TTOievvri irapeivai. Taura Se Srj &v eirrreXea 
eylvero' kcu 6 J£vpo$ irapaXafiwv tov Xayov ave- 
(Tulare, evpwv Se ev avr£ to fiifiXlov eveov loh ,Xa/3a>v 
eTreXeyero. tol Se ypafifiaTa eXeye TaSe % CC *Q 15 
irai Ji.afJL/3varew 9 are yap Oeol eiropewvi**' ov yap 


A&rvayea tov areoDvrov (povea Tiarai. ircrra jxev yap 
Ttjv tovtov TrpoOvjJLitjv TeOvtjKar to Se KaTa Oeovg 
Te kcu efjie irepleis. tol ore kcu iraXai Sokcco iravTa 20 
eKfjLCfJLaOtjKevai, oreo Te avrov irepi w? eirpyxOii 2 *, 
Ka\ 01a eyw virb 'AarTvayeo? TreirovOa, on ere ovk 
aTT€KT€iva y aXXa, e<Wa x«p fiovKoXw. ov vvv qv 
fiovXy ejULol irelQearQai, Trjonrep Aanrvayrjg <*px €l 
X&PW9 Tavrtjs airaorris ap^eig. Tleparas yap ava- 25 
irelarag airiarTaarQai la , arTpaTtjXaTee eirl Mj}5oi/9* 
Kai rjv Te eyw viro AoTvayeo? airooe)(U€a)* a orpa- 
Ttjyo? avrla arev, earn toi to ov j8oi/Xecu 8 °, ijv 
Te tZv t£9 SoKifjuav a\Ao9 Mj}5o>i/. irpSnroi yap 
ovroi airooTTavre^ air* exetvov, koi yevofievoi irpo? 30 
oreo 'AoTvayea KaTatpeetv 1 * ireip^arovTaC a>9 Sv 


;,„; ,.„. y, ,Y(>.«*« ni-n* •«* "^ " ! 

r » • 

V (13.1.123,124.; 

. ^ m .r f( ^miHarp5gus to suppress 
, N ' ; ; . ^ ; s V *" h * Averted to the side of the 

S | mi €**)' conquest of the Medes. 

^ v "* jjjf f the triumphs of Cyrus. 

, n!l pi>ointcd his general, reduces the 
, Z-^wM l» rtd revolted, while Cyrus pur- 
k h v ..v fn I T f M* 1 " ^ s * a ' and declares war a gai nst 

. r ^ s vh ?io muHt cross the river Gyndes, and he 
. * W Mimmcr in dividing its waters into 360 
.■vitriol*, Ixscause one of the sacred horses was 
v v : jxrciv 1>y its rapid current. 

III. § 7. 

'K*** r€ ° Kiyw iropevofievos iirl rrjv BajSu- 

\ ^* iyivero eiri TvvSy ttotciijlw, tov cu ixev Trtjyai 

k }AoTt*lvot<ri ovpecri, peei Se Sia AapSaveoov, e#c- 

AW°* " € e? t'Tepov irorafjiov Tlypiv. tovtov $rj 

TOV Tvvotjv ttotu/jlov cog Siafiaiveiv eTreiparo 6 

fLvpos, eovra vrjvorl Treptjrov, ev6avra lh 01 to>i> Tf9 

ip&v nnrcav tw XevKtav biro v/3pio$ €0-/3as e? tov 

xora/ioi/, Siafialveiv eireiparo. 6 Se jjuv (rvfA^rio-as, 

{nco(5pvyj.ov olyjincee** (pepwv. Kapra re Srj e^aXe- 

10 iraive tw TroTa/ua 6 K5po9 tovto v/3pi(ravTi, kcll 

1 01 e7TJ77re/Xiyo"e, outcd ^ fJiiv acrOevea Troiycreiv, uxttc 


sroRr of cyrxts. in. § 8. 109 

fipexovcras, Siafiqo'eo'Oai. fiera Se t*\v aTreiXtjP, 

/nereis 1 * rrjp eiri BafivXwva (rrpaTeucriv, dial pee 

Ttjv (TTpaTiiiv Slya. SieXwv oe, KaTereive a-ypivore- 15 

veag vTroSe%a9* d Si(£pv)(a$ oyS&KOVTa** ical etcarov 

Trap eKarepov to ^eiXos Terpafxixeva^ tov FvvSew 

iravra Tpoirov. Siara^ag Se tov (TTparov, opvcr- 

treiv eiceXeve. ota Se OfiiiXov iroXXov epyaCpjAevov, 

fjvero [lev to epyov 9 fifuas fievTOi ty\v Oepeltjv iracrav 2 & 

avrov Tavrrj SieTpi>\rav epyaXpnevoi. 

(B. i. 189.) 

The Babylonians are driven within their massive walls, 
prepared to stand a siege, if need be, for years. But 
Cyrus diverted the water from the Euphrates, and the 
Persians, entering by the river-bed, surprised the careless 
citizens in the midst of their revels. 

III. § 8. 

li? 0€ TOV 1 VVOrjV TTOTGLfJLOV eTKTGLTO J\vpO$ 9 €9 

TpirjKoorlas Kai ej*rjicovTa jjliv Siwpv^a^ SiaXa/3wv 9 
kcli to Sevrepov eap VTreXafnre, outgo $rj tjXavve eiri 
Tt\v Ba/3v\a)va. ol Se HafivXtavioi eKo-TpaTevara- 
ixevoiy e/tievov avrov. hre! Se eyeveTo eXavvoov 5 
ayxpv Tf]9 ttoXios, vvvefiaXov tc ol Ha/UvXobvioi, 
Kai ecrcrooOevTes Ty /*aj£j/, KaTeiXyOrjo'av ey to aarTV. 
oia Se e^eiricTTa/jievoi eri irpoTepov tov Hvpov ovk 
aTpejuLifyvTCi, aXX 9 6peovT€$ 9h avrov iravTi eOvei 
6/ulolo)9 eiri^eipeovray Trpoecra^avro a'lTia ereoov icap- 10 
Ta iroXXwv. 'EvOavTa ovtoi ixev Xoyov ei)(pv tJj^ 


irolftou tov y€ evdaSc covtos, Totee touto, cat 

xocec caret xajfo^. 

(B. L 123, 124.) 

Astyages was mad enough to send Harpagus to suppress 
the revolt which ensued, but he deserted to the side of the 
Persians, who then made an easy conquest of the Medes. 

Then follows a long list of the triumphs of Cyrus. 
Harpagus, having been appointed his general, reduces the 
Lydians and Ionians who had revolted, while Cyrus pur- 
sues his conquests in Upper Asia, and declares war against 
Labynetus King of Babylon. 

On his march he must cross the river Gyndes, and he 
wastes a whole summer in dividing its waters into 360 
petty streamlets, because one of the sacred horses was 
washed away by its rapid current 

in. § 7. 

JCiTCl T€ 0€ O JVt/p09 7TQp€VQ/UL€VOS €TTL TTfV £KLpV- 

\urva rytVrro erri YvvSti toto/aw, tov al /uiev Tnpyai 
o«oo* iU * oe e? ercpor Trorafkow liyptv. tovtow cq 

5 TOW TMffV TTOTOJULOV £>$ $LOJ3ailr€lV €TT€lpaTO 6 

Ki/po?, eoVra rijtKri xcpjfroy, htQaSra 1 * ol t<5* ti? 
Ipmv nnraw twv Xtviciv vttq v/3pio$ €tr/3<xs €$ tov 
Toronto*, Stafialveiv hrctparro* 6 $€ /ullv cn//tt\^if<ra9, 
inro(5puyj.ov o£^cwcee 8b (pepufv. capra T€ $f ej^aXe- 


ol eirfpr€iX3j(r€ 9 outw $4 fiur a<r0evea irotq<r€iv> wttg 
tov Xonrov cat yvvaiKas pu* €VTrerea>9, to yovv ov 


fip*XOv<ras 9 Siafirjcreo-Oai. fiera Se Trjv aireiXtjv, 

fJL€T€l$ l& TTJV €TTl Btt/Sl/XwVO <rTpaT€V(TlV, SialpeC 

Ttjv (TTpariijv ^X a * dt^Mv Se, KareTeive o^oivoTe- 15 

veas vTro$€%a$* d Siwpv^as SyS&icovTa 4 * Ka\ eicaTov 

irap eKarepov to j£e?Ao9 TerpafXfxevag rod FvvSea) 

iravra Tpoirov. Siara^ag Se tov (TTparbv, opicr- 

rreiv eKeXeve. ota Se 6/ull\ov ttoWov epyaCpnevov, 

fyvero fiev to epyov, o/*a>9 fievTot Tyv depelrjv iracav 2 ° 

avrov Tavrrj SieTpi^av epyoXpfxevoi. 

(B. i. 189.) 

The Babylonians are driven within their massive walls, 
prepared to stand a siege, if need be, for years. But 
Cyrus diverted the water from the Euphrates, and the 
Persians, entering by the river-bed, surprised the careless 
citizens in the midst of their revels. 

III. § 8. 

11$ oe tov 1 vvotjv TTOTajAOV eTiaraTO J\vpo$, €9 
TpitiKoo'las teal e^tJKOPrd fuv Sidpv^ag Sia\a/3tov 9 
Kai to Sevrepov eap virekafXTrey outco Sij fjXavve eirl 
ty\v Ba/3u\S)va. 01 Se T&afSvkwvioi eKo-TpaTevara- 
juevoi, e/mevov avrov. eirel Se eyeveTO eXavvwv 5 
ayxpv t?9 *7r6\io9y rvvi/HaXov Te 01 HafivX&vtoi, 
Kai eo'O'toOevTef T*j M a X?7> KaTeiXyOijo'av eg to aarTV. 
ota Se e^eiricTTajuLevoi cti irpoTepov tov Hvpov ovk 
aTpejuLifyvTa, aXX 6peovT€$ 9h ovtov iravrl eOvei 
6/uLolcog eiri^eipeovra, icpoeaa^avro cma erewv icap- 10 
Ta ttoXXwv. 'Ei/flavra ovtoi pev \6yov e7)(ov TJ79 


TroXiopKiqg ovSeva* T&Jupog Se airopiijari 5 * evel^erOy are 
yjpovov re eyytvofievov ovyyov, aixarepa) re ovSev 
tS>v TrpqyjJLaTtov irpoKOTTTOfxevtav. Erre Srj Sv SXX09 

15 ol airopeovri viredqicaTO, eire teal avrog e/tiaOe to 60 
nroitiriov ol %v, eirolee St) TOiovSe. Taj~ag ryv crroa- 
Titjv airaarav ij» ejUL^oXrjg rod 7roTa/xo5, t? eg rtjv 
nroXiv €crj8aXXei, koi oiricrOe avTig Tfjg ttoXio? Ta£ag 
erepovg, ry ej»lei ck T*)g iroXiog 6 TroTafxog* irpoelire 

20 x<f> <rrpaT& 9 orav Sia/3arov to peeOpov iSwvrai 
yevonevov, e&ievai Tavrt] eg Ttjv iroXiv. ovtw tc 
Srj Ta^a?, koi Kara ravra Trapawevag, cnrtjXavve 
avrog ovv Ttp a'xpijtip 4 ^ TOV OTpCLTOV. 'AiriKOfieVOg 
Se €ir\ t*)v Xljj.vtjv 9 i)v t) BafivXwvlwv ftaarlXeia 

25 wpvarare, Kal tov iroTafxov Sicopv^i erayayobv eg rtjv 
XtjULVfjp eovcrav eXog 9 to apyalov peeQpov Sia/HaTOv 
etvai €7roirja , € 9 virovoarrriaravTog tov irorafiov. yevo- 
fxevov Se tovtov toiovtov, ol Tlepo-ai, otirep erc- 
Taj^aro 8 * eir* avrw tovtw, Kara to peepQov tov 

30 Ev(ppt]Tea> iroTajJLOV) virovevotrrriKOTog avSpl &g €9 
fiecrop firjpov fxaXia-Ta Ktj 9 Kara tovto earjio-av 10 * 
eg Ttjp Baj8uXa>i>a. E* /j.ev wv irpoewvOovro, r) 
ejmaOov ol Baj8i/Xa>i/ioi to ck tov Kvpov Troievfievov, 
ov$ dp irepiiSovreg Tovg TLepo'ag ecreXOeiv eg Ttjv 

35 iroXiv Sie(f>6eipav KaKKrra. KaTaicXtjiGaPTeg*** yap 
av iracrag Tag eg top iroranov irvXlSag ej£Owra9, 
/cat auToi eirl Tag alfiacriag avafiavTeg Tag irapa 
to xelXea tov woTafiov eXtjXafJL€vag 9 eXa/Hov av 


(ripea? &9 ev Kvprrj. vvv Se ij» cnrpocrSoKqTOv <r(f>i 

Trapearrtja'av oi Tie pa ai. vtto Se fieyaOeos 21 * rrji 4° 

iroXios, &? Xeyerai viro t£>v Tavry oiKtj/JLevoov, twv 

Trepl ra ecr^ara t?9 tcoXio? eaXwKorcov, tow to 

fxeaov oiKeovras tS>p BafivXwvicov ov fiavQaveiv 

eaXwKOTW aXXa, (tv)(€ip yap crept iovarav opTrjP 4 *) 

Xppeueiv re tovtop top xpovov, teal ev evTraOelrjari 45 

eivai, €9 o Sij kcu to KapTa cttvOopto, kgu BajSuXcJy 

pep ovt<o tot€ irpwrov apaipijTO. 

(B. i. 190, 191.) 

Intoxicated by his successes, Cyrus desired to annex 
Scythia to his empire. He made an expedition against 
the Massagetae, and their widowed queen Tomyris. 

Tomyris is quite willing to risk a battle with him; she 
will either let him cross the Araxes into her country, or 
will advance with her army into his. 

III. § 9. 

*Hy $e, tov avSpbs aTToOapovrog, yvpi) tZv Macr- 

aayericov ^aalXeia* 'Tofivplg 01 %v ovpojia. Taurrjv 

irifjLTrtop 6 Kvpog efivaro ro5 Xoytp. fj Se Tojmvpi? 

aw tela a ovk avryp fiiv /JLvdo/uevov, aXXa Tt)v Macr- 

cayereow ftaariXtfi'qp, airenraTO tv\p irpoaoSop. Ki/009 5 

Se fiera, tovto, g>9 oi SoXtp ov irpoe^dpecj iXdaag 

€7rJ tov 'Apa^ea, hrotecro ck tov ejxepaveos hr\ 

Toi/s Maaraayerag aTpaTiji'rjv 9 yecpupa? re ifei/*y- 

pva>p Lve €tti tov TTOTajJiov, oiapaarip T(p orpaTtpy icai 

TTVpyoVS €TTl TrXolwV TWV Sia7TOpd/JL€v6vTM TOP TCO- IO 

Ta/uiop oiKoSo/Jieojuievos. 


"TEt^ovTi Si 01 tovtov tov ttovov, Trifx^acra ff 
Tofivptg Ktjpvica, eXeye tolSc "^Q /3aa-iXev Miy&oj/, 
iravarai crvevSwv to. (nrevSeig* ov yap av elSeltjg 100 

15 €i toi eg Kaipov ecrrai ravra TeXevjueva**' iravcra- 
fievog Se, ftacrlXeve twv arewurov, kcu fifxiag aveyev 
opeoav apyovTag tS>v irep ap^ofiev. Ovk tov 
eQeXqcreig viroOyKyari TrjcrlSe xpacrQai, aXXa iravra 
fxaKKov tj St* q(rir)(lfi9 eivai, av Se el fieyaXoog irpo- 

20 Qvfiieeai 8o Wlaa-a-ayerewv ireiprjOrjvai, (pipe, julo^Oov 
fiep 9 tov eyeig fyvyvvg 10 * tov 7roTa/uov, acpeg' <rv 
Se 9 fjimecdv ava^coprja-avTcov airo tov iroTa/ULov rpiwv 
flfiepeonv SSbv, Siafiaive eg rrjv ^jneripijv. el S 9 ^/meag 
/3ovXeai earSe^aa-Qai fiaXXov eg Tyv v/jL€Teprjv 9 

2 5 crv Tft)vro* e tovto iroiee. lavra oe cucovcrag o 
Kupog, avveKaXeae JJepcrecov Tovg irpwrovg* crvva- 
yelpag Se rovrovg, eg fxetrov cr(f>i icpoeriQee 10 * to 
irpfjyiJLa, a-vfi^ovXevo/nevog OKorepa iroiirj. tcov Se 
Kara rduro at yvwfiai arvve^eirnrTOV, KeXevovrwv 

3 o *eo"^eice<r0a£ la To/mvplv re kcu tov vrpaTOv avrrjg eg 
Ttjv X<0pi v - (B. i. 205, 206.) 

Croesus, who was still in attendance on Cyrus, is urgent 
on him to follow Tomyris into her own country, recom- 
mending him to leave his camp stored with savoury meats 
and wine in abundance, that the Massagetae might become 
an easy prey after a long debauch. 

III. § 10. 
Tlapedov Se kcu fxejuLCpojuLevog t*jv yvd/uajv Tavrqv 

STORV OF CFRUS. IIL § 10. 113 

Kpoiaos 6 AvS6g 9 aireSeiKwro 10 * evavrltjv rfj v/f>o- 
Keifievr] yvwjULy, Xeywv raSc "*Q fiaariXev 9 etirov 
/xev Kol irpoTepov toi 9 on hrei fie Zev9 eSwKe toi 9 
to av opw <r<j>a\fJLa eov oikco t«jJ <r<S 9 Kara Svvafiiv 5 
airorpe^eiv. ra Si /jloi iraQ^fJLara^ eovra a^apira 9 
IxaOrjixara eyeyovee**. Ei fiev aQavaros Soiceeif 

eivai 9 Kai arrpaTitj? TOtavTfjs ap'xeiv, ovSev av ely 
Trpfjyfia yv&fJLag e/ie aroi cnroijyaiveo'Oai. el Se ey- 
vwca? Sri avQpwTrof Kai av e?9, kcu eripw TOi5>vSe 10 
ap^eis, cKeivo TcpSrrov fxaOe 9 009 kvkXos tS>v avOpw- 
TTfftcov i<rr\ irpriyixaroDV wepiCpepo/Jievos Se 9 ovk ea 
alel tov? avrovs evrvyieiv. yS*j <Sv iyw yvdfirjv eyw 

TTCpi TOV 7Tp0fC€l/UL€P0V TTpqyjULaTOS TO CjULTTaXlV tj 

ovtoi. el yap eOekqo'OfJLev eaSi^aarOai tow 7roXe- 15 
fj.iov$ e? Tqv X<&p*jv 9 SSe toi ev avrS kivSvvos evr 
e<r<ra>0e/9 fiev 9 TrporaTroXXveis iracrav rrjv apyyv 
SfjXa yap Srj 9 on vikZvtcs Mao-crayeTCU, ov to 
oirlcra) (f>evj~ovTai 9 aXX' eir* ap^ag Tag (ra? eXSxri. 
vuriav Se 9 ov vikSs to(tovtov 9 oaov el Sia/3a$ €9 t*jv 20 
€K€tvwp 9 vikZv 1 Miaa , a , ay€Tag 9 eiroio <j>€vyov<rr twito 48 
yap avriOqaa) €K€iv(p 9 oti viKfeag Tovg avrtevfiivovs 
e\ag iuv T179 ap^rjg ti/9 lofivpiog. Aayw re tov 
aTnjytj/ii€vov 9 ala-yjpov Kai ovk avaaryeTOv, J&vpov ye 
tov Ka/i/3wr€a> yvvaiKi elfcavra viro^wpria'ai t*J9 25 
X&pw* Ni/y Sv fjLoi SoK€€i 9 SiafSavra? irpoeXOeiv 
oarov av ckcivoi Sie^iaxri* evQevTev Se TaSe iroievv- 
Ta9, ireipaaOai cKelvwv TreptyevicrQai. W9 yap eyto 



y^evSea 6$ov, Iva jul>i eXeyxp/JLevos aXitTKifraC aXXa 
Xeyei raSe* "*Q ftao-iXev, eirel re TrapeXa/Hov to 
iraiSlov, eftovXevov ctkottZv okgo? vol re Troiycra) kcltcl 

35 voov, kgu iy<o Trpog ere yevo/uevo? ava/uLapTTjros, pyre 
dvyarpi T*j crfj fifae avrw croi eitjv avdevTrjg. iroiioo 
Srj SSe. KaXecrag tov /3ovkoXov tovSc, TrapaSlSco/ULt to 
iraiSlov, <j>a? ere tc eivai tov KeXevovra cnroKreivai 
avro. ical Xiytav tovto ^e. ovk €y\f€vS6/uLyjv' crv yap 

40 everiXXeo 80 ovtw. irapaSlSw/ua fxevrot t<S$€ kutcl 
TajSe, ivTeiXdfievo? Oeivai juliv ey epfjfiov ovpos, ical 
irapa/JLevovra (jyvXacro'eiv ayjpi ov TeXevryo-er cnrei- 
Xqara? iravrola TqiSe, tjv fJ-h tclSc hriTeXea Trotqcrr}. 

€TT€l T€ $€> TT0lfl<TaVT0$ T0VT0V T(X KeXeVO/ULCVa, 

45 creXevrrjo'e to iraiSlov, ire/A^as twv evvov^oav tov? 
iricrTOTCLTOv^ ical elSov Si 9 CKelvcov, koi eOay^d fj.iv. 
ovrm €<rx € * ^ fiacriXeu, irepi tov irpriyixaTo? tovtov* 
koi TOtovTtp fJLopa) expyo-aTO 6 ttcu?." 

"Apirayos jjlIv §rj tov IQvv ecfraive Xoyov, Ao-tv- 

50 aytj? Se 9 KpvirTtav *tov 6 ° 01 eveF^e j^oXoi/ Sta to 
yeyovos, irpSrra fiev KCLTairep 1 * *Jkovo-€ avros irpo? 
tov (iovKoXov to TrprjyiJ.a, iraXiv enrrjyeero t<S 'AjO- 
Tcaytp' /iera $e, a>9 oi €7raXiXXoyi]T0 9 KaTefiaive 
Xeywv, a>9 " irepletrrl Te 6 irais, ical to yeyovog 

55 ej(« KaXS)?. T<3 Te yap ireiroirifxev^ eiprj Xeya&v, e? 
tov iralSa tovtov eKafivov fieyaXm, koi OvyaTpi T*j 
ififj SiafiefiXijiJLevog ovk iv iXa(f)p<S eTroievfjLrjv. cog (Sv 
T179 Ti/^179 ev jUL€T€arT€ooaryj? Lva tovto ijl€v 9 tov o-eiavrov 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. § 5. 105 

iraiSa airoTrefx^ov irapa top waiSa top petj/XvSa* 

tovto $e, (oSxTTpa yap tov ttcuSo? /jlcXXw dveip 60 

Toi<ri dewp tijultj avTtj irpoo'KeeTai,) irapiadi 1x01 eici 


(B. i. 116-118.) 

But Astyages meartwhile slew the son of Harpagus, and 
made savoury meat of his flesh, and after the dinner he 
showed the horror-struck father what he had been feast- 
ing on. 

III. § 5. 

"Apirayo? fiev, m yKOvcre tch/tcc, irpoo-Kvpqcras, 
Kol fieyaXa iroiria-aixevog oti tc tj d/mapTa? 01 eg 
oeov eyeyopee* , kcli oti eiri Tvyjicri * XP^ <rr ^ cri 

€7Tt OeiTTPOV K€K\rp-0 9 *Jl€ e$ TO OIK id. €<TeAC7ft)|/ 06 

Trjv Ta^laTrip 9 fjp yap 01 irah «9 julovpo$ 9 erect Tpta 5 
Kal Seica kov fiaXicTTa yeyovwg 9 tovtop e/c7re/A7rei, 
lepai T€ KeXevwp ey AcrTvayeos, Kal ttoUcip o tl ai/ 
£k€ipos KeXevy. avTog Se irepi^apiig ewv, (ppal^ei Ty 
yvpaiKi Ta ovyicvprjcrapTa. Ao-Tvayqs Se 9 «9 01 
aTciKero 6 'Apirdyov 7rcu9, cr<^)a£a$ avTOP, Kai tcaTa 10 
fieXea SieXa)v 9 ra pep w7TTtja-e 9 Ta Se entice tS>p 
Kpewv. evTVKTa Se Troit]<rd/j.evo$, efye eToijua. eirel 
T€ Se, Trjs cop*]9 ytPOiJLeprjg tov Selirpov 9 iraprja'ap 
o? Te dXXot SaiTVjULOpeg /cat 6 'Apirayo?, toigi julcp 
aXXoio-i Kal avT(S 9 A<rrvayei 7rapeTi6eaT0 B& Tpa- 15 
ire^ai eTwrXeai /jltjXciow Kpeobp* Apirayu) Se 9 tov 
iraiSos tov eoovTov, TrXtjp KecpaXrj? tc Kal aKpcov 


^eipZp re Kal ttoSw, rot, aXXa Travra* ravra Se 
^toph €K€tro ewl icaviw KaTaK€Ka\vfjLfjL€Pa* o>? Se t« 

*o f ApTray(p eSoKee aXig e^eiv T?y (5oprj$ 9 'AcTvaytj? 
eipero fiiv, el rjcrOelq ti tj/ Oolpy (pa/ueuov Se 
'Apicayov Kal Kapra fio-Qrjvco., irapeipepov, rotor l 
irpo<reK€tT0 9 tv\v K€<f>a\*iv tov ttcliSos KaraK€Ka\v/j.- 
fievtjv, Kal Taj 'Xjetpag tcai touj ttoSw "Apirayov 

2 5 Se eKeXevou 7rpo<rravreg airoKaXvirTeiv re Kal Kafieiv 
to fiovXerai avrwv. TreiOofiepog Se 6 "Apirayos, 
Kai airoKaXvTcrwv, 6 pa rod iraiSof ra XelfijULaTa* 
IStov Se 9 oure e^eirXayti 9 evro$ re eoovrov ylverai. 
eipero Se avrov 6 Aarrvayrj^ el yivwarKoi orev 60 

3° Orjpiov Kpea fieftpwKOi. 6 Se Kal yiv&crKeiv e(prj 9 Kal 

apearrov etvai irav to av (SaariXev? epSy. tovtokti 

Se a/uLei^a/jLevos, Kal avaXafHwv tol Xoiira tw KpeHv, 

tjfie eg ra oiKia. ev6evrev lh Se efieWe, w? ^ycw So- 

K&Wy dXlcrag Oay^etv ra iravra. 

(B. i. 119.) 

Meanwhile Harpagus nursed his revenge, and when 
Cyrus was grown up, he sent him a secret letter, calling 
on him to put himself at the head of the Persians, and 
revolt from Astyages. 

in. § e. 

T(3 Se Ki/po) SiaiT(t)/JL€V(p ev Tleparrja-i fiovXofxevog 
o Apirayos StjXZcrai t%v ewvrov yv&jULtjv, aXXwy 
jULev ovSafiw? e?X e » < * Te T ® v °$®v (puXacrcro/Jievwv' 6 
Se brnexyaTai ToiovSe. Xayov 5t /J.rj^aprjcrd/JL€V09 9 

STORr OF CFRUS. III. § 6. 107 

leal avaaryjara? tovtov Ttfv yacrTepa, kcu ovSev airo~ 5 

Tl\a$, 0)9 $€ €*)(€, OVTOO €(T€6fJK€ /3lf}XlOV 9 ypa^0L$ 

ra 01 eSoKee. airoppa T *a? Se tov Xayov tijv ya- 
orepa, kcu $itcrva Sou?, are Oypevrfj, tS>v oiKerewv 50 
ry 7T£CTT0TaTa), aTrearreiXe e? tow Uepcrav eirei- 
XafjLevog 01 airo yX<&arart]$ SiSovra tov Xayov Kvpw 10 
eTrenreiv, avroyeiplfi fj.iv SieXeiv, kcu /uajSeva 01 ravra 
iroievvrt irapelvai. Tavra Se Srj Sv eiriTeXea 
iylvero' kcu 6 J£vpo9 irapaXa/Scbv tov Xayov aye- 
aryiare. evptav Se ev avr£ to fiifiXiov €V€Ov loh >\a/3tov 
eireXiyero. ra Se ypajuLfiara eXeye raSe* U *Q 15 
iral Ka/x/3Jo-6a), are yap Oeot eiropedoan 90 * ov yap 
av Kore ey Toarovrov Tvyw airiKev**. ov vvv 
AarTvayea tov arewvrov <f)ovea Ticrai. KaTa fxev yap 
t!jv tovtov irpoOvfjiitjv TeOvtjKas' to Se KaTa Qeov? 
Te Kal e/ie irepleig. tcl ere koi iraXai SoKeco iravTa 20 
€KjUL€ima6rjK€vai 9 areo T€ avrov ire pi w? ^pyx^ 2 *' 
koi dta eyd xnro AcTvayeos TreTrovOa, oti are ovk 
aireKTeiva, aXXa eScoKa t(S fiovKoXw. ov vvv Ijv 
fiovXy €/uloI ireiOearOai, Ttjcnrep Aorvayrjg apyei 
X&pris, Tavrrjg airavris ap£ei$. Tleparas yap ai/a- 25 
Trelara? a7rlarTaoOai l * 9 o'TpaTtjXaTee eiri MjJoovs* 
Kai rjv Te eyoo viro Aarrvayeos a7roo€j(a€0) 5a orpa- 
Trjyos avrla o-ev, earn toi Ta arv jSouXcai 80 , tjv 
Te tZv t£9 Sokl/jloov aXXos M170W. irpZroi yap 
outoi airoarTavres air 1 exelvov, Kal yevofxevot irpos 30 
ceo 'Acrrvayea KaTatpeeiv 1 * ireipyarovTaC a>9 Sv 


erolfiov tov ye evOaSe iovros, iroUe TavTa, kcu 

nroUe Kara toj(09. ' 

(B. i. 123, 124.) 

Astyages was mad enough to send Harpagus to suppress 
the revolt which ensued, but he deserted to the side of the 
Persians, who then made an easy conquest of the Medes. 

Then follows a long list of the triumphs of Cyrus. 
Harpagus, having been appointed his general, reduces the 
Lydians and Ionians who had revolted, while Cyrus pur- 
sues his conquests in Upper Asia, and declares war against 
Labynetus King of Babylon. 

On his march he must cross the river Gyndes, and he 
wastes a whole summer in dividing its waters into 360 
petty streamlets, because one of the sacred horses was 
washed away by its rapid current. 

HI. § 7. 

'E*7re/ Te Se 6 K£j0O9 iropevofievog eirl rrjv Baj8u- 
Xcova eylvero cttI TvvSy TroTa/mta, tov at fxev irrjyal 
iv IS/lariijvoLcri ovpecri, peei Sh Sia AapSavewv, e/c- 
otooi lv * oe €? ercpov iroTanov Liypiv. TOVTOV orj 
5 tov TvvStjv TTOTa/xov a>9 Sia/3aipeiv eireipaTO 6 
Kiy)09, eovra vrjvo-l trepriTOV, iv6avTa lh 01 tcop 779 
ipS>v Uttttcov tZv XevKOfv viro v/3piog €(r/3ag €9 tov 
iroTafjiov % Siafialveiv eireipaTO. 6 Si fJ.iv (rv/x^ricra^, 
virofipvyiov o^a>Kee 8b (pepwv. KapTa tc Srj e^aXe- 
10 iraive T(p 7TOTa/ic5 6 K5<oo9 tovto vfipicravTi, kcu 
01 €Tri]7r€i\t](T€ 9 ovtoo $y fiiv acrOevea iroiycreiv, wcttc 


STORY OF CYRUS. III. § 8. 109 

ftpeyovcras, Siafirio-eo'Qai. per a Se t*jv cnreiXijv, 

perch 1 * rrjv €7ri Ba/8uX£va (rrpaTevcriv, Sialpee 

Ttjv arTpaTiriv Sfya. SieXwv Se, Karereive cr^oii/ore- 15 

vea$ V7ro$€%a$* d Suapv^ag oyS&KovTa** kcu ckgltov 

Trap cKarepov to j(€iXog TerpajULfievag tov TvvSew 

iravra rpoirov. Siara^ag Se tov o-Tparbv, opvar- 

treiv eiceXeue. ota Se 6/jliXov 7roXXov epyaCppevov^ 

fjvero julcv to epyov, o/*a>? julcvtoi Tfjv depetrjv iraarav 2 o 

avrov Taint] SieTpi^av epyaXpnevoi. 

(B. i. 189.) 

The Babylonians are driven within their massive walls, 
prepared to stand a siege, if need be, for years. But 
Cyrus diverted the water from the Euphrates, and the 
Persians, entering by the river-bed, surprised the careless 
citizens in the midst of their revels. 

III. § 8. 

\lg oe tov 1 vvorjv iroTajJiov €Ti<raTO J\.vpog 9 eg 
Tpi*iKO(rla$ kcu e^KOVTa fj.iv Sidpv^ag SiaXafiwv, 
kcu to Sevrepov eap vireXafJiire 9 ovtw Srj tjXavve eirl 
ttjv HaftvXZva. 01 Se BafivXdtvioi eKVTpaTevara- 
fievoij efxevov avrov. hre) Se eyeveTo eXavvtav 5 
ayypv Trjg 7roXio9, o-vviftaXov tc 01 T&afSvXwvioi, 
kcu eo-arwOevTes Trj At«X?» KaTeiXr^Ofja-av eg to a<m/. 
01a Se €^eiri(TTatJi€VOL cti irpoTepov tov Hvpov ovk 
aTpejuLi^ovTa, aXX opeovTeg yD avrov iravri euvei 
6/JLOLoog eiri^eipeovra, irpoeaa^avro a'lTia ereo&v Kap- 10 
Ta ttoXXwv. 'EvOavTa ovtoi /jlcv Xoyov et^ov Trjg 



erol/JLov tov ye evOaSe eovTog, irolee Tavra, kcu 

7T0l€€ KClTd Td^O?. 

(B. i. 123, 124.) 

Asty&ges was mad enough to send Harpagus to suppress 
the revolt which ensued, but he deserted to the side of the 
Persians, who then made an easy conquest of the Medes. 

Then follows a long list of the triumphs of Cyrus. 
Harpagus, having been appointed his general, reduces the 
Lydians and Ionians who had revolted, while Cyrus pur- 
sues his conquests in Upper Asia, and declares war against 
Labynetus King of Babylon. 

On his march he must cross the river Gyndes, and he 
wastes a whole summer in dividing its waters into 360 
petty streamlets, because one of the sacred horses was 
washed away by its rapid current. 

HI § 7. 

jliirei re oe o j\vpo$ 7ropevo/j.€Vog eiri Tt\v x>apy- 
Xobva eylvero ex* TvvSy woTa/j.(Z! 9 rod at jjlcv irfjyai, 
cv MaTif]voi(rt oupeci, peei Se Sia AapSavecov, e/c- 
oiooi lv * oe ep erepov iroTa/JLov liypiv. tovtov orj 

5 TOV TvvSfJV TTOTa/JLOV ft)? Siaj3aiP€lV €7T€lpaTO 6 

Kupo?, eovra vfivcri 7T€ptjTov 9 €v6avra lh ol twv Tig 
ipwv "nnrmv tS>v Xcvkoov viro vfipios e<r/3a9 ey tov 
TTOTOLfJiOVi Sia/3aiV€lV €TT€ipaTO. 6 $€ fxiv (rvjULy^qo-ag, 

viroftpvyiov oi)((0K€€ sh (frepwv, jcaoTa T€ S*j e)£aAe- 

io TTQive to) TroTa/uai 6 K5po9 tovto vfiplvavTi, kcu 

01 e7TJ/7re/Aj/(7e, ovtoo $y lJ.iv acrQevea Troiyceiv, aNTre 

tov Xonrov kcu yvvaiica? ei57rereft>9, to yovv ov 


fip*X0vcras 9 Siafiqcreo'Oai. fxera Se rhv a7rei\t]v 9 

fiereig 1 * Ttjv eirt Ha/3v\S>va orpaTevcriv, Sialpee 

T9jv (rrpaTirjv Sfya. SteXd>v Se, Karereive v^oivore- *5 

veag vTroSe£ag 3d Sioopv^as 6yS(i>KOVTa 4 * kcu ckgltov 

Trap etcarepov to ^<ei\og TerpaLiLievag tov YvvSew 

iravra rpoirov. Siara$a$ Se tov (TTparov, 6pv<r- 

(reiv e/ceAeue. ota Se o/txlXov iroWov epyaCpixevov 9 

fjvero /xev to epyov 9 0/1x009 fievTOi ty\v Qepelrjv iracrav 2 <> 

avrov Tavry Si€Tpiy\rav epya^ofievoi. 

(B. i. 189.) 

The Babylonians are driven within their massive walls, 
prepared to stand a siege, if need be, for years. But 
Cyrus diverted the water from the Euphrates, and the 
Persians, entering by the river-bed, surprised the careless 
citizens in the midst of their revels. 

III. § 8. 

My oe tov 1 vvorjv TTOTa/Jiov eTuraTO J\vpog 9 e? 
Tpiqicoo'lag kou ej~rjicovTa juliv Siwpvya? Sia\af3wv 9 
leal to Sevrepov cap vireXaLnre, ovtco St] tjXavve eVi 
T^fi/ Baj8tAfii/a. 01 Se Hafivkoovioi eWrpaTewra- 
fxevoi, e/xevov avrov. hrei Se eyeveTO eXavvwv 5 
ayxpv Ttjv ttoXios, vvvefiaXov tc 01 BaftvXoovioi, 
teal ecro-ooQevTes Ty /*<*X?7> KaT€iXqdrj<rav is to avTV. 
01a Se e^eTTKTTajjLevoi en irpoTepov tov Hvpov ovk 
aTpeLLL^pvTa 9 aAA opeovT€9 yD avrov wavTi euvei 
6/uo/co? eiri^eipeovTa, irpoecrafcavTO (rvria ereoov icap- 10 
tol iroXXSsv, 'Ei/0a?Ta ovtoi fiev Xoyov etypv Trj? 


iroXiopKitjg ovSiva' Kvpog Se airoplycri 5 * evei^ero, are 
Xpovov re eyyivopevov ovyyov, avayrepw re ovSev 
toov TrpfiyixaTW TrpOKOirTOfjLevwv. Erre Sh &v aXXog 

15 ol airopeovri viredqicaTOi elre koi avTog e/maOe to 60 
nroiriTeov ol ^v y eirolee Srj toiovSc. Ta£ag rqv (rroa- 
titjv airaarav e£ e/mfioX^g tov nora/mov, tj? eg Ttjv 
iroXw earfiaXXei, teal oiriarde avTig T*jg iroXiog Ta£ag 
erepovg, rj} e^lei ck Trjg vroXiog o Tcorapog* irpoeiire 

20 t$> (TT/)aT«jJ, orav Sia/3aTov to peeOpov "Soovrai 
yevo/JLevov, eanevai Tavry eg rrjv iroXiv. ovtco re 
Srj Taj*ag, koi Kara Tavra irapaivea-ag, airrfXavve 
avrog avv t£ ayjprjiop*** T °v orpaTOv. ^AiriKo/uLevog 
Se errl t*jv Xljuivrjv 9 qv ij HafivXwvltov (iacrlXeia 

25 (tipvarare, koi tov irorafiov Siwpvyi earayaycov eg rrjv 
Xifivtjv eovarav eXog 9 to ap^alov peedpov SiafiaTov 
eivai eTroujere, virovoarTtjcravTog tov iroTafiov. yevo- 
ixevov Se tovtov toiovtov, ol Tlepcrat, o^Trep ere- 
Ta^aTO 8 * €7r' avrS toi/tw, icaTa to peepQov tov 

30 J*jv(ppqT€(x) iroTafAOVj virovevooTtiKOTog avSpl &g eg 
/uearov /mrjpov fxaKio'Ta ky\ 9 Kara tovto ecrtjicrav 1 "* 
eg Ttjv HafivXZva. Et jmev vw irpo€7rvOovT0 9 ^ 
e/maOov ol Ha(3vX&vioi to e/c to? l&vpov iroiev/jievoVy 
ovo av irepuoovreg Tovg Llepo-ag ecreAuetv eg t*\v 

35 ttoXiv Ste<p6eipav Kcucicrra. KaTcucXtfio-avreg* 1 * yap 
av iracrag Tag eg tov Trorajmov irvXlSag ej(owrag 9 
koI avrol €7r\ Tag al/maa-iag avafiavreg Tag irapa 
to, xecXea T °v iroTa/jiov eXtjXafAevag, eXa(3ov av 


aipea? i>9 iv Kvprrj. vvv Se ej» airpoarSoK^TOV aro^i 
Trapk<rrr\(rav ol TLepcrai. v7ro Se jjL€ya6eo$ 2h tj?9 4° 
iroXios, &9 Xeyerai iiro twv ravry olicriiAevw, tS>v 

TTCpl TCL €0"X<ZTa TJ/9 TToXlOf caXoOKOTOOV, TOl/ff TO 

fxiarov otKeovras rS>v HafivXwvloov ov fxavOaveiv 

eaXwKOTW aXXa (rvyelv yap <r(f)i eovarav dprqp**) 

yppeveiv re tovtov tov xpovov, icai iv eviraOeiricri 45 

etvaiy €9 o $h kcu to Kapra iirvOovTO, koi HaftvXwv 

fiev ovtw tot€ TcpSrrov apalprjro. 

(B. i. 190, 191.) 

Intoxicated by his successes, Cyrus desired to annex 
Scythia to his empire. He made an expedition against 
the Massagetae, and their widowed queen Tomyris. 

Tomyris is quite willing to risk a battle with him ; she 
will either let him cross the Araxes into her country, or 
will advance with her army into his. 

III. § 9. 

^Hv Se, tov avSpos airodavovTOs, yvvrj tZv Macr- 

crayerewv fiao-lXeia' To/mvpls 01 %v ovvo/ua, Tavryv 

irefnroov 6 Kvpos e/mvaTO T<p Xoyqy. jJ Se To/uvpi? 

awieiora ovk avrqv fxiv (xv&imevov, aXXa t)jv Macr- 

crayeriow fiao-iXti'iqv, aireiiraTO tt\v irpoeroSov. Jivpog 5 

oe fxera tovto, afc ol SoX<p ov irpoexfapee, iXaaras 

eirt tov 'Apa^ea 5 eiroteero £k tov i/mcpaveos €7rJ 

tow Macro-a-yera? aTpaTfftrjv 9 yc<pvpa9 re £ei/y- 

j/uwj/ 10e iirl tov TroTafxov, 8ia(3a<riv toJ arpaTW, koi 

irvpyovs e7ri irXolcov tZv SiairopOfievovroov tov 7ro- 10 



^E'XpvTi Se oi tovtov top ttovov, iren^acra fj 
TofAvpig Krjpvica, eXeye rdSc iC ^Q fiao-iXev M170W, 
iravcrai tnrevSwv ra (nrevSetg 9 ov yap dv eiSelqg 100 

15 €t toi eg Kaipov e<rrai ravra reXey/ueva**' Travo-d- 
ixevog Se, fiacrlXeve tS>v (reojirrov, koi rj/meag ave^ev 
opewv ap^ovrag rcov irep ap^ojiiev . Owe wv 
eOeXtjcretg v7roQrjicy(ri Ttjo'lSe yjpatrQai, aXXa iravra 
IxSXKov rj Si ycnrxltjg elvai, ov Se el tieyaXoog irpo- 

20 Qv/ueeai 8o Ma<r<ra < yeT€a>i> TreipTjOtjvat, <f)epe, (jlo^Qov 

/UL€V 9 TOV €)(€19 %BUyvvg 10e TOP 7TOTajULOV 9 5069* OV 

Se 9 tjjuieoDV avayoapricravTiav curb tov worafiov rpiHv 
TjjuLepecov oooVy otapaive eg rtjv rmerepriv. et o tj/ueag 
fiovXeai eoSe^ao-Qai jmaXXov eg rr\v vjmerepfjv, 

2 5 ov Tawro 48 touto iroiee. lavra oe aKOvtras o 
J£vpog y (rvveKaXecre Tiepoetov Tovg vrpanrovv crwa- 
yeipag Se rovrovg 9 eg jxeo-ov o(f)i TrpoeriOee 109, to 
TrpqyjULa, (rvjuL^ovXevoinevog OKorepa Troiey. twv Se 
Kara, tgovto al yvZ/uai <rw€^eirnrrov 9 kcXcvovtcov 

3°*€(rS€Keo'6ai l * To/mvplv re koi tov arparov avrrjg eg 
rijv x<&pnv. (B. i. 205, 206.) 

Croesus, who was still in attendance on Cyrus, is urgent 
on him to follow Tomyris into her own country, recom- 
mending him to leave his camp stored with savoury meats 
and wine in abundance, that the Massagetae might become 
an easy prey after a long debauch. 

III. § 10. 
Ylapecov Se koi fxe/uKpojULevog rtjv yvd/jLtjv tolvtyiv 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. $ 10. 113 

J£poicros 6 Av$09 9 aireSeiicvvTO 10 * ivavTiqv rj? t/£>o- 
Keifxcvfj yv<&ny 9 Xiywv tccoV "*Q |8a<riAet/, etirov 

fX€V KCU TTpOTCpOV TOl 9 OTI €*7T« JUL€ ZeVf €§a)K€ TOI, 

to av 6 poo crcpdXfxa ebv oikw tcJ <r«S, Kara Svvafiiv 5 
airoTpi^eiv. tcl Se fioi Tradfj/jLCiTa, iovra ayfapira, 
jULaOrj/JLara eyey6ve€ Bh . Ei fiev aOavarog So/ceeig 
etvai 9 kcu crrpaTirjs toiclvtw ap\eiv 9 ovSev av etq 
irpijyfxa yvd/mag e/xe crdl aTrocfxxlvco'Oai. el Se e<y- 
vtotcas or 1 avOpooirog kcu av e??, kcu erepew TOiZvSe 10 
apyeis, €Keivo TrpSrrov fxaQe 9 o>9 kvkXo9 tS>v avdpw- 
Trtfioov ear] irpriy fxaTtav TrepK^epofievos Se, ovk ea 
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irepl tov 7rpoK€ifJiivov 7rpyy/j.aT0$ ra ejuLiraXiv q 
ovroi. el yap eOeX^crofiev eaSi^acrOai roi/9 iroXe- 15 
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earwOeh /xev, TrpocrcnroXXveig iracrav tvjv ap^v 
StjXa yap S*j 9 oti vikgovtc? Matrtrayerai, ov to 
oiritrw <f>€vj*ovTai 9 aXX eir ap^as rag (ra? iXZcri. 
vucwv Se 9 ov viKctg to(tovtov 9 S(T ov el $ia/3a$ eg TtJV 20 
CKelvow, vikwv M.aa-(ray€Tag 9 eiroio (pevyovcrr twito 46 
yap avTtQria'w eiceivu), oti viKyarag tov? avTievjuievovs 
eAay iuv TJ79 apyri? tj/9 1 oftvpio?. ILwpig re tov 
aTnjy*i]j,€vov 9 aia-flpov koi ovk avaa-yeTov, Kvpov ye 
top Ka/A/3Jo-ea> yvvaiKi e^avra viro^wp^a-ai t?? 25 
ywprjs. Nvv Sv fJLOi SoKeei 9 Siafiavras irpoeXOelv 
ocrov av eKelvoi SieQwrr evQevrev Se TaSe irotevv- 
Taj, TceipavQai eKclvoov icepiyevicrQai. a>9 yap eyw 



Trvvdavofiai, Maarcrayerai eicrl ayaOwv re Heptruciav 
30 aireipoi, kcu kclXgov /meyaXtov cnraOeeg. tovtokti iSv 
Toiari av3pa<ri 9 t£>v irpofiarcw cupeiSeoos iroXXa 
KaraKo^avras, kcu (ncevacravTas, irpoOeivat ev tw 
(TTpaToweSq) tu> tj/uLerepu) Saira' irpog Se 9 kcu Kptj~ 
Ttjpas a(f)€i$€aft olvov atcpyTOv, kcu a-irla iravrota. 
35 TTOiqaavTas Se Tavra, viroXeiiroixivovq rtjs crrparirj^ 
to (piXavpoTaTOi> 9 rovg Xoiirovg aims 1 * e^ava^tapeeiv 
ewi tov Tcorafxov* tjv yap eyw yvd/tifjg M dfiapra) 9 
Keivoi lS6jUL€POL ayaOa iroXXa 9 rpe^ovral re irpos 

aVTO, KOI rjfXlV TO €V0€UT€V lh \€l7T€Tai a7TO^e^£9 3d 

40 epyw neyaXtav? 

(B. L 207.) 

Cyrus follows the advice of Croesus, crosses the Araxes, 
and defeats the Massagetae in battle. Among the captives 
was Spargapises, son of Tomyris. 

III. § 11. 

Tyco/mat fiev aurai crweaTao-av. K?j0O9 oe, fxe- 
T€i$ Tqv TrpoTepffp ywa/uLtjVy rhy Kpolo'ov oe e\6jui€vog 9 
irpotjyopeue To/uvpi e^apa-^wpieiVj m avrov Siafit]- 
<ro/j.evov err' cKelvtjv. *i fiev Srj i^ava^dpee, Kara 1 * 
5 v7rio")(€TO irpSiTa. Ki/joo? $e 9 T^poltrov e? Ta? \eipas 
earQeh tcS kmrrov iraiSi Ka/x/8wrj/, tw irep Ttjv 
ftaariXtjiqv eSlSov, ko! iroXXa ivTeiXajLuevos 01 TifJ-av 
Te avrov tcai ev Tcoieeiv 9 tjv *j oiapaang rj erri 
Maovayeras fxij opQoaQy* ravra ivTeiXafievos, ical, 

STORF OF CFRUS. III. $ 12. 115 

mntooreiXag Tovrovg eg Heparan avrog Ste/Saive tov 10 


JZvpog Se irpoeXOdbv airo rod 'A/xi^ew weptjg 
600 v, broke Tag Kpolcrov viroQfiKag. /xera Se ravra 9 
Jsjipov re teal Tiepceoov tov KaOapov (rrparou aireXd- 
cravrog SiriaroD brl tov 'Apa£ea, Xei<pdevTog Se tov 15 
a XP1 lov 9 ^rcXOoJ/cra t£j/ Maararayerecov Tpirrjfioph 
tov (rrparoSy Tovg re Xei(f)6evTag Trjg Kvpov crrpa- 
Ti*jg e<p6veve aXe^oiievovg, koi tijv TrpoKeijuevyv ISov- 
reg SaiTa, cog e^eipdxravTO Tovg evavrlovg 9 icXidevreg 
Salvvvro* irXripcodevTeg Se <f)op/3*jg koi o1vov 9 eSSov. 20 
oi Se Uepcrai eireXOovreg iroXXovg fiev tripewv e<po- 
vev<rav 9 iroXXai 5* en 7rXevvag** H^wyptjarav, /ecu 
aXXovg, koi tov T*jg fiatriXelrig Topvpiog iraiSa, 
oTpaTriyeovra Mao'crayereaBv, too ovvofxa %v ^iirapr 

yairlarqg. 25 

(B. i. 208, 211.) 

Tomyris sends a bitter menace to Cyrus, and taunts him 
with his dishonourable and unsoldierlike victory. Spar- 
gapises prays that his hands may be unbound, and instantly 
uses his liberty to destroy himself. 

IIL § 12. 

f H Se 9 7rv6ojUL€vtj to. t€ irepl t^i> (rrpaTitjv yeyo- 
vora koi Ta irep\ tov iralSa 9 ireinrovcra KrjpvKa Trap a 
K.vpov 9 eXeye T&Se* " * AirXqcrTe alfxarog Kvpe, 
fjLtiSev brapdrjg tw yeyovoTi T(SSe irpqyfxari, el 
ajULTreXlvw KapirS, Tip irep avTol efMiriirXafxevoi 5 

1 2 


fxalveaQe ovtw axrre kgltiovtos tov oivov e? to <t So/ma, 
€7rava7r\(ti€iv v/uliv cirea Kaica, toiovtu) (pap/xaxtp 
SoXdo<ja$ 9 eKpaTtjcras iraiSw tov cjulov, aXV ov fiayj/ 
Kara to Kaprepov* vvv &v fiev ev irapaiveovartjg 

*o viroXafie tov Xoyov. clttoSovs M°* tov iraiSa, airidi 
€K T*jar$€ tj}? X®PW «^7M*o?> "NLacrarayerewv TpiTtj- 
fioplSi tov arpaToS Kcm/fipicras 1 * . el Se /xh Toaha 
ov wou/crei?, tjXiov hrofxyvfil toi tov Mao-arayereoov 
SecnroTqv, $ fxtjv <re iyw, kcu airXtja'TOV covra, 

*5 ai/JLCLTOS KOpearw" J£vpo$ fxev vvv tS>v eicew ovSeva 
tovtwv avevei^OevTwv hroiiero Xoyov. 6 Se t§? 
fiaariXeitjf To/uvptog tcou? ^Trapyairio'rjs, a>9 puv o 
T€ olvov av*JK€ 9 kcu e/maOe "va tjv kclkov, SetjOeig 

J&jpOV €K T60V ScO-filobv Xvd*jVGLl 9 €TV)(€' ft>? $€ eXvQt] 

20 T€ Ta^io'Ta kcu t£>v yeipwv eKpaTtjo'e, Siepya^erai 
kwrrov. kcu Sij OUT09 /U€v Tpo7T(p toiovtw TeXevra. 

(B. i. 212, 213.) 

Tomyris is victorious after an obstinate fight, and insults 
the dead body of Cyrus. 

III. § 13. 

o/Jivpig oe 9 ft)? 01 o XSjupo? ovk ea'fjKOVcrey <n;AAe- 
£a<ra iraa'av tt\v eoovrtjg Svva/uuv, ovvefiaXe Ki5po). 
tclvtviv ttjv IJ-d^riVi oarcu Srj fiapftapow avSpZv M a X a£ 
eyevovro, Kplvoo ta")(ypoTdTfjv yeve&dar kcu $*] kcu 
5 irvvQavo/xai ovtw tovto yevopevov. irpS>Ta ixev yap 
Xeyercu avrovg Siaaravraf e$ aXXyXovg to^cvciv' 


fiera Se 9 a>? ar<pi ra jSeXea e^erero^evrOy trv^t- 

xeowra? Tycri alyjiyo-i re koli roitri eyyeipiSloiari, 

avve^earOar xpovov re St] hrl iroXXov avvearavai 

paypixevov$y tcai ovSerepovs ideXeiv <f}evyeiv reXog 10 

oe 9 ol Maaro-ayerai irepieyevovro. q re Sy iroXXii 

tjJ? Tlepariicw arrpaTirjs airov Tavry Scecpddprj, koi 

Stj ical avrof Ki/poy reXcvrSy ficujiXevaras ra yravra 

evo$ Seovra Tpiqicovra erea. aartcov Se irX^craara 

alfiarog avQpwirtjiov To/ui/p/?, eSlfyro ev roicri 15 

TeOvewcri tcov Tlepcreow tov Jivpov veicvv. a>9 Se 

evpe 9 evatrrJKe 1 * avrou rtjv K€<paXrjv eg tov olckov 

XvfJLaivo/uievrj Se tg5 veKpw 9 eTreXcye raSe* " 2v /mev epe 

Xwovcrav re koi vucSxrav (re /*aj£i/ cnr&Xeara?, iralSa 

tov efxov eXcJj/ S6X(p' ere S? eydb, Karairep la fjTreiXtjcra, 20 

alfJLCLTOS tcopeo'to." 

(B. i. 214.) 

IV. Cambyses in Egypt. 

Cambyses, son of Cyrus, marches against Amasis, King 
of Egypt, either from the mere lust of conquest, or because 
Amasis palmed off another woman upon him when he had 
asked his daughter in marriage. Cambyses, having got a 
safe conduct from the Arab chiefs, made his way to Egypt 
and found Psammenitus, son of King Amasis who had 
lately died, awaiting him. 

After an obstinate battle, Cambyses takes the city of 
Memphis, and the Egyptians and their neighbours sur- 
render themselves. 


IV. §1. 

'Ei/ Se tg5 TltjXovarlq) KaXeopevtp oto/jlotl rod 
Ne/Xov ecrrpaTOTreSevero "tyafiiuqviTOs o 'A/xacrio? 
waif, virofxivoDV Ka/iiSwrea. Ol Se Weparai, eirei re 
&e£eXa(rai/ t^i/ awSpov, 7£oito TreXa? t£v Ai- 
5 yvwriav <J>9 arvixfSaXeovres 9b . M a XW ^ yepopevw 
Kapreprjs, kcu irecrovroov e£ ajuKporepwv tS>v OTparo- 
ireSwv irXydei ttoXXwi/, erpairovro ol AlyvirTioi. 

Ol Se AiyviTTioi ex Tij9 M a X^> ®* erpcnrovTO, 
e<p€vyov ovSevl koct/ulu). KareiXij6ivT(ov Se h MejU^ti/, 

10 eirefxire ava Trorafxov Ka/ijSva*!;? j/ea 6h Mirr iXtjvcuTjv, 
Kypvica ayovarav avSpa Hepcrtjv, e? ofioXoylqv icpOKa- 
Xeo/xevos AiytrrrTiovs. ol Se 9 hrel tc tvjv vea eiSov 
eareXdovarav if rr\v M.e/j.(f)iv 9 eK^vOevreg dXeeg ck tov 
T€i-)(€09 9 rt\v re via Sie<pdeipav 9 Kal rovg avSpa? 

15 KpeovpytjSov Siaarira<ravTe$ 9 e<popeop e$ to ref^o?. 
Kal AiyvTrtioi fiev fiera tovto TroXiopKev/mevoi, 
Xp6v<p irapeaTfia'av. Ol Se irpoa-e^eeg Al/Sue?, Sel- 
aravre? ra irepl rrjv AjLyvirrov yeyovora, irapeSocrav 
crcpias avrove afxa^ffrr Kal (popov re era^avroy 

20 Kal SS>pa eirefJLirov. a>? Se Kt/jOi/vafoi Kal Haptcaioi, 
Selcravres o/noico? a Kal ol A/jSue?, erepa roiavra 


(B. iii. 10-13.) 

Psammenitus, sitting at the gate of Memphis, watched 
with dry eyes his daughter go into slavery, and his son 
being taken to execution — such sorrow -lay too deep for 


tears. Bat he broke down on seeing the beggary and 
distress of an old friend. Cambyses restored the king to 
favour, but he was found fomenting a revolt, and was put 
to death, by being forced to take a draught of bull's 

IV. § 2. 

'HjULeprj Se Se/caTvj air 9 %$ irapeXafie to rei^o? to 

€v M.€fi<pi Ka/ijSwrj;?, icar/ora? 1 * €9 to irpoaaTeiov 

ejri Xv/mrj tov /3a(riXia tS>v AlyvnrTiwv ^faju/uLtiviTOV, 

fiaarikeuo-avra fxrjvas ej~, tovtov Karia-ag arvv aXXouri 

AlyvTrrloKTi, Sien-eiparo avrou t?9 '^I'X'ta Troiiwv 5 

TOiaSe. areiXag avrov Ttjv Ovyarepa iarOrjri SovXrjtrj, 

i^cTrefxire be vSoop eyovaav vSprfiov avviirefxire Se 

Kal aXAa? irapOivovg airoXe^ag avSpwv tS>v Trpwr(av 9 

ofjioitag ioTaX/iivag Trj rod fiaariXiof. £)? Se fioy 

re Kal KXavdjimp iraptfiarav al irapOevoi irapa tov$ 10 

trarepasy 01 /mev aXXot irarepeg avefioow re Kal 

avreKXaiov, opiovre? ra reKva KeKaKoo/meva' 6 Se 

tyafA/myviTOS, irpoiSwv koi jmaOwv, e/ci/x^e €9 t*iv yrjv, 

irapej-eXOovanioov 60 Se t£>v iSpo<p6pcov y Sevrepa 01 tov 

iraiSa eire/mire fxer aXXwv AlyvTrriwv Sia")(iXia>v Tqv 15 

avrijv fjXiKirjv e^0VT(av 9 tov$ T€ av^iva^ KaXtp 5 * 

SeSepevovs, koi to, aTO/j.aTa eyKe^aXivcofxevovg. 

fyyovro Se Trotvfjv Ticrovreg MuTiXyvaloov toio'i ev 

Me/japi aTToXofievoio-i arvv Trj vqi 6h ' Taura yap 

eSUaarav 01 fiacriXrfioi SucaoTal, xnrep avdpb? €Ka<rrov 20 

SeKa AiyvTTTiow t5>v irpwroov avrairoXXvcrOai. 6 $e 9 

ISt&v irapefyovrag, /ecu /uaOdbv tov iralSa ayiveo/uevov 



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25 eirolrjare to /ecu enri tjJ dvyarpl. irapeXQovTwv Si 


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tov iralSa eiri QavaTOV frrel^ovra, ovre cW/8a>cra9 4a , 

40 ovre axeicAawrar tov Se Trncypv, ovSev croi 7rpoarq- 

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45 oy ex ttoXXoov Te koi evSaifxovanv eWeaw, eg irrwyrjiriv 
airiKTai erri ytjpaos og ovocp. J\a* Tavra &s aireveiy^ 

tfclTa I/7TO TOVTOV, €V OOK€€lV 01 etptJCTUai. M? 0€ 

Xeyerai vtt 1 Aiyinrrloov, Saicpveiv fxev Kpoicrov, ere- 
revj(ee 8b yap teal ovrog eiricriro/iAevos Ka/ijSi/<ri; eV 


Aiyvwrov, SaKpveiv Se Tlepaewv tov? irapeovrar 50 

awry re Ka/Ujdwrj? ecreXOeiv oiktov riva 9 kcu avrUa 

KeXeveiv tov re ol iratSa ck tS>v airoXXvfievoov <jto(eiv, 

kcu avrov €K tov irpoaaTeiov avaoryo-avras, ayeiv 

irap 9 eoovrov. Toy jxev Stj iralSa eSpov ol jULeriovref 

omen irepieovra, aXXa irpOrov KaTOKOirevra' avrov 55 

Se ^faixfiriviTov avaoTyaravTeg, %yov irapa Ka/Aj9wr«r 

tvQa tov Xonrov Stairaro, e^tav ovSev filaiov. el Se 

kcu rJTriOTTiQfi /xtj TroXvwptjyfioveetVy cnreXafie av 

AxyvTTTOv, (Sore eirrrpoTceveiv avTvjg. ^rei Tifiav 

edOacri Ueptrai t&v fiaariXecov tov? iraiSas, twv 9 tjv 60 

kcu acpewv axo<rr€G>(r* 8a , ofxcog tokti ye iraicri avrwv 

airoSiSovo'i 10 * t*jv apxyv. vvv Se fAtj^avd/uLevog Kaica 

6 ^afijuqviTOf, eXajSe tov piarOov airiaTag yap 

AlyvTTTiovg jyAft). eirel re Se hratarog eyevero, viro 

Ka/i/8Jo-ect) atjuia Tavpov ttkov, aireQave Trapa^prjfia. 65 

ovrw Sij 0WT09 ereXevrfjce. 

(B. iii. 14-16.) 

After this, Cambyses entered on that career of impiety 
which was sure to bring down the vengeance of heaven. 
He sacrilegiously burned the body of his old enemy 
Amasis, and began to plan wild schemes of conquest. 

He sent spies — men of the tribe of Ichthyophagi, because 
they understood the Ethiopian language — to report upon 
the power of the Ethiopians, and to carry gifts to the 
king, a robe of purple dye, a golden necklace, bracelets, a 
box of perfume, and a cask of wine. But the king sent 
him back a taunting answer. 



IV. § 3. 
'E? tovtovs Sri &v rovg avSpas w$ clttUovto 01 
'Ixffooipayoi, StSovre? ra SS>pa r^S fiao-iKei avrobv, 
eXeyop TaSe' "BatrtXev? 6 TLepcrewv Ka/Aj3ucrty?, 
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SjSerai 'xpecofxevog*' f O Se Afd/oxfr, [xaQwv Sri 
Karoirrai qicoiev, \iyei irpos avrovs roiaSe* " Oirre 
6 Tleptrecoy fiacriXevg Siipa ifxeas exe/x^e <j)€povras 9 

io TrpoTc/uLecov iroXXov e/xol $elvo$ yevearQar ovre v/meig 
Xeyere aXij6ea 9 SjKere yap jcaroirrat rr)g efxw apx*jg 9 
ovre eiceivo? avtjp e<m Slicaw el yap ?jv Sltcaios, 
ovt av eireOv/jLtja-e )(wp*is aXXtjg t) rrj? ecovrov 9 out 
av ey SovXoarvvtjv avdpwirovg %ye vtt' 1 * wv fxrjSev 

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j8acr«Xei'9, ical vofj.l<ra$ etpai crcpea ireSag, elire £9 
nrap ea>vroi<rl elcri pw/JLaXewrepcu tovtwp ireSai. 
Tphop Se, elpdra to /mvpov. eliraprcop Se tj/9 
iroiycriog irepi kcu aXetyios, top qvtop Xoyop top 
kcu irepi tov elfxaTog etire. o>? Se e$ top oTpop 35 
amiceTO, kcu hrvOeTO avTOV tj/i/ iroiqaip, virepqo'deU 
t£ ironari, eirelpeTO o ti T€ aiTeerai 6 fiacriXevs, 
kcu xpopop okoo-op 10 jxaKpoTorop avhp Tlepo-w jjwec. 

01 Se (TiTeeardai pep top apTOP eiirap, efyiytio'afji.epoi 
tS>p irvpZp Tfjv (fyva'ip' oyS&KOPra** S* erect %6w 40 
irXypos/uLa apSpl ixaKpoTCvrop irpOKeeaOai* irpos toSto, 

6 AidtOY* e<p>i, ovSep dtafxaCeip^ , el (rvreofiepoi 
KOirpop, erea oXiya Xfiova-r ovSe yap ap Tovavra 
SvpacrOai tyeip (rtfyeas, el fAtj t$ iropaTi avecpepov, 
<ppd^o)v TOi<ri J I')(0vo(j)ayoio'i top oTpop 9 tovto yap 45 
ewuTottg iiro TLepveoap eovovo-Qai. (B. ill. 22.) 

Cambyses, transported with anger, sent against the 
Ethiopians an army so ill supplied that in the terrible 
stress of famine they had to turn cannibals. Another host 
sent against the Ammonians perished in a sand storm. 

IV. § 4. 
AvrUa Se 6 Ka/ifSt/o-T/?, opyrjp 7roirjcra/JL€V09, 
eo'Tparevero eirl tow JilQloirav ovre irapavKeviju 


viTOV ovSe/jilav TrapayyetXa?, oure \6yov etavrtp Sow, 
on eg tcl eayara rrjs yvjs epeWe oTparevea-Oai. 
5 ota Se ejUL/ULavrjs re eav tcai ov <ppevqptjg 9 <2>9 qicove twv 
I")(6vo<f)aywv 9 e<rrpaT€veT0 9 f E\\yva>v jjlIv tovs 
nrapeovrag avrov ravrfj ra^ag vTro/ULeveiv, tov Se 
ire(£ov nravra a /ma dyofievog. 'Enrel re Se crrpaTevo- 
fievog eyevero ev Oj/jSj/cti, aireicpive tov arpcvrov a>9 

io Tr&vre jULvptdSas* kcu tovtokti JJLev evereKXero, 'Aju^aw- 
iovs ej-avSpcnroSio-a/jLevovs to ypnarfipiov to tov 
Aio? efurpfaar avros Se tov Xoittov aya>v (TTpaTOV, 
fji'e ex* tov? AlQlonras. Hpiv Se tj/9 oSov to xeju- 
wrov jJL&pos SieXrjXvOevat Ttjv orpciTihv, avrUa iravra 

15 airovf tcl ei^ov ovriw e-^ojJLeva eireXeXoiTree^ '• fxera 
Se tu o'lTia, kcu tcl virofyyia eireXnre KaTea-Qiofxeva' 
ci JJLev vw fxaQtov Tavra 6 Ka/Aj8wrj/9 eyvaxrifji.a'xee, 
Kol airvjye oirlcna tov orpaTOVj exi T*j apyjiQev 
yevofxevrj djULapraSi Jjv av crocpos avyp' vvv Se ovSeva 

20 Xoyov xoi ei5juei/09, ijie alel 3a eV to Trpocra). 01 Se 
crrpaTiSnrai, eo>9 [lev ti efyov eK tj/$ yw Xapfiaveiv, 
iroiij^ayeovTeg SieQaov errei Se €9 t>jv ^afjifiov 
aiciKOVTO, Seivbv epyov avrwv Tives epyaaravro' ck 
S&caSog yap eva a"(f)ewv avrZv airoicXiipi&o'avTes, icaTe- 

25 <f>ayov. TTvQoixevos Se tcwtcl 6 Ka^jSvo-^, Scleras 
Tfjv aX\rj\o(j)ay[tiv 9 aireh 1 * tov en AlOloirag 
cttoXop, OTrlara) eiropeveTO, kcu cnriicveeTai €9 O^jSay, 
iroXXovg airoXecrag tov aTpcvrov. etc Qriftew Se 
KaTe($ri e? MefA(f)iv. 6 /xep. ev AlOioiras crroAoy 


ovtcd eicpr&e* 01 0* avrwp in ' K.jjlixwiovs airotrra- 30 
\ipre? arrparevea-dai airuco/xevoi fxev (fravepoi eltri 
€9 *Oacni/ TroXii/ - ro epQevrep Se 9 on /xtj avrol 

' A/ULjUidviOl KOI 01 TOVTODP aKOV<TaPT€$ 9 SXXoi OvSeP€S 

ovSev eypvcri elirelp irepi avrZp 9 ovre yap eg T01/9 

'AfijULoovlovs airiKOPTO, ovre otticod epocrrqo'ap* \iye- 35 

Tac oe iccu Taoe wtt ch/tow AfAfuopioop* eireidfj e/c tj/9 

'OaoYO? tch/t^s iVvac om tj/9 ^afxpov eir\ o-cjyeas, 

yevecrOai re avrot/s fiera^v kov fxaXitrra avrw re 

Ka\ t?9 'Oacnoy, apKTTOP aipeo/icpoKri avT0i<ri 

eimrveva-ai potop fieyap re kcu ej*ai<riop 9 (fropeopra Se 4° 

6lva$ rijs y\rafiimov 9 Kara-^wcral cr^ea?, kou rpoirtp 

toiovtw a(pavicr6rjvai. 

(B. iii. 25, 26.) 

When Cambyses reached Memphis he found the people 
celebrating the avatar of the calf Apis. Thereupon he 
put the priests to death, and stabbed the sacred calf. 

IV. § 5. 
1 Airiyfiepov Se Ka/i/Swreco ey Me^tv, e(f>aprj Ai- 
y\rjrTioi<ri 6 v Airt9, eirKJxipios Se tovtov yepofiipov, 
avrUa ol AlyviTTioi eifxara re icpopeop ra /caX- 
Azo'Ta, tcai fjo-ap ip OaXlfjart. lS<ap Se ravra tow 
AlyvTrrlov? iroievprag 6 Ka/AjSva-jy?, irayyy crcpea? 5 
KaraS6^ag 9 etavrov kclkoos Trpyi-apros, yapnoavva 
ravra icoieeip, exaXee rovg eiriTpoirovs rtjg Mcju- 
<pw airiKOfiepovs Se ey oyjnp, elpero "o ri irpo- 
repop pep, eopro? avrov ep M.€/i<pi, hrolevp roiourop 



io of del/ AiywTTTior rore oe 9 eirei avrog wapeifj ryg 
<rr paring irXfjOog ri airo^aXdv ; " o« Se e(ppa^ov 9 
wg o^i 0eoy eirj (paveh, Sia ypovov iroXXov ewOwg 
eiri<j)aive<rdar kcu wg eireav (pavfj rore iravreg ot 
Alyvirrioi Ke^aptjKoreg oprafyiev**. ravra aKovaag 

156 KajUjSwny? e<f)rj y^evSearOal o"(p€ag' kcu cog \f/-et/<Jo- 
fAevovg, 6avaT(p efy/miov. 'AtroKreivag Se rovrovg, 
Sevrepa rovg ipeag eK&Xee eg o^iv. Xeyovrow Se Kara 
ra avra rZv ipeoov, ov X^creiv e(j>ri avrov, el Oeog 
rig xeipoyOrig airiyfxevog eltj Alyvirrioia-i. rocravra 

20 Se e*nrag 9 eirayeiv eiceXeve rov "Attiv rovg ipeag- 01 
/Jiev S*j nerrfCa-av a^ovreg. *Qg Se tjyayov rov "Anriv 
01 ipeeg, 6 Ka/AjSi/o"j/9, ota edov virofiapyorepog, 
o'Traa'afievog to eyxeipiSiov, OeXcov rv^at ryv 
yacrrepa rod "Atio?, iralei rov fitjpov yeXaarag 

25 Se, etire irpog rovg Ipeag* "*Q kclkcu Ke(paXai 9 
roiovroi Geo] ylvovrai 9 evaifiol re xai (rapK&Seeg, koI 
eiratovreg o-iSqptow ; a£iog nev Alyvirrloov ovrog ye 
6 deog. arap roi vpeig ye ov ^alpovreg yeXoora e/me 
6y<T€<r0e" Tavra elirag, evereiXaro roitri ravra 

30 irpyo'O'ovo'i, rovg fiev Ipeag airo/j.aarriyobo'ai, Alyvir- 

rloov Se rSiv aXXoov rov av Xaftooo'i 6praCpvra* f 

Kreiveiv. oprrj Sij SieXeXvro Aiyvwrioio'i' 01 Se 

Ipeeg eSucai€vvro 9d . 6 Se "Anrig TrenrXnynevog rov 

Mpov 9 €<p6ive ev T(p ipop KaraKeifievog. kcu rov fxev 9 

35 reXevrqa-avra etc rov rpdofiarog, eQa^av 01 ipeeg 

Xadpvj Ka/uifivo-eu). 

(B. iii. 27, 29.) 


After this sacrilege Cambyses began to show all the 

frenzy of a raving madman. He had his brother Smerdis 

put to death. Then he killed his sister because she 

mourned, and shot the son of his minister Prexaspes 

through the heart to prove his own sanity and steadiness 

of hand. 

IV. § 6. 

TaSe S* €9 tow aXXovg THp<ra$ e^e/mawi. Xeyerat 
yap etireiv avrov wpos Tlpri^aa-Trea, tov erlfia re /*a- 
\i<rra> /cat ol rag ayyeXla? ecpopee ovto$, tovtov Te 
6 irais olvo"^oo9 yv rcS Ka/*jSwrj/, rifiy Se koi airy 
ov o-fiiicpr)' elireiv Se Xeyerai tclSc " Hp^aa"jreg 9 5 
koiov fie rtva vo/uLifyvcri Uepo-at etvai avSpa ; rlvag re 
Aoyovs irepi e/meo iroievvrai ; lov oe eiireiv ii 
Secnrora, ra /xev aXXa iravra jmeyaXa^ eiraiveeai Ty 
Se (f>iXoivljj <re (pacri ttXcovws TrpoaKeea-Qai" Tov 
/xev Sy Xeyeiv ravra ire pi Uepcrecov. tov Se y QvjJLwQ&vra, io 
TOiaSe afieiPeorOar " Nvv a pa pe (pa<ri Uepcrac olvtp 
irpo^Kelfxevov 7rapa(j>pov€ew> koi ovk etvai vofoova ; 
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etvai 7rpog tov irarepa. 01 Se afiel/Hovro, £9 eiq 
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e^eiv avrov, koi irpoo-eicTtjo-Oat AZyvirTov Te /ecu Tfjv 
OaXao-o-av. Ueparai /xev Srj TavTa eXeyov KooFo-o? 
Se irapedv Te koi ovk apecrKOfievog tj Kplcrei, etire 20 
irpo$ tov Ka/AjSwrea TaSe* "'E/uot fxev vw 9 <$ irai 


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2 5 Kpolcrov Kplo-ip. Tovrwv Srj wv hrijJLVfi(r0evTa 9 opyrj 
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el Xeyovai Uepcrai aXrjOea, evre avrol Xeyovre? 
ravra irapacppoviovcrt. el ph/ yap tov iraiSos rod 
(rod TOvSe 9 ecrTeSrros ev toicti Trpo6vpoi<ri 9 fiaXwv 

30 Tv^oifii fjLeo-qg tj}? KapSi*js 9 Uepcrai (j>aveovrai 9h 
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Aeyeiv aArjvea, Kai efie fxr\ craxppoveeiv. 1 aura oe 
6iVoi/ra, Ka\ Starelvairra to to£ov, fiaXeeiv tov 
iratSa' irecrovrog Se tov iraiSb$ 9 avaa"xf(eiv avrov 

35 iceXeveiv, teal crictyacrQai to flXq/jLa* 009 Se ev Trj 
tcapSlr} evpeOrjvat evedvra tov oicttov^ elirelv irpos 
tov iraTepa tov iraiSbg, yeXdcravra, ica\ irepi^apea 
yevofAevov " Upyj»ao"7re$ 9 a>9 fxev eycaye ov fxalvofxai^ 
Uepcrai re irapa(f)poveovcri 9 StjXd toi yeyove. vvv Se 

40 fioi elire, Tiva etSeg tjSq iravrasv avOpdwcov ovtw 

eirlo-KOTra Toj»evovTa ; " Tlpqj»d<nrea Se opeovra 

avSpa ov <f)pevypea, ical irepi ewvrcS Seifialvovra 9 

enreiv ileanroTa, ovo av avrov eywye ooKeoo tov 

deov ovtw av icaXwg jSaXeiv." 

(B. iii. 34, 35.) 

The End of Cambyses. 

The brutal excesses of Cambyses wearied out his 
Persian subjects. The Magians seized the opportunity 

STORr OF POLYCRATES. V. § i. 1 29 

to regain their powers, which had been curtailed by the 
two last kings. They brought forward an impostor to 
represent the dead Smerdis, and fostered the spirit of 
revolt in all the provinces and in the army itself. 

Cambyses hastened back from Egypt to punish the 
pretender and his followers, but in mounting his horse he 
wounded himself with his own sword in the thigh, just as 
he had once wounded Apis, and within a month he died 
at a Syrian village Agbatana, in literal fulfilment of an 

V. The Story of Polycrates. 

Poly crates was tyrant of Samos (532-523 b.c ) . Famous 
in arts and in arms, he seemed to afford another example 
of the danger of exceeding prosperity. His friend Amasis, 
King of Egypt, wrote a letter to him, praying him to 
sacrifice something that he held most precious, if by so 
doing he might avert the jealous wrath of heaven. 

V. § 1. 

ejv yjpovw oe oAiyw avruca tov LloAvKpareos to 

irp^y/uLara qu^ero, kcu ?jv jSe^Sayxeya 4 * ava re rrjv 

I(ovlfjv 9 K<xi rrjv aXArjv *EXXa<Ja. okou yap IQicreie 

trrparevecrOaiy iravra 01 e^dpee ei5Tt/)( eft) ?- ckttjto 


etpepe Se kcu qye iravra^ SiaKplvow ovSeva. rqi yap 
<pl\w e(f)rj yapieeo-Qai** fiaAAov cnro8i8ov$Ta eXctjSe, 
y apyriv fjajSev \af3wv. (rv^yag fJ-ev $rj tS>v vya-ow 
apaiprjKee, iroWa Se ko\ rrjs qirelpov acrrea* ev Se 
Sij kcu AecrjS/ot/?, 7rav<TTpaTtrj fiwQeovTas** M*- 10 
XtlffloKTi, vaviJLayly Kparqaras ei\e 9 01 rrjv Tci(ppov 



irepl to T€i")(os to ev ^a/m(p irao-av SeSe/mevoi 
wpvj~av. Kai Ktag tov "Afiaciv evrv^ecov i*eya- 
Xa>g 6 TloXuKpaTfjg ovk eXav6ave 9 SiXXa 01 tovt 

*J> %v errijueXey. iroXXqi Se eri 7rXevvog** 01 evTvylvig 
yivo/uievtjg, ypa^ag eg fiif$Xlov raSe, eTrecrTeiXe eg 
^cljjlov* " v A/tacri9 TloXuKparei ofrSe Xeyei. 'HSv 
fjiev irvvOavecrOai avSpa (frlXov kcu £elvov ev Trpricr- 
a'ovra' efJLol Se al oral peyaXai evrv^lai ovk ape- 

20 o'kovo'i, to Qeiov hncrrafxevw wg eari (j>6ovepov. Kai 
Ktog /3ovXofj(.ai 9 Kai avrog 9 Kai t£>v av K^Scojuiai, to 
fiev ti evrv^eeiv tS>v Trprjy/ULaTWV, to Se Trpoo"irTaleiv 
Kai ovtcd Sia(j>epeiv tov alwva evaXXa£ irptia-crdDv, 
tj evrv^eeiv tcl iravra. ovSeva yap Kta Xoycp oiSa 

25 aKOvarag, oarig eg TeXog ov KaKwg eTeXevTijo'e irpop- 
pt%og 9 evTV)(€(av Ta iravra. 2v Sv vvv e/mol ireiQo- 
fievog, 7rolrjarov irpog Tag evrv^lag TOtaSe' <f>povTiarag 
to av eupyg eov toi irXeia-TOV a£iov 9 Kai hr w <rv 
airoXofxevw p.aXio~ra ty\v ^vyj\v aXyrjo'eig, tovto 

30 OLTro^aXe ovtw 9 OKwg fiitjKeri *i£ei eg av0pa>7rovg. >jv 
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Tfja-i TraQycri Trpoo-TriirTiaa'i^ Tpoirip tw e£ e/neu 
6iroKei^ V <p «W'o 8 « ." (B ^ ^ ^ 

Therefore Polycrates cast into the sea a costly emerald 
ring. But it soon came back to its master in the belly of 
a fish. When Amasis saw from this, that sentence had 
gone out against Polycrates, he wrote to him renouncing 
such dangerous friendship. 


V. § 2. 
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/8w (09 01 ev virerlQeTO A.fxao-ig 9 eSlfyro eir & av 
fAaXiara Ttfv 'fyvyriv a<rvfieiir\ cnroXofjLevw twv Keipy- 

XlW $lty/UL€VOS S* €Vpi<TK€ ToSe. tjv 01 (T(ppriy}g 2d 

Tfjv icpopee jQovtrooWo?, crfxapaySov jmev XlOov eovora, 5 
epyov Se r)v OeoSdpov tov Tj/AeicXeo? Holjuliov €7rel 
cSi/ Tavrqv 01 eSoKee cnrofiaXetv, eirolee TOiaSe. irev- 
rrjKovTepov TrXrjpUHTag avSpwv, evefiri eg avrqv ixera 
Se 9 avayayetv eKeXeve eg tq ireXayog' cog Se airo 
Trjg vrjcrov eicag eyevero, irepteXoimevog tv\v (T(pprjyi8a, 10 
ttclvtow opeovTiav toov ovfnrX6wv 9 plirTei eg to ireXa- 
yog* tovto Se iroiqo'ag, cnreirXee. cnriKOfxepog Se eg 
tol oiKia, crvjUL(f>opfj e^pfJTO. UefjL7rTy Se ri eKTy 

rjfJLCpri OLTTO TOVT(0V 9 TClSe 01 <TVVt[p€lK€ y€P€(r6oU. CLVTjp 

dXtevg, Xafiwv l")(6vv fxeyav re kcu icaXop, t)%lov (jllv 15 
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Se ol tovtov, eXeye 9 SiSovg top i)(6vp 9 "*Q fiaartXeVy 
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Kalnrep ye edop airo'^eipofiiwTog, aXXa /uloi eSoxee 20 
<reu Te eivai afyog kcu Trjg <rr)g apxyg* crol Sy jjliv 
(pepwp SlSw/JU." 'O Se 9 r)crOe\g roicri execn, afieifierai 
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K 2 A 


irepi to Tefyog to ev ^a/ucp iravav SeSe/mevoi 
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(TOVTa* e/moc Se al <ra\ peyaXai evTvylai ovk ape- 

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fiev tl evrv^eeiv tS>v TrprjyimaTwv, to Se irpocnrTaleiv 
kcl\ ovtcd Sia<pepeiv tov aiZva evaXXaj* irprjcrarw, 
$i €vtv)(€€w to, iravra. ovSeva yap kod Xoyta otSa 

25 aKoicrag 9 ocrrig eg TeXog ov /catcw? ereXevTrjare irpop- 
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to av evprjg eov toi irXelo'TOV a£iov 9 ical en aS <rv 
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30 aicojiaXe ovtod 9 OKtog /ULtjiceTi vj£ei eg avOpwirovg. yv 
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Tricri iraQycri TcpocnrlTrTUKTi, Tpoirw tw ej* e/mev 

VTrOK€lU€V(p aK€0 8c " /T > ... ^ ,^\ 

^ ' (B. 111. 39, 40-) 

Therefore Polycrates cast into the sea a costly emerald 
ring. But it soon came back to its master in the belly of 
a fish. When Amasis saw from this, that sentence had 
gone out against Polycrates, he wrote to him renouncing 
such dangerous friendship. 


V. § 2. 
TaJJra eiriXe^afievog 6 TloXvicpaTqg, /ecu vow Xa- 
j8Ai/ wg 01 ev iirerlQero A.fxa(rig 9 eSfi£rjT0 eir & dv 
fiaXicrra tvjv ^vyriv acrjOeltj airoXo/xevw twv #c«/xj/- 
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7**71/ ecpopee ypvoroSerog, cfxapaySov julcp XlOov eovcra, 5 
epyov Se %v QeoSwpov tov T*/Xe*Xeo9 2a/z/oir eirei 
&v TavTfjv 01 eSoicee curo^aXetv, eirolee TOtaSe. irev 
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Se 9 avayayeiv eiceXeve eg tq 7reXayog m wg Se airo 
Ttjg vffcrov eKag eyevero 9 TrepteXojuLevog rhv (r<pptjyi§a 9 10 
iravrwv opeovrwv twv ovfXTrXowv 9 plirTei eg to 7reXa- 
yor tovto Se Troiy<rag, axe7rXee. airiKo/xevog Se eg 
to our/a, avfKpop^ expfJTO. IlejUXTjy Se rj eKTy 
fj/xepri airo tovtwv 9 TaSe 01 crvvyveiice yeveaOcu. avtjp 
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eyw TOvSe eXwv 9 ovk eSiicaiaxra (pepeiv eg ayoprjv, 
Kaiirep ye ewv aTroxeipofttcoTog, dXXa /mot eSotcee 20 
a-ev Te eivai a^iog kcu Ttjg crijg apyfjg' o"o) Sy /xiv 
(pepwv SISwjuu." 'O Se 9 foOeig tolcti eirecri., afxel^erat 
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K 2 


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AZyvwTov eTreOqice. 'E'7r/Xe^a/xej/09 Se 6 "AfjLCKrts 

35 to (SifiXiov to irapa rod TloXvicpareos $kop, e/xaOe 
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40 01 KypvKa €? Hd/mov, SiaXveo'Oai e<p*j tv\v j~eivit]V. 

rovSe Se elveKa ravra errolee, wa /mrj, crvvTW)(iw Setprjs 

re kcu fieyaXtjg JJoXvKparea KaTaXa/!}ou<Tt]$ 9 avrog 

aXytjO'eie rrjv "^vy^y a>$ nrepl $elvov apSpog. 

(B. iii. 41-43) 

Yet Fortune still seemed to smile on Poly crates; but 

the end was now drawing near. Oroetes, satrap of Sardis, 

laid a snare for him, offering to deposit all his wealth in 

Samos with Polycrates, as he feared the grasping hands of 


V. § 3. 

liro J\>vpov KaracrTaueis rjv 2Japoio&v virap^og 

'Opo/ri/?, avrip Wepo-ris. ovTog eTreOvjuLtja-e irpriy- 

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jmaratop e^ro? irpog TIoXvKpaTeo? rod 2)a/x/oi/ 9 ovre 


iioov TTporepov, Xa/3d>v airrbv airoXeo-ar 5 
a>9 (lev ol trXevve? 4a Xeyovari, Sta roiqvSe Tiva 
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MtTjOOjSaTea, vofiov ap)(ovra tov ev AaavaAe/ft), 
Tovrovg ck Xoywv eg veUea arvfxire<reiv. Kptvofxevtav 10 
Se Trep\ apery?, elirelv tov MiTpofiaTea T(p 'Oporrj;, 
Trpocfrepovra* " 2u yap ev avSpoov Xoycp, 09 j8a<nXeF 
vtj<rov ^a/uiov Trpbg T<p cr<£ voijlw irpocrKeifjLevrjv ov 
Trpoo'€KTyo'ao Se , wSe Sy ti eovcrav ev7T€Tea yeipobQvjvai ; 
tijv T<av ti? eiri^ploDV wevreKalSeica owXiTfjO'i 15 

eiravao'Tas ^X 6 ' Kai v ^ v ai ^ T S? Tvpavveveu' e O 
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MaiavSpov iroTafxov oiKtj/uLevr), exe/xxe Wivparov tov 
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fxaOwv tov HoXvicpaTeo? tov voov. TloXvKpaTijs 70^0 20 
eon irpS>TO$ twv tifxelg ISfxev 'TSiXXyvoov, os 0aXacr<ro- 
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kcu el §r[ Tig aXXos irpoTepos tovtov *Spl~€ tj/9 OaXdo'- 
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9 OpoiT*j9, irefji^as ayyeXlyv, eXeye tclSc " 'OpoiTW 
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fxev (rewvroV) crdcreig Se Kai ifie. c/jloi yap fiacriXev? A 


Ka/uL^vcrtjg eirtfiovXevei Oavarov, ical fxoi tovto 
e^ayyiXXeTai (racprjvews. <tv vvv ejxe i/ctco/ilo-as, 
airrov kcu jdo^ara, Ta fxev avrwv avrog ej(e, Ta 
35 Se ifie ea eyeiv* elveicev Te yjpvnj.aT(ov 9 ap£ei$ airacrris 
f #/? 'E\Aa<Jo9. €i Se fioi aTtKTTeetg ra irep\ r&v 
yptlfjiaTow, irifi^ov oa-ny toi nricrToraros Tvyx&vei 
e»v, T(o iy& i7ro8i&**:' (B yj I20 _ I22>) 

Polycrates was easily caught by the offer, and, in spite 
of the warnings which came to his daughter in a dream, he 
sailed for Sardis to fetch the treasure. No sooner had he 
landed than Oroetes seized him and put him to a horrible 

V. §4. 

Tai/ra aKovcag 6 TioXvKpartjt, q<rQti re ical 
eftovXero* ical #ca>y, Ijxelpero yap 'xprnxartov fieya- 
Xa>9, a7ro7re/j.7r€i TrpcoTa Karo^Ofievov MaiavSpiov 
avSpa Twv aarrwv, os ol %v ypaiuLfiaTKrTW' 'O Se 
5 'OpoiTri?, fiiaOcbv top KaraarKOirop eovra irpocSo^ 
kijulov, eirolee roiaSe. Xapvcucag oktu> TrXypdxras 
Xl6(ov, irXfjv Kapra (3pa)(€09 tov irepl aura ra 
j^e/Xea, hwroXrj? riov XlQtav ^pvcrov ewe^aXe' 
KaraSyara? Se ra$ Xapvaicag, et^e croc pas. eXOwv 
jo Se 6 MaiavSpios, ical OrMtraixevos, airriyyeiXe T(S 
HoXvicpdrei. 'O Se 9 iroXXa fiev twv jjLavrlwv 
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ifipi perewpov eovrcLy Xovadai /xev inco tov Ato?, 15 
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iravToli] eylpero firj airoSrnx?i(rai top UoXvieparea 
trapa top 'OpoiTea' kou Srj kcu Ioptos avrov enri 
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tip <rS>s cnropooTqcg, woXXop fj.iv yjpopop irapdepev- 20 
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a£/o>9 a7njyq(no$ 'OjOo/t^?, apeoravpaxre. tcop Se 01 
eTTO/nepcop ocroi pep Jjcrap ^a/uuoi, a7r*JK€ 9 kcXcvcop 35 
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OvyaTpog* cXovto pep yap vtto tov A109 okco? voi 9 
e^piero oe viro tov tjAiov, apiei$ avros etc 


cob/uaTOf iK/maSa. TloXvKpareos fJ.ev Sij at 'lroKkai 

evrv^lai e? tovto ereXevrijoraVj Ty 01 "A/xaarig 6 

Alyvirrov fiacriXeuf irpoe/ULavrevaraTO. 

, (B. iii. 123-125.) 

VI. The Story of Zopyrus. 

The story of Cambyses ended with the usurpation of 
the throne by the false Smerdis, through the influence of 
the magi. The imposture was soon discovered, and seven 
of the principal men of Persia formed a conspiracy and 
assassinated the pretender in his palace, along with the 
magi his accomplices. 

Darius, son of Hystapes, succeeded to the throne of 
Persia, and thoroughly organised his kingdom by a system 
of satrapies. 

But the satrapy of Babylon was soon in revolt, and 
Darius laid siege to the city, which held out for twenty 
months, till Zopyrus, a noble Persian, proposed a stratagem 
for gaining admission into the town: like the trick by 
which Tarquin became master of Gabii (Livy, i. 53). 

VI. § 1. 

e O fiev Zcbwvpos irpoareXOcov Aapeiw aireirvv- 
6avero 9 el irepl iroXXov Kapra iroieerai ti\v BajSi/- 
\S>va eXeiv. irvQofxevog $€ cog ttoXXov tz/agSto, aXXo 

e/3ov\€V€T0 9 OKC09 CLVT09 T€ €<TTai 6 eXtoV CLVTrjV, KCU 

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ai ayauoepyiai eg to Trpoarco fAeyaveo?' ti/uloovtcu. 
AXXo) /j,iv vvv ovk ecppa^ero epyqy Svvarog etval 


fitv viro'xeiplfiv 7roi*jcrai 9 e< S* kwvrov XoD^fjaa/xevo^ 
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irapa Aapeiov. Aapeio? Srj Kapra ftapew tjveiice, 
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av oe, air 17? av fjiuieprjs eyw eaeXvoo e? to tcij^o?, 




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XiXiovs rd^ov Kara tcl$ ^e/jupd/juos KaXeofievas 
irvAay fiera oe avris> awo tjj9 deKaTrjs e$ epoo/uLtjv, 
aXXovg juloi raj~ov Siar^iXlovg Kara rag Nwlwv 

40 KaXeofievas trvXa?' airo Se t?9 efiSonw SiaXnrwv 
eiKOcri fjiuL€pa$, eirevrev aXXow KaTtcrov, ayaywv kcltol 
rag XaXSalwv KaXeofievag irvXas, Terpaicio"xiXlovf. 
eypvrwv Se pyre 01 irporepoi fJLtjSev twv afivvovvT&v, 
fjLrjre ovtoi, TrXiiv eyxeipiSloov tovto Se eav e^eiv. 

45 pera Se ttjv eiKocrrtjv T\fj.kpr\v, lOew T%v fxev aXXrjv 
arpaTirjv iceXeveiP irepi^ Trpocr/HaXXeiv irpo$ to 
Te?j(09, Tlcpcras Se juloi ra%pv Kara re rag Bi?\/oW 
KaXeofieva? irvXas kcu K«r<r/a$. w? yap eyto Soicew, 
efxio /ueydXa epya <r3ro<Je£a/ieVov 3d , Ta re aXXa 

50 eiriTpa^ovrai ejicit HafivX&vioi, kcu S*j kcu twv 

irvXew Ta? fiaXavaypa?. to 0* evOevrev, ejiol re kcu 

Jlepcrfjcri /JLeXycei rot Set iroieeiv. 9 

(B. iii. 154, 155.) 

The stratagem succeeded, and Zopyrus was welcomed 
by the Babylonians. 

VI. § 2. 
Tairra evTeiXa/uLevog, fj'Ce eiri Tap irvXas* eTTKTTpe- 
(pojuL€VOs, a>? Srj aXfjOecog avTO/moXof. opeovres Se euro 

TtoV TTVpyo&V ol KOTO. TOVTO T€Tay/UL€VOl 9 KaTCTpe^OV 

kcltw kcu oXlyov ti irapaicXivavTef Tt\v erkprjv 
5 irvXrjv. elpdrreov Tig tc elrj, kcu otcv Seojxevos rjKOi. 


i Se &(f>i ijyopeve, &g elq re Zdnrvpos, kcu avropoXeot 
eg eicelvovg. %yov Stj fj.iv 01 TtvXovpoi, ravra &g 
fyovcrav, htl ra, koivoi rS>v TSaftvXoovtcov. icaracrrag 
ii ex' dvra* Karoitcrl^ero 9 <f)ag virb Aapelov 
TretrovOivai fa eireirovOee vif eoovrov* iraQeiv Se 10 
ravra Siori ctvfifiovXevo'ai 01 airaviaravai rtiv 
<rfpoTifjp 9 iirel re ovSelg ifopog e<f>aivero rtjg dXdcriog. 
"Nui/ re, e<prj Xeywv, eyw vjuliv, (3 HafivXwvtoi, £*a> 
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ira<rag rag Sie^dSovg rZv fiovXev/uLdrayv" Toiavta 
eXeye. ot Se Ha/UvXwvtoi opeovreg dvSpa rZv ev Tlep- 
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fxaari^l re koi aljuari ava7re(j>vpiuL€vov 9 irayxy 20 
eXirlcravreg Xeyeiv fJ.iv aXyOea, Kal <r<pi tjiceiv 
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rovro irapeXafie, eiroiee ra irep tgJ Aapeitp 
crwedqicaro. e^ayaythv yap r*j SeKary foepfi 25 
rrjv arparirjv tw Ba/3t/\a>wW, koi tcvicXoMrd- 
fievog rovg ^iXlovg 9 rovg irpdrovg everetXaro 
Aapelw Ta£ou, rovrovg icaretyovevare* fkaQovreg Se 
fj.iv oi Ha/3v\wvioi roicri eireai ra epya irape- 
'Xpfievov ofJLOia, irayyy irepiyapeeg eovreg, irav Sri 30 
erolfxoi fjtrav virtipereeiv. 6 Se, SiaXiirdbp fjfiepag rag ^^ 
crvyKeijULepag, avrig 1 * eiriXe^afievog rwv Ha/3v\a)viup^^r 


etyyaye kcu Kareo^ovevcre tZv Aapelov oirpaTicoTecov 

TOW SlO")(l\loVS. lS6vT€S Se KCU TOVTO TO epyOV 01 

35 HafivXwviot, iravreq Zuiirvpov efyov ev oTOfiacri 
€uv€OVTe?. x 6 Se, avris SiaXnrdbv Tag avyKeifxevas 
rjfxepas, etyyaye e? to irpoeipfifxevov kcu KutcXoocra- 
fJLevog Karetyovevare tow TerpaKia"^iXlovg. wq Se kcu 
tovto KaTepyacrTOy iravra S^ %v ev toicti Baj8i/Ao>- 

40 vloiari ZtwTrvpog, kcu crrpaTap-^riq re ovrog cr(f>i kcu 
T€L X o^\a^ a-TreSiSeKTO**. (fi yj 156> lg7-) 

So when Darius made his attack, Zopyrus admitted the 

Persian troops into the city, and Babylon was taken. But 

Darius used to say that he would rather that Zopyrus was 

whole, than that he himself were master of twenty 


VI. § 3. 

Tlpoo-fioXtjv Se Aapelov icaTO Ta ovyKelpeva iroiev- 
fjievov Trepij* to Tripos, evdavra $rj iravra tov SoXov 
6 Zcbirvpos €J*€<f)aiv€. o! jmev yap Ha(3vX<!>vioi ava- 
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5 Tifjv irpocr/3aXXovcrav 6 Se Zi(lo7rvpo<? Taj Te Kfcrcr/a? 
Ka\ HrjXlSag KaXeopevag TnJXa? avaTreraa-as, evrJKe 
Tovg TLepara? eg to tci^o?. tcov Se HaftvXcwlcov o? 
/Jiev etSov to TroitjOev, ovtoi ecpevyov ey tov Ai6$ tov 
JotjAov to ipov 01 oe ovk eioov, efxevov ev Ty emrrov 
10 Ta£« 6h eKacrros, e$ o Srj koi ovtoi e/maOov 7rpoSeSofJLevoi. 

JZa/SvXcbv [xev vvv ovtod to SevTepov alpeQfi. Aa- 
peio? Se eirel Te eKoaTtjcre tcov BaftvXcovicov, tovto 


pep, crcpeoov to Tei)(o$ irepieiXe, kcu to? 7nJ\ay iracrag 

airecnraae' to yap irporepov eXdov Kvpog t*jv Ba- 

j8i/X£j/a, €7roiti<r€ tovtcov ovSerepov tovto oe, 6 15 

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6p Tpio"xi\lov$ avevKoXoiricre, Toicri Se Xonroicri 

BaftvXcoviOKTi cnreScoice t*jv ttoXip oltceeip. Ziwirvpov 

oe ovSeif ayaOoepyiqv Tleparewp vwepefidXeTO irapa 

Aapelta KpiTy, ovt€ tS>v vcrrepov yevofJLevwp, ovre 20 

t£v irporepop, on juifj l&vpos fiovvos* TOVTfp yap 

ovoeis Tlepcrewv jj^iaxri kco cwutop arvjUL/HaXeiv. 

TIoWaKi? §€ Aapeiov Xeyerai ypwfirjp t$p$€ airoSc- 

I~a<r6ai 9 w$ /SovXoito av Zdrrvpov eipai airaOea 

t5p aeiKelqs /ulclXXov, 1j HafivXobvag 01 etKOcri irpos 25 

Ttj cover tj irpoo-yevecrOai. 

(B. iii. 158, 159.) 

VII. Darius in Scythia. 

Cyrus had conquered Asia : Cambyses, Africa : Darius 
felt that he must complete the conquest of Europe. 
Therefore he planned a vast expedition against the 
Scythians, a nomad people living in the steppes north of 
the Black and Caspian Seas. Having bridged the Thracian 
Bosphorus and the Danube, he left his bridge over the 
river in charge of his Ionian fleet, while he pushed on 
with 700,000 men of different nationalities from all parts 
of his kingdom, and penetrated the northern wilderness. 
But the Scythians slipped away before his advance, and 
drew him on and on in pursuit. 



At last Darius appealed to the Scythian king to stand 
and give battle or else to send presents of earth and water 
in token of submission. 

The Scythian king said he would make no tender of 
submission, but would send some presents much more to 
the purpose. 

VII. § 1. 

He/my^ag Aapeiog lirirea irapa tov ^kvOcoov /3acn- 
Xea 'ISavdvpcrov, eXeye raSe' " Aai /movie avSpu>v y tl 
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fxev yap afyoxpeog 6 * SoKeeig elvai arecovrw tolcl 
5 i/uLOiai Trpyyfiacri avTLwQtjvai, <rv Se crrag re kcu 
Travarajmevog irXavtjg jma^earOar el Se crvyyivoocrKeai 
eivai qo-cruDV, av Se kcu ovtoo iravarafievog tov Spo/mov, 
SecnroTy t<£ cr<£ SStpa (pepcov yfjv re kcu SScop, eXde 
eg Xoyovg." Tipog ravra 6 ^EkvOccov /3a<TLXevg 

io 'ISavOvpcrog eXeye TaSc "Ovtco to ejmov e")(€i 9 co 
TJepca' eyw ovSeva km avOpunroov Sclera? e<pvyov 9 
ouTe irpoTepov, ovTe vvv ere (pevyw ovSe tl ved>Tep6v 
€ i fx i 7roitjcras vvv 17 Kai ev eiptjvrj ecouea* iroieeiv. o tl 
oe ovk avTLKa fia^ojuiaL tol, eyw Kai tovto a-rjfjLaveoo* . 

15 yfliv ovt€ aarea, ovtc y*j Tretyvrevixevri corn, tS>v irepi 
SelcravTeg pri dXcptj % icaprj TayyTepov crv/uLiuLLcryoLiULev 
av eg 1*-&YJ)V v/ullv el Se Seoi iravTCog eg tovto KaTa 
Ta X 0? onriKveecrQai) Tvy^avovari eovTeg Ta<pOL 
irarpmoi, (pepere, TOVTOvg avevpovTeg, crvyyeeLv 

20 TreLpaarde avrovg' koi yvaxrea-de totc, erre v/ullv 
V-ayjicrofxeQa irepl twv Ta(f>a>v 9 elre kol ov fia^tjcro- 


fxeOa. nrpoTepov Se, %v [xy\ rj/meag \6yog aipey, ov 
(rvfi/nl^ofiev rou a/mcpl fxev fiaxy Tocravra elprja-Qoa. 
AeanroTa? Se e/uLOv? A/a re eydo vofilToo, tov efxov 
wpoyovov, Kai 'Io-titjv tv\v 2ici/0eW fiaciXeiav, /xoi/- 2 5 
vov? eivai. 2ot Se avri /jlcv Swpcov yj/9 t€ kqu 
voaT09, Swpa *7re/i\^ft) TOiavra 01a croi Trpeirei ekQelv 
avri Se tov oti Senrorr]? ecpTjo-a? eivai c/aop, kXcuciv 
Aeyo). U ^tey 017 Ktjpv^ oi^ooKee ayyeAewv ravra 

Aa ^ € 'V- (B. iv. 126, 127.) 3 ° 

The Scythian policy reduced Darius to great straits, and 
understanding the menacing meaning of the Scythian 
presents which had reached him, he was glad to take the 
advice of Gobryas, and make a hurried retreat before his 
communications were cut off by the breaking up of the 
bridge over the Danube. 

VII. § 2. 
leAo? oe Aapeio? re ev airopiricri ei^ero, Kai 01 
^EkvOcwv fiao-iXeeg fxaBovre? tovto, eire/nrov KrjpvKa^ 
Swpa Aapel<p (pepovra, opvtOd re, Kai julvv, koi /3a- 
6paKov lh , kcu oicrTOVf irevTe. Tlep&ai Se tov (pepovTa 
ra Swpa eireipwreov tov voov tS>v SiSojulcvw 6 Se 5 
ovSev e(pt] 01 eTrecTaXdai a\\o tj Sovra ttjv Tayivrviv 
airaWacrcrecrdar avTovg Se Tovg Tlepara? eiceXeve, el 
<ro<pol eiari 9 yvwvai to e6e\ei to. Swpa Xeyeiv* TavTa 
aicov<ravT€$ 01 Tleparai, efiovKevovTO. Aapelov 
ILev vvv rj yvaffitj qv 2ici50a9 ecovrqi SiSovai <r^>ea9 re 10 
avrovs, Kai y*jv T€ koi vSwp* eiKaQav TySe> a>9 julv$ 


fiev ev ytj ylverai, icapirov tov clvtov avBpwirw 
crvreofxevog' ftaOpaicog Se ev vSarr opvtg Se /maXia-Ta 
oiKe "nrirw* Tovg Se oiarTovg, wg t*jv ecovrwv aXicrjv 

15 irapaSiSovtri. avTrj fiev Aapelw j} yvwfxr\ cnreSeSeicTO. 
j£w€(rTqK€e Se ravrtj rjj yvwiAy rj Twfipveoo, twv 
avSpwv twv cirra evog twv tov TSlayov KaTeXovTwv, 
elicafyvTog ra Swpa Xeyeiv " Hv jarj opvideg yevo- 
fxevot avairT^crOe eg tov ovpavov, <$ TIepcrai, 1] jmveg 

20 yevopevoi icaTa Trjg yrjg KaTaSvcrtjTe % ftaOpaicoi 

yevo/uievoi eg Tag Xlfivag ecnrrjSqatjTe, ovk airovoaTt]- 

arere oV/era), viro TwvSe twv to^€v/j.<xtwv fiaXXofievot. 9 

Tie par gar 1 $e, fiera to. Swpa ra eXQovra Aapelw y 

avTerayQticrav 01 ^KvOai Trej^w koi liriroKr^ cog <tv/jl- 

2 5 fiaXeovTeg. Terayixevouri Se toicti ^KvOrjari Xayog 5{ 
eg to fiecov oirji^e 9 twv oe cog eicao'TOi wpeov lVQ tov 
Xayov, eSiwicov. TapayQevTWv Se twv ^kvOcwv, ical 
ftofj yjpewiievwv, eipero 6 Aapeiog twv avTtTroXejuilwv 
tov 66pu/3ov TTvOojuevog Se <r<peag tov Xayov Siw- 

30 KOVTag 9 enre apa irpog Tovcnrep ewQee kcll Ta aXXa 
Xeyeiv " Ovtoi wvSpeg fjixewv ttoXXov KaTaippov- 
eovcrf Kal fxoi vvv (paiverai Twftpvtjg earai irepi twv 
^kvOikwv Swpwv opQwg. wg wv ovTwg rjSri Sokcovtwv 
koi avrw juLoi e^eiv, (iovXrjg ayaOrjg Set, OKwg aa'cpa- 

35 Xewg 17 kojuliStj fi/xlv ecrTai to oirl<ra>. n TIpog TavTa 
Twftpvrjg elire* " *Q /SaviXev, e*yco cr^eSov julcv Ka\ 
Xoyw fjiricTTaixriv tovtwv twv avSpwv Trjv cnropirjv • 
eXOwv Se juaXXov e^e/maQov, opiwv avTOvg efjural- 


fyvra? *} Nvv Sv fxoi SoKeet, iwtiv ra^itrra vvj» 

eireXdfy etcKavcravTag ra irvpa, o>9 kcu oXXotc iwOafiev 40 

TToieew, twv arpaTiwrewv tov$ aarOeverraTOVs ep T09 

TaXanrcoplas ifynraTqaravrag, koi tow ovov$ iravrag 

KaTaSfeavraSy aTraXXacro'eo'Oai, irp\v tj teal hr\ tov 

"larTpov lOvcrai %Kvdas Xvcrovras t*jv ye<pvpav 9 y teal 

ti Icon Soj-ai to fi/mia? oiov re earai e$epyao , ao , 6ai." 45 

Tco/Spvrjs fiev Tavra ovvefiovXeve. 

(B. iv. 1 31-134.) 
Retreat of Darius. 

VII. § 3. 

Mera Se 9 vvj* tc eyeverOy kcu Aapeiog e^paro T*j 
yvd/ULy TavTy. Tovg jxev Kajmarrjpovg twv avSpwv 9 kcu 
tcov rjv eXa^/(TT09 aTroXXvfievoov Xoyos 9 kcu tow ovov? 
Tcavras KaTaSqcraSj KctTeXnre avrov Tavrtj ev tw 
CTpaTOTreSq). KaTeXnre Se Tovg T€ ovovg kcu toi/9 5 
acrOevea? t§9 cnpaTiijs, twvSc elveKev %a ol [lev 
ovoi f3orjv irape'XMVTcu, ol Se avdpwirot aarQeveirjs 
fj.ev elveKev KaTeXlirovT0 9 irpocfrctario? Se T*j<rSe Stj- 
XaSfj a>9 avT09 [lev crvv T(p KadapS tov ffTpctTod 
€7ri6rjo'€O m 6cu jmeXXoi toictl ^Kvdycri, ovtoi Se to 10 
aTpctTOTreoov tovtov tov 'xpovov pvoicrro . Tavra 
Toiari VTToXenroiULevoKri viroQefxevos 6 Aapetos, kcu 
irvpa eKKavcras, Ttjv TayiuTtiv eireiyero eirl tov 
lffTpov. ol Se ovoi 9 epriiJLtoQevTes tov 6/jliXov> ovtod 
ixev Sh fiaXXov iroXXw te&av Ttjs (pcovijg' aKovaravTe? 15 
Se ol ^KvOai t£>v ovwv 9 irayxy koto, x&ptiv tjXtti^ov 



tov$ Hepcrag eivai. 'HfAeprjs Se yevo/jLevw, yvovres 
01 vir6\€i<pd€VT€f i>$ irpoSeSofAevoi eiev viro Aapelov, 
yeipa? re Trpoerelvovro toicti ^Kv6rjcri 9 teal eXcyov tcl 
20 KaTJjKoira. ol Se IZicuQai m fytcQwrav ravra cSlcokov 
tow lie p<ra$ IQv tov "larrpov. 

(B. iv. 135, 136.) 

The Scythian horsemen reached the bridge before 
Darius, and urged the Ionians to destroy it. The Athenian 
Miltiades, then tyrant of the Thracian Chersonese, called 
on his countrymen to seize this chance of throwing off the 
Persian yoke, but he was overruled by Histiaeus of 
Miletus ; so Darius brought back into Asia the remnant of 
his great army. 

VIII. Story of the Peisistratidae. 

Athens was divided between different political parties ; 
the men of the Plain, and of the Coast, and a third party, 
the men of the Mountains. Peisistratus, son of Hippocrates, 
espoused the cause of the mountaineers, and having by a 
stratagem got leave to keep an armed band of retainers, 
he seized the citadel and made himself master of Athens. 

VII. §1. 
^racria^pvTwv twv irapaktav kou tS>v €k tov ire- 
Siov 'AOfjvalcov, ical twv fiev irpoecrreiaTOS M.eyak\eo$ 
tov 'A\Kiu.aitoi>o$> tS>v Se etc tov ireSlov Avicovpyov 
'Api(rro\at$€Gi)> 6 fxev JleiarlcrrpaTOS KaTCKPpovtjcra? 
5 Ttjv TvpavvlSa, ijyeipe rpiTtjv araa-iv. crvXXe^ay Se 
crTdcriwras, kcli tg> \6y<pT<bv virepaxpmv Trpoara^y 


WXavarai roiace. TpvfiaTiow* cmvtop tc icoi 
y/jLiovovs, qXacre e$ T^fv ayopiiP to ^evyo?, A? ©rare- 
<f>€vycb$ tov? ej^0joov9, of /tup eXai/j/onra ep ay pop 
tjOeXrjo-av airoXicrai SqQev iSeero tc tov Sqpiov 10 
(pvXaKtjg TIV09 7rpoy avrov tcvpyjcrat, irporepov 
evSoKifiyo'as iv t;} irpos M.eyapeas yevopevfj trrpa- 
Ttiylfi, Nicraiav re iXdbp, tcai aXXa axooW^a^evoy 3d 
/xeyaXa epya. r O Se Srj/AOf 6 tS>p 'AOqvaltcv 
e^awaTJ?t7e/p, eowce 01 todp acrratp icaTaAe^a? avopa? 15 
toiJtoi/?, oi Sopv<j>6poi fiiv ovk eyevopro Hewiarpd- 
tou, Kopvvt]<p6poi Se. j~vXa>p yap xopvvas c^oirey 
€ittovt6 01 oirurOe. avpeirapaxrraPTe^ Se ovtoi afia 
HeicrKrTpaTq), eerj(ov ttjp cacpoiroXip. evOd St] 6 
TJeKrlcrrpaTOS %PX € A0i/wuW, oure Ti/ua? tci$ 20 
eovara? <njvrapa£a9 9 oure Oea-fiia fJLeraWa^ar eiri 

T€ TOiai KOT€&T€(tiO'l €P€fJL€ TW TToXlP, KOCTfJiiitiV 

K(zXS>9 re Kal eu. (B. i. 59.) 

Driven once more Trom the city by a coalition of his 
enemies, he manages to return in triumph once more, 
accompanied by a woman of great beauty to impersonate 
Athene*. The sham goddess bade the citizens welcome 
Peisistratus back, and they did so. 

VIII. § 2. 

Mera Se ov 7roXXov ^povov t&vto <PpopfeaPTes 61 

re tov ISleyaicXcovf trraariwrai koi 01 tov Avicovpyov, 

i^eXavvovcrl yuv. oSrw pep TleialtrrpaTOs eo"^e to 

irpwTOv 'AOyvas, koi Ttjv TvpapplSa ovkw icapTa 

l 2 


5 eppiCwfxivtjv ex<wv 9 airefiaXe. 01 Se i^eXacravrev 
TLeicioTpaTOv, auris eic i/ei/p eic aXXyXoiai earraari- 
acrav* TrepieXawo/uLevo? Se t|J crrdcri 6 MeycucAeV* 
€Tr&cfipvK€V€TO Heicria'TpaTtp, ei (3ov\oit6 01 t*jv 
Ovyarepa c^ew yvvaliea iirl rfj rvpavvlSi* ivSe^a- 

10 fxivov Si top Xoyov kol ofxoXoyticravTOS eiri tovtoicti 
Tleio-icrrpaTOV, fitiyavZvrai Sq hrl r*j KaroScp 19, 
Toiaoe* EjV Tft) otjjiMp T(p liataviec tjv yvvri, ry 
ovvofxa %v *&v*j$ fiiyaOog airo Tecrvepw 2 * irtj^ecav 
aTToXelirova'a rpeig SaKTvXovg, teal a\\wg eveiSfa. 

ig ravrqv Ttjv yvvaiKa arKevacravres 7ravo7rXltj 9 ep dpfia 
ea/Sifiouravreg, koi irpoSe^avT€9 zd o"XJ}fia 9 otov n 
e/ueXXe €V7Tjoe7reo"TaTOv (f)aveeadai 9l> e^oi/era, fjXavvov 
e? to aaTVy Trpo8p6fJLOv$ icrjpvKag 7rpo7re/A\frai/Tep, o* 
Ta epreraXiueva tjyopevov ep to clcttv airiKOfxevoLy 

2oXiyovT€? roiaSe* "*Q 'AOyvaioi, Se/cearOe 1 * ayaOtS 
vow Tlei<rlcrTpaTOv 9 tov outi} *j AQrjvairj TifA^aaaa 
avOpwiroDV jmaXiora, KdTayei cp Tfjv kwvTfjs cucpo- 
ttoXiv" 01 fxev Stj Tadra SicKpoiTeovre? eXeyov 
aMKa Se ep re toi/p Sqfiov? (j)aTis airUero, <»p 

25 'AOtjvalq TleKricTTpaTOv KaTayer koi 01 ev tw 
acrret ireiQonevoi t^v yvvaitca eivai avrrjv Tt\v 6eov 9 
Trpoarev^ovTO tc t*jv av6pwn-ov 9 Kal cSckovto tov 


(B. i. 60.) 

He then married the daughter of Megacles, his old 
opponent, to whom he had been reconciled, but he after- 


wards offended his father-in-law, and was obliged to quit 
Athens with his sons. After long preparation the Peisi- 
stratidae marched upon Athens and secured Marathon; 
and having conquered the troops sent out to oppose him, 
Peisistratus for the third time entered Athens, and resumed 
his power. 

VIII. § 3. 

Fj//ia? Se 6 TleimtrTparos ryp tov Mcya/cXeo? 
dvyarepa ovk ev irepielire avryv 6 Se McyaicXejyj 
opyy a>? etye KaraWaara-ero t*jp e^Opfjv toicti 
(rracriooTifcn. Ma#a>i> Se 6 WeKrlcrrpaTos aTraXXacr- 
cero ex rtjs X®PW to irapairavy airiKojuLevos Se ey 5 
'Eperpiap eftovXevero a/ma rotari irawrL e£ 'Eperplq? 
Se opjULr/Oevres Sia evSeKarov ereos airUovTO (hrlca), 
teal irpwrov rij? 'ArrriKrjs ta-^ovari MapaOwva. ev Se 
rovrop t« X^P® ^fa ^TpoTOireSevofievoiari 01 re etc 
tov acrreos oraariarrai cnrtKOVTOy aXXot re etc tZv 10 
Sy/uLcov irpoveppeov, otcri y rvpavvh irpo eXevQeplw fy 
acnraarTorepov. ovroi jmev Sij ovvtj\li£pvTO. 'A0i/- 
valwv Se ol etc rod a<rreo?, e»$ fiev TleKriorparos ra 
•^p^fxara rjyeipe, Kal fieravris 1 * a>9 %(?)(€ TSiapaOobva, 
\6yov ovSeva el-^ov. ewei re Se ewvQovro ck rod 15 
MajOa0oSi/O9 avrov iropeue&Oai hrl to octtv, ovtoo S*j 
ficoOeovcri ew avrov. Kal ovroi re TravcrrpaTiy fjiaav 
€7rl tov? Kariovray Kal ol a/uap] Hei&lo'TpaTov, &g 
op/jujOevres €K Mapadwvog IjXa-av hri ro aorv, ey 
rcovro ovviovreg cnriKveovrai eirl TlaWtjviSos 'Aft;- 20 
valij? lpov 9 Kal avrla eOevro tcl o7rXa. evOavra 


Btvf iro/JLTrrj x/occo/iepo? irapltrrarai Tlei<n<rrpaT<p 
*A/j.<p!\vT09 9 xpqcrtioKoyos avtjp, 09 oi irpoaritov ypa 
ev €^a/j.€Tpw rdv<pi raSe \iyw 

25 *Eppiirnu d* 6 /SrfXo?, t6 &€ dUrvov etnrerrtratrrai* 

Ovwoi d* olfxrjo-ovo-i a-eXrjpalrjs 5ta wktos. 

*0 fiev 0*17 oi ivOea^cov ^pa raSe m HetcrloTpaTOS $e, 

OvXkafitoV TO Xp*l<TTt[plOV, KOI <£a? $€K€<t6<XI to XP*I~ 

arOev, eirfjye tv\v CTpaTiyv. *A0qvaioi oe oi £k ao-reo? 

30 irpo? apiaTOv rerpafifjiivoi %crav St] TtjviKaura' tccu 

fiera to apicrrov fiere^erepoi avrwv, oi jmev irpo? 

iq * $* \ ft < M * i\ TT f 

tcvpovs, 01 oe irpo9 wirvov* 01 oe afi<pi lUicttaTparov 
eanrecrovref, tovs 'AOrjvalovs rpiirovcru <f>€uy6vrwv 
oe tovtwv, fiovXfjv ivdaura croQwrartiv THeicrioTpaTO? 

35 eiriTexyarai, okw$ pyre dkio-deiev en 01 'Adripcuoi, 
3i€crK€§a<r/J.€voi re etev. avafiifiacras tovs iralSag eVJ 
tTnroi/?, TrpoeTrefnre* 01 Se KaraXajiifiavovTet tov? 
(freuyovras, eXeyov to. ivreraX/uLeva viro Heiri- 
tTTpaTOv } Oapcrieiv re JceXct/oi/Tey, ical airievcu ckootov 

40 eVi tcl iwvrov. TleiOofiivow o*e tS>v ' AdrjvattoV, 
ovTto Srj HeiarloTparos to Tpvrov <rj(<5*' 'A0iji/a$, 
eppi^coare ttjv TvpavplSa eTriKOvpotvi T€ iroXXoia'i, kcu 
jffifjfjLaTcov crwoSoicri, tHov fiev, avrodev, twv oe, airo 


45 fxev ervpavveve *A6qvaia>v 'Adqvaloov oe oi eV Tp 

paX*] hreTrT(aK€<rav f oi oe avrwv fiera 'AX/guaiaw/oW 

ecpevyov ck r?p olicrjiris. 

(B. i. 61-64.) 


Peisistratus retained the sovereign power till his death, 
and transmitted it to his sons Hippias and Hipparchus. 
Two Athenian friends, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, sought 
to assassinate Hippias, but they killed the wrong brother 
by mistake, while he was conducting the sacred procession. 

VIII. § 4. 

'Eirel "iTTirapxov tov HetaurrpaTov, ^Imrleto Se 
tov Tvpavvov aSeX<peov 9 tSovra o^iv ewirvlov 
evapyecrTarriVj tcrelvovcri ' JApiarroyelTWV kou e A^>- 
fioSios, fxera ravra ervpavvevovro 'Adijvaioi hr 
eria T€<r<repa 2h ovSev r\<r<rov 9 aXXa kcu [iSXXov, q 5 
irpo tov. e H jj.iv vvv 0^9 tov 'linrapypv ivxnrviov 
%v tjSe. ev tj} icpoT&py wkt\ t£>v TlavaQtjvaiw 
eSoicee 6 "iTnrapxo? avSpa 01 eTriaTavra fieyav ical 
eveioea cuvio , <re<ruai Taoe to, exea* 

TA77& \ca>v SrXrjra waBvv rrrKifdri 6v(x$' IO 

avfcls av&pomvv dbiK&v ritrw ovk dirorl<T€i. 

Tavra Se t a>9 *]f*ep*l eyevero Ta)(i<rra 9 ipavepog $v 

vTrepTiOi/xevos oveipoiroXoicrr fiera Se 9 aTrenrajuevos 

tv\v o^fiv 9 hre/xice tv\v iro/uLTrtjv, ev Trj Srj TeXevrqi. 

(B. v. 55, 56.) 

During the despotism of Hippias the Alcmaeonidae 
begin their intrigues against the Peisistratidae, first of all 
gaining over to their side the Delphic oracle. 

VIII. § 5. 

'lirmew TvpavveuovTO? ical e/XTrucpawofievov 'Afly- 
}>aloi<ri Sia top 'lirirap'xov Qavarov, 'A\k/jlcumI$<xi, 


yevos £6pt€$ 9 A6tjvaiot 9 kcu (pevyovres Hciai- 
(rrpaTiSa?, hrel re o-<f)i a/j.a toio-i aXXoiai 'AQrivaloov 
5 <j>vya(ri ireipco/xevoKri Kara to io"xypov ov irpoeywpee 
kcltoSo$ 9 aWa irpoo-iirraiov fieyakta^ 7reip(i/J.€voi 
KCtnevai re kol iXevOepovv Taj 'Aflijya?, A.€i>$rvSpiov 
to inrep Haiovlw Teij^uravres" evOavra oi 'AX/c- 
jULcucovlSai irav eirl toicti UeicrKTrparlStjcri wxavw- 

10 fievoi, Trap* 'AfMpucTvovcov tov vrjov fiicrdovvTai top 
ev AeXcpoto-i, tov vvv eoVra, totc Se oukoo, tovtov 
ej~oucoSojtJL*j<rac 61a Se xpqfiaTCdv eu tjKovreg, ical 
iovres avSpe? SoKifAOi aveicadev en,* tov tc vrjov 
ij^epyacravTO tov TrapaSelyimaToe kclWiov, to. re 

*5 aXXa, ical, crvyKel/xevov <r(f)i irwplvov \l6ou iroUeiv 

tov vtjov, Uapiov ra e/uLTrpoadev avrov €^€7rolfj(rav. 

(B. v. 62.) 

The Pythian priestess had her cue given her to impress 
on every Spartan worshipper, who came to the oracle, the 
duty of delivering Athens from slavery. The Spartans 
accepted the duty, and when their first expedition failed, 
they sent a second under King Cleomenes, who drove the 
Peisistratidae within the walls of their fort. 

VIII. § 6. 
*£}? <Sv Sij 01 'AOtivdioi Xeyovcri, ovtoi 01 avSpe? 
ev AeXcpoLG-t Karrjixevoi aviireiOov Ttjv Tlvdiijv XP^" 
fxaa'iy ok(o$ cXdoiev ^S/TrapTifjricov avSpeg, et tc iSicp 
(ttoXco el tc St)/j.o(ri(p 'xprja'o/j.evoi, vrpoipepeiv <r(pi TCI? 
5 'Aft/i/a? iXevdepovv. A.aKe$ai/j.6vioi $€ 9 a>9 <r<pi alet 
t&vto irpo(f>avTOv iyevero, ttc/jlttovo'i ' Ay^i/jioXiov 


tov 'Ao-repo?, iovra tZv olotwv avSpa Sokijulov, avv 
<rrpar(p 9 e^eXZvra Heio-io-TpaTiSaf e£ *Ad*ive&v 9 
ojuLcog kcu £eiviov$ <r(f>i eovrag ra ixaXurTa* tcl yap 
tov Oeov TTpeo-fivrepa eiroievvro tj tcl tSv avSpZv. 10 
Tri/ULirovo'i Se tovtov? kcito, daXacraav ttXoiokti. 6 
fxev Srj irpo(TG"^(av ey &aXrjpov } t*jv (TTpaTiijv axcjSiycre* 
01 Se TleKrurrpaTiSai irpoirvvOavo/xevoi Tavra, 
eireKaXeovTO ex GecrcraA/iyy eiriKOvpirjv eirerroirpro 
yap <r<f)i av/j./jLa^ltj irpov avroi/y. OecraaXol Se *5 
(r<pi SeofAevoicri aireTrefj.^av 9 KOivy yvd/xtj xpecb- 
pevoi, yCXlriv tc H nrirov 9 kcu tov fiaaiXea tov <r<^>e- 
Tepov J^iverjv tow eirel tc ear^ov av/x/JLa^ovg ol 
Heio-KTTpaTiSai, ejuajxaveaTO** TOiaSe. Kelpavres 
tcov (PaXqpeow to ireSlov 9 na\ «nra<n)UOi> Troifaavreg 20 


lirirov e/jLTrecrovG'a Se SiicpOeipe aXXovg re iroXXov? 
t£>v AaKeSaifiovicov, teal Srj ical tov ^Ay^t/jLoXiov 
tovs Se wepiyevofjievovs avrwv e$ Tag via? KaTep^av. 
'O fxev Sij TrpSrros otoAo? etc AaiceSalfiovog ovtw 25 
aTrrjXXaZe' kcu ^Ay^ijuioXlov eiarl Ta(pa\ r§9 'Atti- 
Kfj? 'AXayjreKrjo'i. Mcra Se 9 AaKeSai/xovioi /ue£a> 3d 
otoXov a-TelXavT€9 9 aicenren^av eiri Tag 'AQyva$ 9 
orpaTYiyov T$ff CTpaTirj? airoSe^avreq {iacriXea 
KAeo/xevea tov ' Ava^avSplSeoo, ovkcti KaTa QaXacrcrav 30 
(TTeiXavTes, iXXa KaT rjireipov. toIvi Se eafiaXovo-i 
e? Tfjv 'ArriKrjv y&p*\v Jj tZv Oecra'dXiav Ittttos irp&Tfj 
Tpoa , €juLi^€ 9 Kai ov fiera iroXv erpairero teal atyew 


€7T€(rov virep Tecro'epcucovra avSpag, ol Se Trepiyevo* 

35 ficvoi airaKKacrcrovTO a>g d^ov IQvg eirl OecraraXirfg. 

j\A€0fji€V7i$ 0€ airiKOfievog eg to clcttu a /ma Aujjvcugov 

TOtOTl j3ov\o/UL€VQl<Tl ClVCtl eXevdcpOlO'l, €TTO\l6pK€€ TOW 

Tupavvovg, airepyixevovg ev T(S UeXaaryuctp Telnet. 

(B. v. 63, 64.) 
Expulsion of Hippias. 

VIII. § 7. 

KoJ ovSev ti iravTwg av e^eiXov Toi/g TLeiari- 

crrpaTiSag ol AaiceSaijuioviof ovtc yap breSptjv 1 * 

hcevoeov iroiqaao'dai, ol re Heio'ioTpaTiSai o'Itokti 

tcai woroio'i ev TrapeaicevaSaTO**' iroXiopK^aravreg 

5 T€ av rjfjLepa? oXiyag a7raWao , o'ovTo eg ti\v HsKapri\v. 

vvv Se avvTV)(ifi toio'i ixev Kate*) eireyevero, toicti Se 9 

fi airy avTtj o'v/j./j.a'xog' vireKTiOe/uLevoi yap efa> Ttjg 

X&pvig ol iralSeg tUv Heio-ioTpaTiSewu fjXwcrav. 

tovto Se cog eyevero 9 iravra avrwv Ta Trptjyp.aTa 

10 crvveTerapaicTO. irapearTija'av Se 9 hri /ulktOw Toiai 

Tcicvoio't, ex otai efiovXovro ol 'Adtjvatoi, waTe ev 

irivre tj/uLeptjo'i eK^wprja'ai etc T*jg 'AttiicS?. Mera 

oe, e^e^wpfja-av eg Z,iyeiov to eiri T(p Z,Kafxavop<p m 

ap£avreg fiev 9 A.dfjval(ov eV eVea e£ Te ica\ TpiwovTa. 

(B. v. 65.) 

IX. The Battle of Marathon. 

Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus, having failed in an ex- 
pedition against Naxos, on which he had been sent by 


Darius, sought to hide his failure and escape its con- 
sequences in the confusion of a general revolt His first 
step was to proclaim democracy through the whole Greek 
confederacy. First, he applied for aid to Sparta, but the 
King was too cautious. Then he tried his fortune at 
Athens, just at the moment when the Persian satrap, 
Artaphernes, had demanded the restoration of Hippias. 
The Athenians wanted but a spark to set them on fire, 
and Aristagoras had brought it. Twenty ships were at 
once sent to sea, ' the beginning of sorrows,' as Herodotus 

says (opxh *<**&* iy&ovro "EXXrjai re km fiapfidpois, b. V. 97)* 

Joining the troops of the other revolted towns they march 
upon Sardis, storm and burn it. 

IX. § 1. 

Uopevofxepoi ie icapa wora/uLov K.avo'Tpiov, 
ivOevrev eirel re lirepfiavTeg tov T/xwAop clttikovto, 
at pe ova i HapStg, ovSevog o-<pi avTiwOeprog* alpeowri 
Se xjuph Ttjg cucpoiroXios TaWo TCaVTOL' TtJV $€ 
aicpoTroXiv eppvero avrog 'AprcHpepvyg, e^a>p Svvctfjuv 5 
avopwv ovk oAiyyv. ±0 6e jurj AetjAartja'ai eAovrag 
o'tyiag Tfjv iroAiv, ear^e ToSe. faav ev Trjcri ^apStai 
ouclaiy ai fxev irAevveg 9 KaXafxtvar oo-ai <J' aurewv 
ical irAlvOivai %(rav 9 tcaAafxov cT^ov rag opo(pag. 
Tovriow $*i fj.lav t£>v Tig oTpaTicoreaov cog ej/expiycre, 10 
avruca ax' oiKitjg eg oUitjg lov to irvp 9 eTreve/xeTO to 
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kcu ocoi YLep(r&<av ivijerav ev T*j ttoAi, airoAafA- 
(pOevreg iravrodev, wore ra ireptecr^aTa ve/jLO/xevov 
tou irvpog 9 kcu ovk e^ovreg ej~tjAvariv ex rod acrreog, 15 



avveppeov eg Te t*jv ayoprjv icai eiri tov liaKTcoXov 
irorajuLov og &<pi y^fjyima j(pvarov Karacpopewv eic 
rod Tjul&Xov, Sia jmecrrjg Ttjg ayoprjg pea, icai 

€TT€iT€V eg TOV "J&p/JLOV TCOTCLfWV €KSlSoi l0 * 9 6 Se 9 €9 

20 daXaaarav. ewl tovtov Si] tov TLouctwXov ical eg Tt\v 
ayoprjv adpoi^o/aevoi ol Te AvSoi kcu ol Hep<rcu, 
qvayicafyvTO afivvearBai. ol Se Iwveg 9 SpeovTeg 
Tovg fjikv ajmvvojuLevovg tmv iroXefilw, tow Se ovv 
irX^QeX iroXXS irpoarfpepo/uLevovg, e^ave^wpricrav Set" 

25 (ravreg irpog to ovpog, tov T/jlZXov KaXeo/mevov 

evBevrev Se V7ro vvktcl airaXXao'O'OVTO eiri Tag veag. 

at Zap dig fxev eveTrptjcuriarav, ev oe avrycri icai 

Ipov eiri^wplfjg Qeov Ki/j&JjSj/?* to cnajTrTOiULevoi ol 

Heparai, varrepov avreveirlfiTrpacrav Ta ev "EXXtjci 

30 Ipa. (B. v. 100-102.) 

Anger of Darius against the Athenians. 

IX. § 2. 

HaariXei Se Aapelo) <ag e^rjyyeXQr] ^EapSig 
dXovcrag e/jLireTrprjo'dai viro Te 'AOqvalwv Ka\ 'lobvwv, 
tov Se fiyefxova yevecrdai Ttjg arvXXoyijg, tov 
NLtXyariov 'Api(rray6pf]v 9 irpSnra jxev Xeyerai avrov 9 
5 &g eirvdero TavTa 9 9 Idva>v ovSeva Xoyov 7rot*jo'diuL€vov 9 
ev elSoTa tag ovtoi ye ov KaTairpoi^ovrai airo- 
(TTavTeg, eipecrOai olTiveg eiev ol 'AOqvaior fxera Se 9 
TrvdofjL€VOv 9 aiTrjo-ai to to£ov 9 Xa/36vTa Se icai 
€7ri6evTa 6iotov 9 avw eg tov ovpavov cnreivai, Kal 


ixiv eg rov ijepa ffdWovra eiTreiv "*Q ZeiJ, i° 
eicyeviarOai julol 'AOyvalovg rio'ao'Oai" eliravra oe 
ravra, irpocrra^ai evl twv OepairovrcoVy Seiwvov 
irpoKei/uiivov clvtw, eg rph e/cacrTOTe eiTreiv " Ae- 
o"?roTa 9 /xifxveo tS>v 9 A6tjvaia>v" (B. v. 105.) 

But the Athenians, discouraged by a defeat, had already 
retired, leaving the brunt of the war to the Ionians, who 
soon found themselves abandoned by Aristagoras as well. 
At length, betrayed by the Samians, they were defeated 
in a battle at sea, which decided the issue of the war 
against them. Artaphernes pressed them hard on every 
side ; Miletus fell ; and the Greek cities submitted once 
more to the Persian yoke. 

The pacification of Ionia failed to satisfy Darius. The 
intervention of the Athenians in the affairs of Asia seemed 
to furnish him with a pretext for declaring war on Europe. 
He entrusts his son-in-law Mardonius with an army for 
the subjugation of Greece. But the army suffered heavy 
loss in crossing Thrace, and the fleet was almost wholly 
wrecked off the stormy headland of Mount Athos. A new 
army and a new fleet were despatched at once under 
Datis and Artaphernes. Under the guidance of the traitor m 
Hippias, the Persian forces land on Attica and advance 
as far as Marathon. At the approach of danger the 
Athenians sought the help of the Spartans; but the aid 
was not forthcoming. Accordingly, on the day of battle, 
the troops of Athens, numbering 10,000 men, and 1000 
from Plataea, stood face to face with the 110,000 men of 

The ten Athenian generals were not of one mind. 
Miltiades, Aristides, and Themistocles were ready to risk 


a battle : the decision was to be referred to the polemarcb 
Callimachus ; and Miltiades sought an interview with him, 
and addressed him thus : — 

IX. § 3. 

" 'Ei/ <roi vvv 9 KaW/jtta^e, ecrri tj KaraSovXSxrai 
'Adyvag, rjy eXevOepaf Troifoavra, /xviyuLOovva Xnre- 
adat €9 top airavra avOp&irwv /3lov 9 ota ovSe 
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5 $7» *£ °5 eyevovro 'Adqvaioi, eg kivSwov ijKOv<ri 
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SeSoKrai to irelaovrai irapaSeSofievoi 'iTririy *jv Se 
ireptyevrrrai ovtyi j} tto\i$ 9 olrj re earn irpcorfj tS>v 
'TSiXXfjviScov iroXiwv yeveo-dat. Ka>9 Sv Srj Tavra ota 

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t£>v TrptiyfMXTaov to Kvpof e%€iv 9 vvv ep^o/xai <f>pa<ru)v. 
fjfxeoov t£>v (TTpaTfiyZv, eovrtov Seica, ilj(pL ylvovrai 
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15 riva aracriv /uLeyaXtjv ejULiretrouarav Siacelcreiv ra 
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fiaXoo/jLev, irplv ri /ecu craOpov 'Adqvalwv [xere^e- 
repoKTi eyyeveo-dai, 6eS>v ra tcra v€Julovtwv 9 0101 re 
ei/mev irepiyeveaOai rrj ov/m/SoXy . Tavra <av iravra 

20 69 (T€ VVV T€lV€l 9 KOI €K (TCO fjpTfJTai. tJV yap (TV 

yvoofiij rtj efxrj TrpocrOfr etrri toi irarpig re eXevOepq, 
Kat 7ro\i9 7rpwr*i tZv ev rrj 'EXXaSr tjv Se ryv 
t£>v cnrocnrevSovToov rrjv avjUL^oXriv e\y 9 virap^ei roi 


twi/ €*y(w KareXe^a ayavcov ra evavria. 1 aura 

Xeycov 6 MiXTiaSrjg, irpoarKTarai tov KaXXZ/ua^oi'. 2 5 

Trpoo^yevo/xevtig Se tov woXefiap^ov t?? yvcofiijg 9 

eKeKvpayro (rvufiaWeiv. Mrra 5e, 0/ crrpaTiy'yo}, 

tcov 17 yvd/ua] efpepe trvjuL/HaWeiv, cog kicacrrov avrcov 

eylvero Trpvravrjtri tj}? Jjfxeptjg y NLiXTiaSy irapeSl- 

Soo-av 6 Se 9 SeK6fievog l * 9 ov tI kco crvfJifioAtjv hroieero, 3° 

nrplv ye Sq avrov irpvTavtjtti eyivero. 

(B. vi. 109.) 

Athenian order of battle. 

IX. § 4. 
i/9 oe ffp eiC6£i/oi/ TreptrjAQe, evuavra 017 eraararovro 
wSe 'AOrjvatoi cog ovfLpaXeovTeg. tov fxev Sefyov 
Kepeog 2 * yyeero 6 TroXe/uLap'xog KaXX/^taxo?' o *yap 
vofxog Tore ei^e ovrco Totn 'ABvpaloitriy tov 
Tro\efxap')(Qv e^eiv icepag to Sefyov. qyeonevov Se 5 
tovtov, c^cSckovto cog apiOfxeovro at <pvXal 9 eypnevai 
aXXrjXecov TeXevraioi Se eraaro-ovro, e^ovTeg to 
evvovvjiiov Kepag 9 TIXaTaieeg. 'Aico Tavrfjg yap 
<r(f>i Trjg /j.d'^fjg, dva-iag 'AOqvalwv avayovTcov kcu 
iravfiyvpiag Tag ev T*j(ri Tcevrerripio'i ywofievag, 10 
Karev^erai 6 Krjpvj* 6 'AOrjvaiog " a/xa re 'Afli;- 
valoiari, Xeycov 9 ylve&Oai tcl ayaQa kcu TlXaTaieuo'i" 
Tore Se 9 Tawofxevcov tcov 'AOtjvalcov ev ra> 
WlapaQSovi) eylvero toiovSc ti. to arpaTOireSov 
efyo-oufievov raJ NLrjSaccp arrpaTOTreSco 9 to jjlcv avrov 15 
fieaov eylvero hr\ Tafyag oXlyag, Kal Tavrrj %v 


avQevio-TaTOv to (rrparoTreSov* to Se Kepag eicd- 
repov eppcoTO irXyOei. (B. vi. in.) 

Rout of the Persians. 

IX. § 5. 

'Qg Se (r(f>i SiereTCiKTO, kcu to. cr<payia eylvero 
Ka\a 9 evdcwra cog aTreiOrjcrav ol 'AOqvaioi, Spdfjup 
levTO eg rovg fiapfiapovg. %<rav Se crraSioi ovk 
eXdo'croveg to (JLeTaiyjxiov ain-Sov $ oVtco. ol Se 
5 Tlepcaiy opeovTeg Spdfxia eiriovTag, irapea-Keva(ovTO 
a>9 Sc^ofievor jxavir\v tc toio'I ' A6t]valoi<ri eiretyepov 
kcu Trayxy o\e6pl*jv 9 opeovTeg avrovg eovTag oXiyovg, 


, )(ova'tjg <r<pi, ovtc ToZev/jLCLTaov. Tavra fxev VVV 01 

io (Hdpfiapoi KCLTeiKaXpv . 'AOrjvaioi Se, eirel tc adpooi 

irpoo'e/uu^av toio'I fiapfidpoici, e/xdyovro d^lwg 

\6yov. irpfiiTOi fxev yap 'EWyvcov iravTwv, toov 

flUeig IS/uLcv, SpdjULco eg iroiXefAiovg eyjprjaravT0 9 irpwTOi 

Se aveo")(ovTO ea'Orjrd tc MrjSiKfjv opeovTeg, kcu Tovg 

15 avSpag Tavrtjv eo-Qruxevovg* Tetag Se fjv Toio , i t, EWijo'i 

kcu to ovvojma to Mj}oW (pofiog aicovo-ai. Map- 

ixevw Se ev t<S NLapa6£>vi 9 ^povog eyivero 7roX\6g. 

kcu to fxev fxea'ov tov crrpaT07reSov evUeov ol fiap- 

fiapoi, Trj TLepcat tc avrol kcu 2a/rcu ererd^aTO^ 9 

20 kclto, tovto fxev Sri evUeov ol (3dp/3apoi 9 KOI py^avTeg, 

eSltoKOV eg t*jv fieo'dyaiav to Se Kepag eKaTepov 

evUeov 'AOqvatol tc kcu UXaTaieeg. viKeovTeg Se, 


to fiev T€T tcov fiapftapwv (pevyeiv ew 
TOiari Se to fiecrov py^aari avrS>v> ovvayayovre? ra 
Kepea' D a/ui(poT€pa y efia^ovTO, teat evuceov Aurjvaioi. 25 
ipevyovcri Se tolcti Uepcryari elirovro ko7ttovt€s, ey o 
earl T^fi/ 0aAacro~ai> cnriKOfievoiy wvp Te cureov, kcli 
€Tre\afjL^avovTO tS>v ve5*v. 

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evOavTa, €7n\aj36fji€V09 t5i/ acpikcurrcov 1/1709, Ttjv 
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'AOqvaiw ttoXAo/ T€ #ca« ovofxatrroL 'Etttci juev 35 
©^ rail/ i/eft)i/ eTreKpaTfjarav Tpoirta toiovto) 'AOfjvatoi. 
Trj(ri Se Xonrijcri 01 fidpfiapot e%avaKpov<rafJLevoi y 
irepieirXwov ^ovviov, f5ovX6fj.evoi (pOrjvai tovs 'Afli?- 
vaiovs aTTLKOfxevoi e$ to Sotv. aiTiij Se ecr^e ev 
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vaioi Se wg ttoSwv efypv Ta^icrTa iftdOeov eV to 
atTTv 9 Kal e(f)6*i<rav tc airiKOfxevoi *icp\v tj tovs 45 
/Sapfiapovs rjtceiv, koi eo-TpaTOTreSevcravro airiyfj.evoi 
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tw ev JZwocrapyei. 01 Se fiapfiapoi Ttjm vvivo\ 
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50 rare rtav ' AOqvaicov, iirep tovtov avaKODyevaavreg 

rag v*jag y aireirXwov OTriara) eg ti\v Acrirjv. cjp 

ravrfi tjJ ev MapaO&vt M a X? airedavov rwv fiap- 

f3dpu)v Kara e^OKtoyiXlovg icai TerpoKO(riovg avSpag* 

'AOqvaiwv $e 9 eKaTov ivvevtiKOvra koi Svo. eireaov 

55 fAev afjaporepwv tootovtoi. 

(B. vi. 1 1 2-1 17.) 

X. Thermopylae. 

Xerxes inherited the ambition and the enmities of his 
father Darius. An army consisting of two millions of 
men from the forty-six nations under the Persian king 
was concentrated on the plains of Cappadocia. The 
promontory of Athos was cut across by a ship-canal ; the 
Hellespont spanned by a bridge of boats, over which the 
troops kept marching without intermission for seven days 
and seven nights. The king sat on a marble throne and saw 
with swelling pride this, mighty armament, but he could 
not restrain his tears when he thought that within a few 
years every man of that mighty host would have passed 

DSmaratus, the exiled king of Sparta, was in the train 
of Xerxes, who called him to his side, and questioned 
him upon the chance of resistance being offered to this 

X § 1. 

u Ar]/jLapr)T€, vvv /uloi ere fjSv ri ecrri eirelpecrQai tol 
OiXw. (tv eTg'EWrjv re kcu, cog eyco irvvQavoixat crev 

THERMOPYLAE. X, § a. 163 

T€ kcu twv aXXoov 'EXXyvw t£>v ijuioi f 9 Xoyovs 
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Xeyeis irepl avrcbv, irvdeo-Oai? f Q pev Tcwra 
etpdrrcu 6 Se VTToXafitov etyv "Bacr/Xei/, Korepa 
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aAfy0i/£J7 xpq&acrOai €KeXeve 9 ^>a$ owJeV 0/ arjSearTepov 
€(re<r6ai % irpOTepov %v. (B. vii. 101.) I5 

Answer of D&naratus. 

X. § 2. 

'£}? Se TavTa tJKOvare AtjfjidpqTOS, eXeye tcISc 
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airo Te <ro(f)lii$ KaTepyacr/xevij kcu vo/jlov lo"jQjpov' Ty 
Siayjpewfxevri q 'EXXa?, Tqv Te ireviijv cnrajuLvverai 
kcu Tfjv Secnroovvriv. alvew fxev vvv iravTas "EXXqvag 
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epypfxai Se Xej^cov ov irepl iravTfav TOwrSe tow 10 
Xoyovs, aXXa irepl AaKeSai/uLovlcov ixovvw nrpSyra 

M 2 


/j.€v 9 on ovk €<rri 0KW9 Kore trow Se^ovrai Xoyov? 
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15 Travres ra <ra (ppovecocri. apiOfiov Se irepi 9 fxi] Trudy 
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yap rv^axri e^eoTparev/xivoi X*^ £0£ > ovroi M a X^" 
crovral toi, fjv re eXacrcroi/e? tovtwv, fjv re koi 
irXevves" (B. viL 102.) 

When the Greek states who refused homage to the 
Persian king held their council of war at the Isthmus 
of Corinth, Leonidas, King of Sparta, was chosen gene- 
ralissimo, and marched with 5000 men into Thessaly to 
guard the pass of Thermopylae, the key of Greece. 
Meanwhile the Greek fleet under Eurybiades lay off the 
island of Euboea. 

Xerxes arrived with his army at the entrance of the 
defile, where he finds Leonidas and his troops awaiting 

The troops engage. 

X. § 3. 

TeV(repa9 2b pep Sy irape^tjKc fijiipas 6 Sepfyg, 
ekiciQw alel dpeag a7roSpq(T€(r0ai. irifxirTri Se 9 
a>9 ovk onraXXacro'ovTO, aXXa ol €(f>aivovro avaiSelrj 
re Ka\ aftovXiy Siaxpe&juievoi fieveiv, Tri/uLirei eic 
5 avrov? TSlrjSovs Te koi JZiorlovs Ov/uLwOels, ivreiXa- 
jul€V09 <r<pea$ fyyypfeavTas ayeiv eg o^iv Ttjv ewvrov. 

'Qf €7re7T€O'0V cf)€p6fJL€VOl e? tou$ "EXX^vas ol 

Mq$ot 9 €7rnrT0v iroXXor aXXoc 8' eTreo-rficav, koi 
ovk airyXavvoVy Kalirep fxeyaXayg Trpoo"7TTalovTe$* 

THERMOPYLAE. X. $ $♦ 1 65 

orjkov b* eirolew iravrl reft), Kal ovk rjKi<rra avrtS 10 
fia<ri\ei 9 on iroXXol fiev avdpomroi etev, oXlyoi Se 
avSpe?. eylvero Se 4 (rvfi/OoXii Si tj/mepw. 'Exe/ re 
Se ol MrjSot, rp^em TrepieiTrovro, evQavra ovtoi fiev 
VTTci*yi<rav, ol Se Tlepcrai eKSe^a/ievoi eirqia'av, tovs 6o 
aOavarovf eKaXee jSacnAei?, tw %pX € 'YSapvw 15 
&$ Sfj ovToi ye evTrerew? Karepyao-otievoi* 'Q? Se 
teal ovtoi ovvefjucryov toivi 9r EWtjari 9 ovSev irXeov 

€<p€pOVTO Tf]9 CTTpCLTlW T$9 NLrjSlKij?, aXXct TCt 

aura - are ev areivoiroptp re X^P® A ta X°A xe,/0 *> Kai 
Sopcurt {UpaxyrepoKri ype(!)fi.evot yirep ol "EXXi;i/€9, 2 o 
Kal ovk empires irXqOei xptjo-acrOau AaKeSaifxovioi 
Se efxaxpvro aj*lwg Xoyou, aXXa tc airoSeiKvifxevoiy 
ev ovk eTrKTra/xevoicri fxax^crOat ej~€Tri<rrdjuLevoi 9 Kal 
OK(ti$ evrpe^eiav tcl v£rra 9 dXees ipevyetTKOv SrjOev* 
ol Se fiapfiapoi opeovres (pevyovras, (ioij re Kal 25 
Tcarayip eiryio'av ol 5' av 9 KaTaXa/uifiavofAevoi, 
V7reo , Tpe<pov clvtiol etvat toicti /3ap{3apoioT fiera- 
<TTpe<po/J.€voi Se, Kare/HaXXov irXyQet avapiOjUL^TOvs 
tZv Tlepvewv* eirnrrov Se koi avrcav tcov ^wapm]- 
reW evBavra oXlyoi. 'Eire* Se ovSev eSvvearo 9 * 30 
TcapaXafietv ol YLepcai rjfr eo-oSov Treipew/uLevoi, Kai, 
Kara TeXea Kal iravTolw Trpo&fiaXXovTes, cnrrfKavvov 
oirlaru* 'Ev Tavrrjo-i ryan irpocroSoicri T*jf pdxW 
Xeyerat jSacnXea, dijevfievov, rph avaSpafielv ex rod 
Opovov, Selaavra trepl rrj a-Tparifj. Tore /xev ovroo 35 
qywviaravTO. T*/ $ vorepaly ol fiapfiapoi ovSev 


afieivov aeQXeov. are yap dXlytov eovrwv, c\ti- 
vavreg <r<j)eag KararerfxafxarlcrOat T€ kcu ovk olovg 
re ecrecrOai en. X € *P a ? dvraelpacr6ai 9 avve/SaXXov* 
40 of Se "EXXrjveg Kara ra^ig re kcu Kara e&vea KeKocr- 
/mrj/jievoi %<rav } k&\ ev fxepei $Ka<rroi endyovTO, irXriv 
<f*(0Kewv ovtoi Se eg to ovpog erdyBricrav, <f*vXdj*ov- 
Teg Ttjv arpairov. 'Qg Se ovSev evpitTKov aWoidrepov 

01 Uepcrai ti rfj irporepalfj evwpeov, cnryXavvov. 

(B. vii. 210-212.) 

But Ephialtes the Thessalian pointed out a mountain 
path by which the Greeks might be taken in the rear. 

X. §4. 

'Anropeovrog Se fiao-iXeog o ri yp^o'erai tw irape- 
ovti irpyyfiaTi, 'E'TnaXny? 6 I*jvpvSy]ULOv 9 dvijp 
M^Xtew, %XQe 01 4g Xoyovg 9 wg fxeya ti irapa 
jSatriXeop Sokcw oifr&rOai* compare re Trjv arpairov 

5 Ttjv Sia tov ovpeog <f>epov<rav eg QepjUL07rvXag 9 kvu 
Sie(f>6etpe rovg ravrrj viro/ULecvavrag 'EXXi/i/ftn/. 
Aepj~tjg Se, eirel ol ? pe(re ra inreo")(€TO 6 'E^mX- 
Tfjg KarepydcTEcrQai, avrUa Trept^apiig yevo/uevog 
?7T€)U7r€ 'YSdpvea, kcu tS>v earpaTrjyee 'YSapvtjg. 

10 topfiiaTO 9 * Se irepi XvyytiDV d(f>ag ck tov (TTpaTOireSov. 
J^X €l " e w ^ € 1 arpairog avrt). apj(erai /J.ev airo 
tov 'AcrooTrov iroTanov tov Sia Trjg Siacr<f)dyog peov- 
Tog* ovvofia Se tw ovpei tovtw kcu 777 aTpcnrtp 
Tiivro kcitcu, 'Avoircua. Teivei Se tj 'Avdiraia avrrj 

15 Kara paxiv tov ovpeog, Xyyei Se KctTa tc ^AXirtjvou 

THERMOPYLAE. X § 4. 1 67 

ttqXiv, -irprimiv iovarav rwv AotcplScov irpog tS>v 

Mj/Xi€0>V 9 TJ? KOU TO (TTeiVOTOTOV €(TTl* KaTa 

He per at, tov 9 A<rw7r6v SiafiavTeg, hropevovro 
Tracrav rrjv wktcl, ev Sefyfj fiev e^ovreg ovpea tcl 20 

iTCLuav, ev apurrepy oe ra lpti](ipiw tjwg re o*c- 
<paii>€, Kai eyevovro eif aKpoortjplw tov ovpeog. 
KaTa Se tovto tov ovpeog i(f>v\a<rcrov 9 &>g kcli 
irpoTepov juloi SeStjXc&rat, $wk€Mv xfXioi SttXitcli, 
pvofxevol re Tfjv (rcfyerepffv *X<* f P f l v K< * 1 typovpeovreg 25 
Tjyi/ arpairov. 17 fiev yap kotw etrfioXii €<f)vXacr<r€TO 
vto twv eiprjTar Tqv Se Sia rod ovpeog arpairov 
edeXovral Qwiceeg viroSe^afievoi AewviSrj etyvXao'O'Ov. 
E/maOov Se <r<f>eag 01 Qooiceeg &Se avafie^Korag 9 
avaf&alvovreg yap eXavQavov 01 Uepcrai, to ovpog 3° 
irav ebv SpvZv eTrirrXeov' rjv /jlcv St) vfjvefilfj, yfr6(f)ov 
Se yivofievov troXXov, wg oiicog fjv, (pvXXcov viroxe- 
yyfJLevwv viro roitri iro<r\ 9 avd re eSpapov 01 QoMceeg, 
Kai eSvvro to. oirXa- icai avrUa ot /3dp/3apoi 
Trapricrav. wg Se etSov avSpag evSvofievovg 07rXa, 35 
ev dtb/JLan eyevovro* eXirofievoi yap ovSev <r(pi 
<Pavri<r€O'0ai avrlXpov, eveKvpti(rav (rrpary. 'JSivQavra 
'YSapvtjg KarappwSrjcrag fxi] 01 Qooiceeg eWt Aaice- 
Saifxovtoi, elpero tov E*7riaXT€a TcoSairbg €?i/ o 
trrpaTOS' irvBofievog Se arpeKew, Sieravve Tovg 40 
Tlepcrag wg eg /jlol^v. ol Se Qwicies, wg efidXXovTO 
Toi<ri TO^ev/maari iroX\oi<ri re Kai ttvkvoicti, oi^ovro 


<peuy0VT€f €7Tl TOU 0Vp€09 TOP KOpVfX^OV, eTTlO'TaiXeVOl 

i>g hr\ (r<f)ia9 &ptiyQfi<rav apfflv, kol TrapevicevaSaTO** 

45 ft>? airoXeojULevoi 91 * . oStoi /xev Srj ravra e(bpoveov 

01 Se ajuL(JH ExiaXTea kcu 'YSapvea Tie per ai <$>wk€qw 

/A€v ovSeva \6yov eiroievvro, ol Se KaT&($aivov to ovpog 

Kara Ta^o?. (B. vii. 213-218.) 

Leonidas dismisses his allies, and prepares to hold the 
ground with 300 Spartans. 

X. § 5. 
Toiori Se ev QepfJLOirvKrja'i covert 'EXAfJixw, irpii- 
tov fiev 6 fiavrig ^/Leyia-Tirjg 9 ecriSwv eg ra lpa 9 
e<ppa(re tov fieKKovra eo , eo'6ai a/ma ijol <r<£i Oavarov 
eirl Se teat avrd/moXoi fjio'av ol e$ayyel\avTeg tZv 
5 Hepcrecov Ttjv irepioSov ovtoi fiev eri WKTog exri\- 
pippav TpiTOi Se ol rjixepoa-KOTTOiy KaTaSpajmovreg 
airo tZv aicpow, fjSij Sia(f)atvov(njg rjfiepyg, evOaxrra 
efiovXevovTO ol "EXXi/yej, ical a(f>etov eo")(fl£ovTO al 
yvtojJLdi. ol /jl€v yap owe ecov tijv Tafyv etcXnreiv, 

10 01 Se avTereivov. i-iera Se tovto SiaicpiOevTeg, ol 
fxev aTraWao'O'ovTO, koi Siaa'KeSaarOevreg koto, 7toXi? 
eKacTOi erpairovTO* ol Se avrS>v ajma AewviSrj 
juieveiv avrov Trapacr/cevaSaTO* Aeyerai Se cog avrog 
tr(peag aireireix^e AewnSrjg, jultj airoXoavrai KrjSo- 

1 5 fievog 9 avrqi Se kcu ^EnrapTivp-etav toici irapeovcri 
ovk eyeiv evTrpeicewg eKknceiv t*jv rafyv eg t*jv ?j\6ov 
<f)v\d^ovreg apyyv. Ol fxev wv o'v/x/xa^oi ol 
aTroireiJLiroiJLevoi ofyovro tc airtovreg, Kal eireiQovro 

THERMOPYLAE. X. §6. 1 69 

kewvlSri. Qecnrieeg Se ical Qq/3aioi Karifxeivav 
fxovvoi irapa AaKeSaifioviOKri. tovtcov Se 9 Qrj/3atoi 20 
[lev aeicovTeg €fi€vov 9 kcu ov fiovXofievor Kar€i-)(€ yap 
<r(f}eag AewvlSrjg, ev o/mypcov Xoy<p iroieifievog' ©€<r- 
irieeg Se 9 etcovreg fxaXicrra' o? ovtc €(pacrav cnroXi- 
irovreg AccopIStjv teal Tovg per avrov airaXXa^e(r0ai 9 
aXXa KarafieivavTee crwaireOavov. etrrpaTtiyee Se 25 
aurSi/ Aj/ctyiXoff AiaSpopeu. (R yii 2I9 _ 222#) 

Death of Leonidas and his companions. 

X. § 6. 

Se/>£»/9> ^** eirel rjXlov avarelXavrog airovSag 
eiroiycraTO, eiria"^wv yjpovov 9 eg ayoprjg kov juLaXicrra 
TrXtjOcbpqv irpotroSov hroiiero' koi yap eirea^raXTO 
e£ 'E'jrtaXrcft) ourco. airo yap rod ovpeog jJ Kara- 
I3a<rig ovvTOfAurrepri re e<rri 9 kcu fipaxyrepog 6 5 
X^P ? 7roXXov 9 qirep t] ireploSog re teat ava/3acri$. 
07 Te Sq (3ap/3apoi 01 aftfpl Eep£ea Trpoa-^Xa-av* 
Ka\ 01 a/uupl A.€wi>l$jjv "EXXqves, cog rqv eirl 6avar<p 
e^pSov TTQievjULevoi, fjStj iroXXfi paXXov tj tear apxjotg 
eiretfi'irrav eg to evpvrepov rod avyevog. * to fiev yap 10 
epvfia rod reixeog e(j)vXao'<r€T0 9 01 Se ava rag 
irporepag fjfiepag virefyovreg eg Ta QTewoiropa 
efia^ovTO. Tore Sq 9 av/uL/xla-yovTeg ej»(o tS>v ora- 
vS)v Zo , eiwTTOv irXyOei ttoXXoi rS>v /Sapfiapow. 
oiria-Qe yap 01 yyefioveg t£>v TeXeaw, e^ovTeg 15 
fjLa<m,yag 9 eppairi^pv iravra avSpa 9 ale\ eg to irpocrco 


enrorpvvovreg. iroXXol jxev Srj etreirnrTOv avrZv eg 
Trjv OaXaorrav, teal Sietfydelpovro' ttoXXw 8* ert 
irXevveg KareTrareovTO JJwol vir aXXyXav ?jv Se 

20 Xoyog ovSeU tov airoXXvimevov. are yap extora- 
IJL€Voi top juLeXXovrd cr(f)i ecrecrOai Oavarov e*K t£>v 
irepiiovTtov to ovpog, aTreSeUvvvro 10 * pcofirjg ocrav 
ei^ov fJLeyicrrov eg Tovg fiapfiapovg, irapaypewixevol 
T€ Kal areovTeg. Kal A.e<avlSrjg T€ ev TOur<p tcS tcqvw 

25 TriTTTei, avrjp yevo/xevog apurTog, kcu eTepoi per 
avrov ovoftaoroi ^7rapTifjTewv 9 t£>v eyco a>g avSpwv 
aj*lwv yevofxevoov iirvQo/jLfjv tol ovv6fxaTa m eirvBoixtiv 
Se Kal airavrtov twv TpitjKocrlwv. kcu Stj kcu Tleparitav 
Trlirrowri evOavra aWoi tc xoAXoi koi ovofiaarror 

30 ev Se $q koi Aapeiov Svo iralSeg. &€pj~ea> re S*j Svo 
dSeX(f)eoi evOavTa iriirrowL /xa^eofievoi virep tov 
veKpov tov AeoovlSew, Uepcrewv T€ kcu Aa*e<Jai- 
fjLOv'uav taOicrfJLog eyevero iroWog eg tovtov tc 
apery 01 "EXArjveg vire^elpvcrav, /ecu erpe^ravTO Tovg 

35 evavrlovg Terp&Kig* Toinro Se &vve<rTtjK€e y-eyjpi ov 
oi avv 'TEnridXTy irapeyevovro. wg Se Tovrovg ijKeiv 
eirvdovTO 01 TEXA^c?, evOevrev erepoiovro to vetKog. 
eg tc yap to ottcivov Ttjg 6Sov ave^capeov O7riorta 9 
kcu 7rapafieiy\fdfjL€V0i to Teiyog, eXOovreg t^ovro ex* 

40 tov koXoovov iravreg dXeeg 01 aXXoi 9 TrXrjv Qrj/3al(av. 
o oe KoAwvog cctti ev Ty ecroow okov vvv o Xiuivog 
Xewv ecTTTjKe ex* A.eaviS*i. ev Tovrcp crcpeag tw 
X^pV aXej^ojULevovg f^ajfaipfio'i, toigti avTvov en/y- 

TBERMOPFLAE. X. § *. 171 

•ftavov en irepieovarcu, /ecu yep<r\ kcu OTOftaari, Karri' 
](<0(rav 01 fidpfiapoi fiaWovrev oi fj.ev 9 i£ ivavrirft 45 
eTiovrojjLevoi, kcu to epvjxa tov T€i](eos ovyx&o-avrer 
oi Se, Trepiekdovref icavToQe irepivTaSov. 

AcuceSaifjLOvltov Se kcu Qeavriiwv toiovtwv yevo- 
fievwv, Sfitag Xiyerai avrjp apicrTog yevivOai 2xa/)- 
TiyTtjg Aii]V€KT]$. tov toSc (fxxcri elirai to eiros trp\v 5° 
tj (rv/jLiuLL^at <r(pea$ toio-i tt/LySouri, irvOopevov irpog 
Tev twv TprijfiwiwVf wg, eireav ol fiapfiapoi omriiwri 
to TO^eu/uLaTa, tov fjXiov viro tov ifX^Oeog t£v 
SiotZv aTroKpxhrrowri' too'ovto ti -ir\*j6oQ avrZv 
elvai. tov Se, ovk eKirXayivra tovtoufi, enrcu, ev 55 
aXoylfj iroievjuLCvov to t£>v MjJ<W irKrjOos, i>9 
"iravra <r(f)i ayada 6 Tprj^lviog %€tvog ayyiWoi, 
el cnroKpvirTOVTWV twv MjJ&ov tov tj\iov 9 xnro o'Kttj 

ecroiTO irpog avrovg j? M<*X^> Ka%i °^ K * v V^'V*" 
Tavra jul€v Kal aXXa TOiovroTpoira eired (paan 60 
AiT]V€K€a tov AcueeSaifioviov \nri(r6ai fLVfjfAOovva. 
QcMpOeitri Si o"(f>i avTov Tavrtj Tfjirep enrecrov, kcu 
toio"i irpOTCpov TeXevryo'ao'i q tov$ viro AewviSefo 
awoire/JLC^OivTag o?j(€<r0a£, eTriyiypcnrTcu ypdyLfxara 
Xiyovra TaSe* *>5 

Mvpuuriv irorc rjjde rpajKotricus iyid\ovro 
€K HcXonowdcrov xiXtader reropcs. 

Tavra jJiev Stj Totfri ' nrao't eiriyiypairrar tolcti Se 
^TrapriqTyo'i ISly 


7° *Q feus ayyeXkciu Aeuctlhifjundoit, &ri rjj&e 

K(lfl€0O, TOtg KMUH6V pTjflCUTt, 7T€l£6fl€VOt. 

AaKeSai/uLovloKTi fxev Srj tovto* Ttp Se navri, rdSe* 

Mvrjfia r6d* tcKeivoio Meyurrta, tv nore MiJ&H 
27r€p%€i6v norafibv KTtivav dfict^dfici'ot* 
Jg fiasmos 9 bs t6t€ Kfjpat errcpxoficvas crd(f>a «3<2>?, 

ovk ct\tj SrrdpTTjs fjycp6ws irpoktireiv, 

Ot jjl€v Stj irepl QepfjLOTrvKag "EXXi/i/e? ovrta tjyoDvi- 

(B. vii. 223-228, 234.) 


Without attempting to solve the vexed question of the 
relation of Aeolic to the other dialects, we may at any rate 
regard it as representing, more than any other, the primi- 
tive language of Greece. The Dorians may be considered 
as originally an offshoot from the Aeolians, though soon 
surpassing in numbers and repute their parent stock. At 
the same time it must be remembered that the character- 
istic conservatism of the Dorians often induced them to 
retain the earliest forms and flexions of words after they 
had disappeared from the Aeolic dialect. 

Dating from the return of the Heracleidae, we may 
divide those who used the Aeolic dialect (properly so 
called), into three branches — Asiatic Aeolians, Boeotians, 
and Thessalians. But the distinction won by the Aeolic 
lyrical poets of Asia Minor and Lesbos caused the dialect 
of those parts to be taken as the great representative of 

Among the distinguishing characteristics of the Aeolic 
of Lesbos may be noticed : — 

i. Accent. The oxyton accent is studiously avoided, 
and, as a general rule, the Aeolic dialect throws back the 
accent as far as the quantity of the ultima will permit. 

Thus instead of crocj)6s, Ovpos, 6£vs, SvcrfJLevrjs, cya?, c/*ot, avr6s, 
(frCkiisj (frpovcls, we have <r6(f)os, Svpos, o£vs, bvcrfievTjs, cyav, 

tfioi, <f>i\cis, <f)p6v(is. This system of accentuation is one 
of the points in which the Aeolic dialect resembles Latin. 

2. Psilosis (^iXoxrts), or 'use of smooth breathing/ 
Thus tmrtot (cp. Lat. eguus), crcpos, tpos, airakos. This rule 
is not universal, and it is difficult to assign to it its due 
limits. Perhaps the rough breathing was retained where 


it represented an original s or /, and was omitted else- 

3. Digamma. Although the Vau had the name * Aeolic 
digamma/ because it was longest retained in that dialect, 
it is by no means regularly or universally found in it ; and 
it soon began to be represented by various other letters, 
as by 3 in Ppdui, or by v as in mW for apas. 

4. Substitutions of consonants in Aeolic. (a) * 

for t, as. injure for vevT€. 

(b) for a, as &*\<t>i*cs for fcX#w. (Cp. Lat bis with bU). 

(c) for B y as (ftp for %, #Xi0« for dX*/3« (cf. &pa 
with Lat. fores). 

(d) (for O-0-, as wXdfa for TrXqoro-o, and almost conversely 
<rd for {, as wrbos or vo-tat for 8(oe. 

(e) It is common to quote the substitution of n and b 
for /x and r, on the evidence of m&a for ftera, but it is pro- 
bable that though these two prepositions are identical in 
meaning, they have nothing common in etymology, perd 
being connected with ptaos and iriba with post and wovs 
L e. nob. 

(f) { for b, as £ap€vr)s for bm-pcvr)s, £apdk\Hv for fiia- 

jSaXAfu/, {adqW for dtad^Xor. This change is easily effected 
through the j sound of the iota after b. 

(g) Doubling of liquids, e.g. careXka, where Attic 
writes foTetXn, both forms being different ways of euphon- 
ising ftrreX-o-a. Similarly we find ptjvvos i. e. prjvaos, Lat. 

mensis, eppi for €i pi, <f)dcvvos for (fractvos, <f)0€pp<D for (pfoipto, 
\ippas for \cipas, ottcXXxi for cwrciXjy, fidXkopai for fiovXopat. 

5. Change of v before a into 1. This rule explains 
(a) the form of participle feminine in -oura, cura as irkriSoiaa 
which is a euphonising of ir\f)0ov<ra t and (3) the form of ace. 
plur. in -ais and -oir, being originally -ai>s and -ow, the true 
form of accusative preserved in the Cretan irpuyvravs for 

7rp€(rfivTar 7 or row Popovs for tov$ popavs. 


6. Substitutions of vowels, (a) The commonest of 

these is the use of a for *, as aXXora for £K\ot€> Mpwra for 
Mpi*r€ = frepcofo ; ica for K€ (av). 

(b) Substitution of * for a, as de/wro* for Bdpo-os, Kperos for 

(r) Of 5 for o, as ford for wrd. 

(</) Conversely, of o for a, as 3Xo^w, dviaun, $pox4»s. 

(e) 1 for e, as xpvo-io*, *vy/<u. 

{/) 1 for v, as Zi/n;Xoff for v^X<fe. 

(^) v for o, as oio/fia for ovopa, vpdpnj for dftdprc 1, d?rv for 

(A) o* for ov, as in 3rd pers. plur. of present tense of 
verb ; in feminine of participle ; in ace. plur. of O declen. 

as 7ra<rov\ois for nacra-aXovs. 

(i) at for a, as Xvypcus for \vypas. 

7. The rule for the use of d for r\ in Aeolic is 

that d is always retained in those cases where the Ionic 17 
represents an original a, but not where 1/ represents *. 

Thus pdrqp not parap, rjpdpav (epapat) not dpaptw, d^dvrfs 
not d(f>dvas. 

8. (a) Substitution of tj for ci, as in infin. (rvpfeprjv, 
ayrfv for avpxj)€pciv t tlyav, tajuos for ncctMOff, or conversely 
« for 1;, as cua) for 7*0, NfiXcvs for NtJAcv? ; or (b) of » 

for ov, as G>pavos for ovpavds, oXd^o> for dXo^ou, mHW Gen. 
for avdovs from at>8a>. 

9. One element in a diphthong is sometimes 

Omitted, as *A0avda, akdBta (for aXrfitia), \ax6rjv (for 
Xaxoiqj'), Zpavos (for ovpavds). 

10. Rules for contraction, (a) -ao and -a© contract 

to a, as Kpoviba, airovbdv. (b) -co to -cv as f&Xcvs, Givycvis, 

11. Peculiarities in the declensions, (a) There 
is no dual number, (b) There is a form in d of mas- 
culines of 1 st decl. in ijr, as vcQckrjyepera. (c) In the ^rd 


decl. the accus. sing, ends in -1/* for -?/, as (aqv from (afc, 
dvo-fievrjv, KvickoTcprjv, or (d) has an ending in v instead of ha 

as <r<f>payw, Kvapiv for acppay'ida, Kinjplba. In the vocative, 

the Aeolians preferred (e) a short vowel, as ¥<wr#o for 
2cnr<f)oi. Aeolic also frequently used metaplastic forms, 
(f) which were also not uncommon in Homer, as va-fdvo 
and vcrfjLM, aX/ct and akicjj, etc. See notes on Horn. Dial. 

12. In the conjugation of the verb, (a) the forms 
in ~pi are far more common than in any other dialect. 
(b) The third person plural ends in -oun instead of in 
-ovo-4 as in Attic, or -ovn as in Doric, (c ) In the conjunc- 
tive 2nd and 3rd sing, the Iota subscript is omitted. 

13. Prepositions often suffer apocope in Aeolic, as 

av (or 6v) for dvd, irap for napd, kot for Kara, Cp. Karrabe for 
koto. rab€ 9 Karrav for Koff $>v t n&rrav for irphs rrjv, ircp for 

7T€pi t as otK& tc mp o-w, but sometimes rrcp for lirep Aeolic 

fOr WTCp, aS 1T€p- -*X €l ^ 0r V7T«P^ €C « 

14. Adverbs (a) which in Attic terminate in ort are 
written with era in Aeolic as jrora, oXXora, erepara. Adverbs 
(3) in &[V] are written with 0a as ihrtaBa, wdpoiOa. There 
is a special termination (c) in vi as /xcW, aAXvi, 7r^Xv(, 
which last is probably Aeolic for rrjKov, see § 4 (a). The 
same syllable occurs in rvide for 7778c 

It is not possible from a want of material to make any 
table of Boeotian forms in contrast with Lesbian Aeolic. A 
few inscriptions and the specimens of Megarean dialect 
in the Acharnians of Aristophanes give but a scanty notion. 
It is however a remarkable fact that the differences between 
Boeotian and Lesbian are very great. The system of 
accentuation and aspiration was altogether unlike, to say 
nothing of minor differences. Perhaps the Thessalian 
dialect, if we knew more of it, might be found to occupy 
a mid-point between Lesbian and Boeotian. 


ALCAEUS. 612 B.C. ' 

Alcaeus was the scion of a noble family in the Lesbian 
Mytilene. His life fell in the stormy times of political 
warfare. Alcaeus and his two brothers, who supported 
the oligarchical party in Mytilene, were driven into exile. 
On the return of Alcaeus to Lesbos he found Pittacus 
entrusted with the reins of government as Aesymnetes 
(an office resembling the dictatorship at Rome). Alcaeus 
with his brother made a final, but unsuccessful, attempt 
to bring his own party into power again, and to de- 
pose Pittacus,. who was generous enough to forgive his 
enemy when taken prisoner: saying, 'Forgiveness is 
better than revenge.' The political odes of Alcaeus are 
called bixovraauurriKa, beside which he wrote martial lays, 
love songs, and drinking-songs. Of these only a few 
fragments remain. Cp. Hor.Od. 2. 13, 26> 

The following fragment describes the warlike furniture 
of his house : — 

Frag. i. 

M.apiialpei Se ftiyag S6julo$ j^a A/car iraca S* Aprj 

KeKoo-jULfjTai crriya 
Xd/xirpaicriv Kvvlai<ri**> Karrav lz Xcvkoi KaOuirepOev 

linnoi \6(f)Ol 
vevoicriv l2h , KecpaXaiaiv avSpoov ayaXfAaTa, yaXKiai 6e 

Se Trao'craXoif* 11 
KpvTTTOio-iv 121 * irepiKelfJLevat Xafiirpai Kva/JLiSeg^ apicos 

io"xypoo sh fiiXev9 10h 9 



decl. the accus. sing, ends in -qv for -?/, as fdV from {afc, 
dwrfjLcvrjv, KVKkoT€pi)v, or (d) has an ending in v instead of fio 

as a<f>payiv, Kvdpiv for oxfrpayiba, Kvrjpiba. In the vocative, 

the Aeolians preferred (e) a short vowel, as *dn<f>o for 
2a7r<t>oi. Aeolic also frequently used metaplastic forms, 
(f) which were also not uncommon in Homer, as wrfdvg 
and vo-fxivi, aXxt and dXxjj, etc. See notes on Horn. Dial. 

12. In the conjugation of the verb, (a) the forms 
in -/u are far more common than in any other dialect. 
(b) The third person plural ends in -owrt instead of in 
-ovo-4 as in Attic, or -ovn as in Doric, (c ) In the conjunc- 
tive 2nd and 3rd sing, the Iota subscript is omitted. 

13. Prepositions often suffer apocope in Aeolic, as 

dp (or 6ii) for dvd y nap for napd, tear for Kara, cp. Karrabc for 
koto rafie, Karrav for Kaff 2>v, irdrrav for irpos rfjv, irep for 

ir€pL, as oik<0 T€ ircp &$>, but sometimes n-ep for In-*/* Aeolic 

for wrep, as jrep- -*X« for imtpix*i. 

14. Adverbs (a) which in Attic terminate in m are 
written with era in Aeolic as 7rrfra, oXXora, eVcpcara. Adverbs 
(3) in 0€[V] are written with 0a as ftrtotfo, irdpotOa. There 
is a special termination (f) in vi as /i«rui, oXXvt, ir^Xi/i, 
which last is probably Aeolic for rrjkov, see § 4 (a). The 
same syllable occurs in rvibe for 7778c 

It is not possible from a want of material to make any 
table of Boeotian forms in contrast with Lesbian Aeolic. A 
few inscriptions and the specimens of Megarean dialect 
in the Acharnians of Aristophanes give but a scanty notion. 
It is however a remarkable fact that the differences between 
Boeotian and Lesbian are very great. The system of 
accentuation and aspiration was altogether unlike, to say 
nothing of minor differences. Perhaps the Thessalian 
dialect, if we knew more of it, might be found to occupy 
a mid-point between Lesbian and Boeotian. 


ALCAEUS. 61 % B.C. ' 

Alcaeus was the scion of a noble family in the Lesbian 
Mytilene. His life fell in the stormy times of political 
warfare. Alcaeus and his two brothers, who supported 
the oligarchical party in Mytilene, were driven into exile. 
On the return of Alcaeus to Lesbos he found Pittacus 
entrusted with the reins of government as Aesymnetes 
(an office resembling the dictatorship at Rome). Alcaeus 
with his brother made a final, but unsuccessful, attempt 
to bring his own party into power again, and to de- 
pose Pittacus,. who was generous enough to forgive his 
enemy when taken: prisoner: saying, 'Forgiveness is 
better than revenge.' The political odes of Alcaeus are 
called BtxofrraauuTTiKa, beside which he wrote martial lays, 
love songs, and drinking-songs. Of these only a few 
fragments remain. Cp. Hor.Od. 2. 13, 26* 

The following fragment describes the warlike furniture 
of his house : — 

Frag. i. 

JS/tapfialpei Se /J.iyag Sojulov ^aXicw* iracra S* Aptj 

K€KO(rjuLijrai rrriya 
\aiJLirpai<Tiv Kvvlaicri**, icaTTai/ 13 Xcvkoi KaOvirepOev 

"nririoi \6<poi 
vevoKriv 12b , KeifyaXauriv avSpcov ayaX/iaTa, j^aXwac 6 * 

Si 7ra<r<raXoi? el1 
Kpv7TTOi(riv 12l> irepiKeljULevai Xafxirpai Kva/miSe^ apico$ 

i<rxvp<»* h pi\evs 10h , 



6 (jo peace? tc vioi X/va> 8b KoliXal re kcit acnriSeg ^e/3- 
\y/uL€var 5 

irap lz $e XaXKiSiKai (nraOat, Trap Se ^wfj.ara 7roXXa 
kcu KviraTTiSes 9 

t5>v ovk €<rri \a6ecrff, €7reiSr) irpwrtcrO 9 viro epyov 
€<Trafj.ev roSe. 

In the following Alcaic stanzas the poet (like Horace, 
Od. 2. 14) describes the ruined condition of Mytilene 
under the figure of a disabled ship. 

Frag. 2. 

»A t lOa. \ * 9 9 

AcrvvertiiuLi 1 ** rav ave/mcov <rra<riv 
to pep yap €v0ev fcp/ma KvXlvSercu, 

to b* evOev a/m/me? S* ai> 13 to jmecrcov 
veil' (poprj/meOa <rvv fie\aipa 9 
XfljULOwi fito'xOcdvTes 101 ' /ucyaXq) /AaXcr 5 

7T£p lz fjiev yap avTkog IcrTOfreSav ?X e£ > 
Xai(f)os §e icav XaStjXov** fjStj 
teal XaKiSeg /tieyaXai KaT avro. 


Sappho, the contemporary of Alcaeus, stands at the 
head of Greek poetesses, and bore the honourable name 
of the tenth Muse. Her birthplace was probably Mytilene, 
where she gathered round her a train of young girls whom 
she instructed in poetry and music. The accusations, 
with which it was sought to blacken her character, 


probably had their origin with the comic poets pf Athens, 
where the idea of a woman of fair fame taking a high 
public position was something too strange to be true. 
Her contemporary Alcaeus calls her ayva s&nQoi. 

In the following Sapphic ode she entreats Aphrodite 
to stir the object of her love to return her passion. 

Ode i. 

UoiKiXoOpov** aOdvar *A.<f>p68iTa 9 
iral A/09 SoXo7rXoK€ 9 Xioto/jloli ere 
ixri p acraicrt iivpr ovicugl™ oafiva, 

7roTvia, Ovfjiov. 
aXXa tviS' Uo eX6\ a* ttotci 14 * Kareparra 1 ** 5 

t5? efiag au$<a$ sh aioicra 5 * tp/Xw 140 
eicXi/ey, irarpog Se SofAOV Xr7ro«ra 5a , 

yjpvmov* tfXOe? 
apix* v7ro%€vj~ai(Ta 6X> 9 koXoi Se a Syov 
(tiicees (TrpovOoi irep\ *ya? fieXalvag 10 

irvKva owevvres irrep air copava) 00 aiue- 

-pog Sia ti€(T(r<0. 
a:\p-a o c^ikovto' tv o , to jmafccupa, 
fieiSiacraKT aOavartp irpo(rco7r(p 9 
*ipe , ottl dfjvTe Tceirovva kotti 15 

SijSre /caX^i 12 *, 
kott e/uicp /jLaXicrra OeXw yeveaQai 
tiaivoXa Ov/may rlva Sfjvre TleiOa) 
ticu? ayyv 8 * ej <rav (piXoTara, t/s a , (3 

^aV^)' lld aSiKfjei; 20 

N 2 



kcu yap at <f>evyei 9 Tayew? 3ia>£ei, 
at Se Sebpa /xtj Sexer 9 , aXXa Sdxrei 9 
at Se fxti (pl\ei l 9 Ta^ito? <f>iXq<rei 

kwvk eOeXoicra 5 *. 
eXOe fxoi /col vvv 9 ^aXeiraw Se Xv&ov 25 

€< fiepifivav, otrcra Se fioi reXecrcrai 
Ov/ulos ifieppei* 8 , TeXecrov av o* aura 

aviAixayos eaao. 

In the next ode, imitated by Catullus (51), Sappho 
descants on the joy of being near the beloved object 

Ode 2. 
$aiveral fxoi /cjJi/q? 8 * "ros Oeoiciv 
e/x/xev wvrjp o<tti$ evavrlos toi 
travel 2 , kcu irXacriov 3Sv (fxavel- 

-cra? 12 * vTraxovei, 
kcu yeXai<ras 6l> l/mepoev, to fxoi fxav 5 

KapSlav ev CTtjOecriv eirToacrev 
&9 yap eviSov* fipoxewg** ere, (fx&va? 

ovoev er eacei**' 
aXXa Kdfi 13 [jlIv yXZova eaye 9 Xeirrov 6* 
avriKa yjp5> irvp V7raSeSp6fJLaKev 6e 9 10 

07nraTe(T(Ti ovoev oprj/u. "», e7rippojUL- 

-j8e£o-i 12a S* aicovai. 
a Se fx *Spw KOKyeerai, rpofxos Se 
wacav ay pei 1 , yXoaporepa Se Tro/as 
e/JLjuu**, Tefli/a/ofv 8 * S* 6Xly<a 8h eTriSevqv 6 * 15 

(palpofxai aXXa. 


THEOCRITUS (see Dorian Dialect) 

The following Idyll of Theocritus is written in Aeolian 
dialect : — 

'haakath (The Distaff). 

An address to the ivory distaff which the poet purposes 
to bring to Miletus for Theogenis, the wife of his friend 


TXavicas, <» (fyiXepid aXa/caTa, Sobpov Aflai/aa? 9 
yvvaij~iv 9 V009 oiKaxpeXiag atcriv cVajSoXo? 7 , 
0^oore«r ,6b , 12a , afjLfjLtv** vfiapTrj 6 * toXiv e? Nf/Xco? 8 ^ 

ojxa K.v7rpi$09 Tpov KaXctfAca yXobpov vir axaXa). 
TuiSe Uo yap irXoov evavefxov aiTyfieOa 12 * irap Ato?, 
OTToas ^eWov 4g efAOV Tep^ofx ISobv KavTi^>iXfj(TOfX€V 9 
Niic/ai/, yaplroDV ifiepo(j>(ava)v "epov <f>vrov 9 
teal ere rav iXe(pavT09 iroXvfJLO'xOa) 8b yeyevtifxevav 
SZpov NiKiaag 9 els oXoj£G> 6d , 8b X*PP a ** e oircurcopwi 
<rvi/ ra xoXXa fxev epy e/tTeXeVeiy, av8peioi$ 6h Tre- 

xXo«? 6h , 10 

TroXXa S* 01a yvvaaces (fropeoia 12b vSariva /3paKtj s . 
$h yap fJLarepes apvcov /j.aXaKOig 6h ev ftorava iroKOi^ 6h 
Tre^a^KT avroevei TJevyevioo? 1 " y evetc €u<r<pvpa>* 
outws aw(rUpyos 9 (piXeei S 9 8<r<ra craoeppoves. 
ov yap £9 cuclpas qvS* ej aepyw 8 * kcv e/3oXX6fji.av* 9 15 
owaa-ai are S6/j.oi9 6h 9 a/JLfJLerepas* 8 e<rarav axi/ 6g 



teal yap toi Trarpif, av <&£ 'J&cpvpa? Krla-are ttot 

vdcroo 8 ^ Tpivcucp!a$ pveXov, apSpwv Soki/ulgov woXiv. 


avQpdnroicri vocroi9 6h (fyap/maKa \vypais 6i aTraXaX- 
Kefiev, 20 

oiKqcreis Kara, mlWarov* 8 epavvav 4 * fxer 'Iaoi/aw, 
o>9 et/aXaicaTOj Gcv-yew? «/ Safioria-iv Tre\t] 12c , 
ira/ 0/ ppacrnv ati (ptXaolSoo irapexw 120 £eva>. 
Krjvo 6 * yap tt$ ipel i*toir6s ?§a>v or\ % fxeyaXa \dpi^ 
Sdopw crlv a\ly$ travra $e ripLdra ra Trap (plXto. 25 


We may reckon three periods of the Doric dialect. 
The early, which ends with the beginning of the 5th 
cent. b.c. ; the middle, including- the 5th and 4th cents. ; 
and the late, from the end of the 4th cent., to the decay 
of the dialect. 

Of the earliest period little can be learned, except from 
a few inscriptions; but it would seem that there are 
grounds for assigning to this age of Doric a tendency to 
dispense, like the Aeolians, with the rough breathing at 
the beginning of words. (See Aeol. Dial. § 2). It was 
characterised also by a general use of the digamma, (as 
we learn from the forms *A«f 09 and alfu on a Crissaean 
inscription), and by the retention of the letter Koppa, Q t 

The middle period of Doric is illustrated by a larger 
number of inscription^. To it belong also the fragments 
of Epicharmus (circ. 500 B.C.), and Sophron (circ. 460 b.c), 
and the specimens of the Doric of Megara, in the Achar* 
nians of Aristophanes, and of Laconian Doric in the 
Lysistrata. Many notices of the Doric of this period may 
be found scattered in the various writings of the Alexan- 
drian grammarians, and the later lexicographers. 

From the time of Alexander the Great, the Doric dialect, 
entering upon its last stage, began to decay; partly from 
the dominating influence of Attic, with which it was con* 
stantly brought into contact, and partly from internal 
changes in the dialect itself. 


The use of 5 for 17 remained to the last the great dis- 
tinguishing mark of Doric, and, by an erroneous extension 
of its use, o is often found in the latest specimens of Doric, 
where in a purer age of the dialect 17 was written. (See 
Dialect, forms, Doric, §1.) 

We must .now make a further division of the dialect, 
into the stricter and the milder Doric. The former was 
the type of dialect in use among the Laconians, Cretans, 
Italian Dorians, and Cyrenaeans. The distinguishing 
feature of the stricter Doric was the use of a> and 17 instead 
of ov and «, as for example, tmrca and rjftev for tmrov and 
elptv. The digamma too was retained longer in the 
stricter Doric, or its loss was represented by the letter p, 
at the beginning as well as in the middle of words. 
Among other peculiarities may be noticed the addition of 
the suffix 7 to pronouns, as ey&vij and cplvr), and the sub- 
stitution of to or t© for the combination of the vowels to. 
The stricter Dorians were averse to the use of 2, hence the 
Doric poet Lasus wrote whole poems without employing 
that letter, a practice which forms a remarkable contrast 
to the usage of the Ionians. This aversion shows itself 
in the substitution of P for 2, as in naXmop, vcxvp, and rip 
for rU (cp. Lat. arbor for arbos). But, by a sort of con- 
tradiction, we find among Spartan forms the substitution 
of or for 6, as trios for Beds, and, in all kinds of Doric, 
the termination -es instead of -cv in the 1st pers. plur. of 
the verb. Still, the aversion to 2 was a real one, so much 
so, that in the case of the groups or, o-*, cnr, the o- is re- 
jected and the other consonant doubled, as in mi-Trap for 
ktIottisj aKKop for cutk69. This also accounts for the change 
of { = o-S, into b&, (as in irkabfoTjv for TrXafew), and of an ini- 
tial £ into 8, as in A*vs, 8©ftor. Another peculiarity con- 
gists in the use of ov for v, as 8l<f>ovpa for ytyvpa. 

As a specimen of strict Laconian dialect we may quotQ 


the words with which the Spartan herald introduces him- 
self in the Lysistrata (980) : — «■ 

tra rav *Aoravap iarip & yepaia, 
■tj ro\ irpvrdpus; A© ri pv<ri£cu veov, 

(TV It ei norcpop avBpamos fj Kovi<ra\o9 \ 

itdpv£ iy&v, & Kvpardvic, vai ra> o-ia>, 
ZfjLoXov airb Sndpras 7T€pi rav diaXkaydv. 

And in v. 1002, the herald describes his difficulties thus— 

- - poyiopes, hv yap top irokiv 
Q7T€p \v\yo<f>opiovT€s diroK€icv<f)apeS' 

We have a similar specimen in the letter of Hippocrates 
to the Spartans in Xenophon, (Hellen. 1. 1. 2^) 9 "Epp€i ra 

Kaka' Mivbapos dnearara' irciv&vri r&vbpcs' diropiopcs ri 

Xpy %pw, which may be taken as an illustration both of 
Laconian dialect and brevity. The decree, and the treaty 
between the Spartans and Argives (Thuc. 5. 77, 79) may 
also be consulted as specimens of Doric : but the original 
document has suffered too many changes at the hands of 
copyists and correctors to have any real authority. 

The Cretan dialect exhibits several characteristic pecu- 
liarities; notably, a form of the accus. plur. in or, as 
rbs vofiog for rovs vdfwvs. In Cretan inscriptions we find 
preserved the oldest form of the accus. plur. in v* f as 
rovs vdpovs, with which may be compared other Cretan 

forms, as riBevs for i°t0cir, navcra for nacra. 

The milder Doric includes the forms of the dialect used 
by most of the Peloponnesian Dorians, and the colonies 
which they respectively founded. Thus the dialect of the 
Corcyraeans closely resembled that of their mother-state, 
Corinth; and the Megareans, (the rustic forox <& ^xosrv 


dialect Aristophanes gives in the Acharnians) spoke the 
same type of Doric as their colonists at Byzantium and 
Chalcedon. It is probable that the peculiar dialect of the 
Arcadians, and the strict Laconian type, were moulded 
into the milder Doric at the time of the Achaean League. 
The milder Doric was introduced into Sicily by the 
Corinthians and Megareans : but it must be remembered 
that, although we shall find the Bucolics of Theocritus 
afford the best means of familiarizing us with the Doric 
dialect, they do not represent the true milder Doric of 
Sicily, which we shall rather seek in the fragments of 
Epicharmus and Sophron. The Greek of Theocritus is 
really a sort of literary or conventional dialect written by 
a scholar, or containing a large variety of Doric forms 
interspersed with Aeolisms and retaining a good many 
peculiarities of the Epic ; just as the Greek that Pindar 
wrote reckons as Doric, but its base is really Epic, with 
a considerable Doric colouring, and not a few Aeolic 

form8. Cjh EuStath* I7^ 2 > *>s di ol Aoopttts exaipov kcu 
cd6ki{oPt*s torjkbt Utptapott dVofiij o£r<» tivi&p, rjroi AaptK&s 
ypd<f>4>P *<tl AfoXlffdfe 



§ u Vowels. 

The most prominent characteristic of the Doric dialect 
is the use of a, where the Ionians and Attics use 17. 

(a) In the Stems of Nouns and Verbs, as 0var6s 

(root Bqp) compared with Bvqoxa, and Bwyrfc : ?ra£<u (root 

way) compared with *n}£at : pake* for fxrjXov compared with 

Lat. malum. But in this d* we generally find a true repre* 

FORMS OF DORIC DIALECT. §§ i, 2. 1 87 

sentative of the original vowel, which other dialects have 
weakened, and not a mere euphonic change of every ij to 
a. For, e. g. the Doric dialect gives paTrjp f not pm-ap, for 
the stem is parep, as the genitive shows ; iroiprjp not wotpay, 
for the stem is noipep*. 

(d) In the terminations of nouns and verbs, as KaXd 

for Ka\fj t elpdva for clprjvr), tikolpav for akoiprjv, but not av 

for rjv in the passive Aorists. 

(c) In the temporal augment for verbs whose initial 
vowel is a, this a is used instead of 17, as &yes from 8y<o, ctya 
from airrci). 

(d) Another peculiarity is the use of & for Attic c, as 

tyaya = eycrye, oko. = &rc, <j>pcuriv - (frpeo-iv. auca for «T #c€, i. e. 

(e) A further change is the use of « for Attic o or ov, 
as in gen. sing, of 2nd decl. «nra> for tmrov, and accus. 

plur. i7nra>? for (THrous. So tOO wpapos for ovpavos, noopa for 

(/) Use of o* for otf as Moktcx, c^owa, for Movtfa, c^ovd-a. 
(g) a for ct> as vpaturrOs* 

§ 2. Contractions. 

(a) Ao contracts into 5, as <j)ikMa, for <£iX©i/8a©, ycXam 
for yeXdovrt = yeXaxri, Treipavri for Trciraovrt (particip.), iierdou 

for iicriiarao, cVr^o-a. Sometimes aov to a, as ycXacra for 

(3) aa> into a as Nvp<pai> for Nt/fK^aaw, j3a/At? for f&pcp, i. e. 
f$€t»pev Or fi-cuo-pw. 

(c) eo into €v, as 0(pevs, KtxKevrrai, ipya^tv. 

(ft) at into 17, as opij for cfpac (#f>a), qparty for rjpwrae 
(imperf.), Xgs" from Xaa>, and -a« tO #, as fairys = <^oiraci?. 

Similarly ea to 17, as *pea?, Kpi}*. 

(*) Crasis of ai-# to *, as *#0a for k«1 l^\ ifi& fefc *£>. ^V 


§ 3. Consonants. 

(a) Use of r for &, as rv for <rv, (Ucrrt for cfoooi, W^rt for 
tithjan, nXariop for irkri<riov, 

(S) k for r in faa, aXAoxa, etc. 

(r) Interchange of y and ft as yXtyapov for @\€<papov, of 
aspirates, as tyvtx*s for SpvtOes, <p\tpco for 0X/j8a>. (tf) Of 0-8 
for &r (£) in verbs in *■#», as <n/p«r$o>, naiada, ttot6(t8(o (for 

§ 4. Liquids. 

(a) Before r and 8, * X become v, as ^tfov for §X0<w, 
before v t <r often changes to t, as oWo-© from <nr€vb<o. 

§ 5. Digamma and Aspiration. 

(a) Among representatives of the f in Doric we find 
ft as ppwcos for paKo?. In Pindar v, as aldrav (Pyth. 2.28) 

for dfdrav = arrjv, 

(b) The Dorians did not dispense with the Spiritus 
asper to the same extent as the Aeolians, but in some 
words it is omitted, as in dyeopuu for ^yeofiat. 

§ 6. Accent. 

(a) The Dorians here are the very opposite of the Aeo- 
lians. The latter threw the accent as far as possible away 
from the end of the word, as e. g. yvvaify for yvvai£L The 
Dorians, on the other hand, were inclined to throw the 
accent as far as possible towards the ultima, so that we 
get such forms as defies and not aeifos,€\os and not 
apneXos. So in Theocritus, ovtS>s, navr&s, aX\$, instead of 

ovtoSj irdwcos, aXXa. 

§ 7. Declensions. 

(a) The peculiarities of the 1st vowel (A) declension 
are to be found under the rules given above for the 5, -as 

FORMS OF DORIC DIALECT. §§ 3-1 1. 1 89 

for -J7^, for the contraction of -ao to -a, and -a©v to -av. 
Notice that the original form of the accus. plur. was 
a-v-s, as in Cretan inscription irpayvra-v-s, and Gothic 
vul/ans » lupos. This original form was often represented 
in Aeolic by termination -<us, but the Doric dialect gene* 
rally shortens these to as, as fy/iorfo, fcairfc&s, ictWfc. 

§ 8. Second Vowel (O) Declension. 

(a). The use of a for ov given above is a mark of the 
stronger Doric ; the accus. plur,. originally ended in o-v-^ 
(as Gothic sunu-ns = filios). This termination the Aeolians 
changed to -01s, and the Dorians to -a>s, or {p) sometimes 

~os, as tols dymikos, ras rrapdcvos. 

§. 9. Third Consonantal Declension. 
(a) From nominatives in os, 17*, we have genitive in 

-€vSj as, "Evprjdrjs -rjbevs, tyos, 6p€vs. 

§ 10. Pronouns. 
(a) Special forms of 1st Personal Pronoun, Sing. N. 

eywv, D. ifjiiv y PlllT. N. apis, appcs, G. afieW, dp&v, D. dfuv, 
ap.iv, dfj.iv f &ppi\v], A. dpc> appe, 

(&) Special forms of 2nd Personal Pronoun, Sing. N. 

tv, G. rev, revs, reovs, D. nV, A. rv and re; Plur. N. vpes, 

typCS, D. flfUJ>, VflfUP f A. %pp€. 

(c) Special form of Demonstrative Pronoun, rrjvos, rfjva, 
rrjvo ( - ckcivos, 17, o). From which comes adv. rrjv^ ittinc r 

rrjvti, illic, and rrjvdOi. Cp. tovotjvos. 

§ 11. Verb. 

Special forms of the verb. 

{a) Active, Pres. Indie. 2nd pers. sin^ rC«rt-«. v^. 


pers. plur. rvnT-o-jus (cp. Lat. amamus), 3rd pers. plur. 
Twrr-o-vTi (cp. Lat. amanf). Similarly with Imperf. and 
Pres. Conjunct. 1st pers. plur. Tvirr-<o-p€s, 3rd pers. 

plUT. TV7TT&-VTI. 

(b) Infin. rxmr-tv (Aeolic rvTrr-rp, Laconian -rjv). 

(c) Participle. Fern. sing. Tvnr-oi-cra. 

(ft) Future ) TU^fS— €l£ €t cLtOV €lTQV~^€Vfl€S, Or OVfJL€S 

— tire — evvri. 

[For the principle of formation of this Doric future, 
by the addition of the root (cs) of the substantive verb, 
and the root i signifying « go/ and so forming, e. g. 
bo — €<rta> — d«xr/a>, daxrS, see Curt. Expl. Gk. Gram. 

§ 258]. 

(e) Perfect. 1st pers. plur. Teri5<£a-|i,€s. 3rd pers. plur. 
TeTu#a-m. Note that in Doric these perfects are frequently 
conjugated with an © ending, as r€Tv0a>-«*, -«, etc., and 
infin. Tenxfitlv. 

(f) Passive and Middle. Pres. Imperat. rxmr-tv. 

(g) Imperf. cTVTrro-pxK, — ev. Opt. TV7rroi-p,ay, etc. 

[But 17 is retained in Optat. of verbs in -fit, and Indie, of 

Aor. I. II. Passive, e.g. efyi/ — delrfv — €Trayrjv.'\ 
(A) Aor. I. irvtya-pav. ervsjr-a (for irty-w). 

(i) Future Middle^ rv^-fv-fuu or Tv^-ov-fiai — {j — eirai — 

evfjxOciy or — fuaSa — -eia-Be — cvvrcu,. 

§ 12. Contracted Verbs, etc. 

(a) Some verbs in -a© follow the forms of contraction 
in -co) (as is common in Ionic) ; so Spcovri (vident), 6p€i<ra, 


(5) Verbs in -dfa -9f&> (-rjifa) -aifa -*f» form a future 
in -£©, and 1 Aor. in £a, as Kaxa£&, «*?£ &, 7rai£a>, Koplgai. 

FORMS OF DORIC DIAIECT. §§ 12, 13. 191 

§ 13. Verbs in ju. 

(a) Special forms. Pres. Act. 3rd sing, in -ri, as v^irjri, 
riOriTi, (fniTi, (cp. Lat. regit), 

(b) Special forms of dpi (sum), Pres. 1st pers. sing, c/u/u 
(Aeol.), 2nd coin', 1 st plur. tipcr, 3rd plur. ivri 

Infin. ct/iev, tjpcp. Particip.fem. ioiva, edtra. 
Imperf. Ijv, %ar0a, fa (qv) . . . rjpcs, 5<rre. 
Future, itrtrovpat — €'0*077 — ecrcrciTat, etc. 



Theocritus was bom in Syracuse (circ. b.c. 272). He 
resided partly in Syracuse, and partly in Alexandria. Some 
portion of his life was passed in Cos, where he met the 
poet Philetas, under whose instruction he was trained in 
the style of the Alexandrine poets of the time. He was 
the founder of bucolic poetry, which in his case consisted 
mainly in giving an artistic form to the songs and stories 
of the Sicilian shepherds, fishermen, etc. The word 
ctfvXXto, or Idylls, which have been given to his composi- 
tions, signifies only ' little pictures.' The modern use of 
the word comes from the accidental circumstance that 
most of the Theocritean idylls belong to simple country 

Idyll i. 

In this Idyll, Thyrsis is induced by the offer of a 
prize to sing the song of The Death, of Daphnis. This 
story recounts how Daphnis had defied the power of 
Aphrodite, who thought to- prove her supremacy by touch- 
ing his heart with love* for a maiden, who was only too 
ready to return his passion. But Daphnis is not con- 
quered. He loves, and he dies for love, but he dies in 
silence with his love unspoken, and he carries his defiance 
of Aphrodite with him into the shades below. 

GYP2I2, AIII0A02. 

0Y. A<W la ti to y^riOvpia-fjLa. kcu a tt/ti/?, anroXe, 
rnva 10c , 
a ttot\ t<xi$ Trayaicriy, fxeXlcrSerai' aX Se K<xi tv 


ovpto-Ses 11 *, 3 *' /nera Ilava to Sevrepov SOXov 

atKa ld rrjvog eXy icepabv Tpayov 9 atya tv 101> Xa>\rrj' 
atKa <T atya \a/3rj rtjvos yepas, eg re 10h Kara p pel 5 
a %iinapof' ")(ifjLap<ti le Se icaXov Kprjs 2d 9 core k 

A I. aSiov, & iroturjv, to tcov fieXog, rj to Ka- 

* la 

rrjv airb rag irerpag KaTaXeifierat v^oQev vSoop. 
atKa ral Moicrai 1 * rav ottSa Swpov ay<avrat 9 
apva tv (ra/ciTav 1 * Xa^j? yipag' at Se k apecKy 10 
Ttjvat? apva Aapeiv, tv oe Tav otv vcrTcpov actf. 
0Y. XjJ? 2d xotJ tolv Nv/x<pav 9 XJ79, aeVo'Xc, T^oe 

ft)? TO ICaTaiTC? TOVTO y€(iXo(j)OV ai T6 fXVplKCU, 

(Tvpla'Sev llb ; Taj 5 aiyas eywv ev T<p$e vo- 

jj.€v<rS> lld . 
AI. ov Befits, oT TrotjJLrjVyTo pea'aiJ.fiptvbv) ov Oe/ju? 

a/uLfjiiv 10 * 15 

crvptcrSev* tov Ilava SeSotKapes 11 ** ? yap air ay pas 
TavUa 1 * K€KfjLTjKQ)? afnraverar eorrt $€ irtKp09 9 
Kat 01 aei Spt/meta 'XpXa ttoti ptvl KaOrjTat. 
aXXa (tv yap $rj 9 Qvpcrt, tcl Aa(pvtSos aXye' aeiSes, 
fcal Tct9 fiwKoXtKa? exi to irXeov Ikco iAOt<ra$) 9 20 
$€vp\ virb Tai/ TTTeXeav ecrS&imeOa**, tS> tc Tlpt^na) 
Kat Tav KpaviaStav KaT€vavTtov 9 dwep 6 O00K09 
Trjvos 6 7rot/JL€VtK09 Kal Ta\ Spvef. at Se k aei<r*i9 9 




iog oica* h ld rov A.i/3va6e ttotl Xp6fj.iv acrag 

aiya t£ rot Sacra) 11 * SiSvfxaTOKOv eg Tp)g ajmeX^ai, 25 
a, $u* eyoior lf eplcpoog, 1 *, TrorajuLeX^etai eg Svo TreXXag, 
Kat /3a0u KKrarv/Hiov, K€KXvcrjJ.evov dSei tctjpai, 
a/ui(pa)€$, veorevyeg y en yXvcpavoio ttotoctSov**' 
t5 irep\ juLev X € ^1 napuercu v^oQi Kia-rrbg, 
Kurcrog eXtxpvarw KeKOvijxevog' a Se tear avrov 30 

Kapirw eXtj* elXeiTcu ayaXXo/meva KpoKoevri, 
evTOcrOev Se yvva, t\ 6eS>v SalSaX/ma, t€tvkto:i 9 
aoTCjpra ireTrXtp re koi &ixttvkv irap Se 01 avSpeg 
koXov eOetpaJ^ovreg ajmoi/BaSlg aXXodev aXXog 
veucelovrr €TT€€(r<rr ra $' ov (ppevog cnrreTcu avrag* 35 
aXX 6/ca 3b fxev Tfjpov iroTtSepKerai avSpa yeXacra 2 *, 
aWoKa o av 7TOTi tov pnrTei voov. 01 o vtt epcorog 
otjda KvXoiSiooovTeg erdxria jmoj^di^ovTi 11 *. 
TOig Se fiiera ypiwevg tc yepoov, irerpa re t€tvktcli 
Xe7rpag 9 e^)' a anrevSwv fxeya Siktvov eg /3oXov eXicei 40 
6 7rpe(rfivg 9 kgljulvovti to tcapTepov avSp\ eouewg. 
(palrjg tcev yvlcov viv ocrov crdevog eXXo7rieveiv 
code 01 (poqtcavTi 119 tear av^eva iravrouev iveg, 
koi woXi(p irep eovrr to Se arOevog afyov aftag 1 *. 
tvtQov S* ovcrov airayQev dXtTpvroto yepovrog 45 
Trvpvalaig arTCKpvXatari koXov (ie/Spidev aXuoa* 
Tav oXlyog Tig K<apog le eft ai/u,aariaiari <f)vXaar(Tei 
q/uevog' a/x(pi oe fxtv ov aAWTTCKeg, a jmev av 

* 1 A 

opxoog 1 * 


<J)oiT*j (rwofieva Tap Tpco^timov 9 d $* hri Trrjpav 
Travra SoXop T€u^oiaa 9 to ttcuSIop ov icpiv 

avtjcreip 50 

(pari 1 ** irpip 1j aKpariarrov eiri fypoiari Ka6i£y 12h . 
avrap oy dvOepiKeowi KaXap irXeKei aKpiSoOypav, 
a-yolvu* €<f)apfjLQ(r$cop 9c ' jmeXerai Si 01 ovre ti Try pag , 
oure (purcop Toar(r*}vov 10c oorop irep\ TrXeyimaTt yaOei. 
Travra $ ajjL<p\ Senas TepnreTrraTai vypbs axapOos, 55 
AtoXucop ti Qarifia* Tepas k4 tv Qv/jlov oltv^oi. 
tS> ijl€V eyci 7ropQfjL€i KaXvSowia) afyd t eSooica 
cSj/op, Kal rvpoevra jxeyav Xcvkoio yaXaKTog* 
ovSi ti TT(a ttoti ")(€iXo$ e/jLov Olyep, a\A' eri kcitqi 
a'xjpavrov. T(S kcp tv fiaXa irpocppcov apevalfiav, 60 
alicev fioi tv (piXos top etpifiepov vjxvov aelaryg. 
KOUTi tv KepTojuLGto. 7roTay\ (S 'yaOc* Tap yap aoiSap 
ovti ira eh 'AiSap ye top etcXeXaOovra <j>vXa£eis 12h . 
0Y. ap-^ere fiooKoXiicas, Mofcrcu (piXai, apyer 

Ouparis 06* £>£ A?Ti/a$, koi OvpcriSos dSia (fxava. 65 
7ra ttok dp* %<r6\ otca Ad<pvt$ era^ero, ira Trotca, 

NvfjiQai ; 
% Kara HtjveiZ KaXa Te/Axea, ij Kara. UlvSca ; 
01; yap Sij iroraixu) ye fxeyav poop ei^er' Ai>a7r«, 
ovo J\iTva? arKOTTiav, ovo Axioog lepov vdcop. 

apyere (SwKoXiicds, Mofcrcu (plXai, dp^er aoi- 

Sd$. *]6 

Ttjvop fxav 6£>€<?, Ttjpop Xvkoi (opvaravro, 



rrjvov 'xJjqk Spu/ULOio Xewv aviicXavo-e Qavovra. 

a PX €T€ fiwcoXucas, Moicrai <pi\ai 9 cipher aoiSa?. 
iroXXal 01 irap tto(T(t\ ($6e$, iroXXoi Se re Tavpoi, 
iroXXal <T (w Sa/udXai /ecu Troprie? a&Svpavro. 75 

apyere /3ooKo\ifca$, MoFcrae (plXat, apyer aoiSa$. 
ijvu ** rjp/mrjg irpaTKTTOS L * air copeos, enre oe- 

tU tv 10b Kararpv^ei ; twos, S '*ya0e, tqvctov 

epacrai ; 
a PX €T€ fitoKoXiKas, MoFara/ <f>l\ai 9 cipher aoiSag. 
yvQov Tot (3Srrai 9 toi Trot/meves, wttoXoi t$vdov 9 80 
iravTes avqp&revv, 77 iraQoi kclkov. rivff 6 TIplfj7ro9 
KtjQa 2 *, Ad(pvi raXav, ti tv Tcuceai ; a Se tc Kwpa 
Troara? 7 * ava Kpavag, icavr aXo-ea woara-i <f)o- 

peiTai, — 
<*PX €T€ jSaMcoAiira?, Motcrac <f>fXai, OjO^er' aoiSas, — 
^arei/cr ^ c * a ovcrepctf T19 ayav kcli a/uLtjyavo^ 

ecrcri. 85 

ijvOe ye fiav aSeia /ecu a JfLvTrpig yeXaoi(ra 1{ 9 
dSea jxev yeXaoicra, fiapvv S* ava Ov/ulop eyoicra, 
Kenre* tv d*jv tov eparra KaTevyeo 9 Aacpvi, Xvyi- 

£e«/ 12b . 
ap ovk avTOf eparros vir apyaXew eXvyiyOfjg ', 

apyere jSw/coAuca?, Moicrcu (plXai, cipher aoi- 

Sa?. 90 

tolv S' apa %(!> Aa(pvi$ TroTafiel^ero' K>v7rpi fiapeta, 
Kvirpi vefiecrcraTa, Hifarpt OvaTolmv aTreyOrjv 


?5j/ yap (ppdcSfj iravff aXcov Sjul/uli SeSviceiv 
Aacpvig KrfV !A'/(5a 7 * kclkov earcrerai aXy og Eparn. 
a PX €T€ fi aK oXiKag 3 Moiarou (plXai, a^X 67 " <* oc " 
Sag. 95 

ov Xeyerai rav Kvirpiv 6 fiwicoXog ; epwe ttot v I<W, 

€pTT€ 7T0T ' Ay ylarav TfJV€l 10c SpV€$, &$€ KVITCtpOg. 

io$€ icaXov jSojul/Bcvvti 11 * 7T0TI crfxavecrcri jmeXiararai. 

apyere /3o»KoXiKag 9 Moicrai (j>iXai 9 apyer aoiSag. 
oipatog y(x)S<avig 9 eirei koi /maXa vofievei, ioo 

Kai Trruncag /3aXXei 9 koi dtjpia raXXa Sidicet. 

apyere ftcoKoXiica?, Motcrcu (ptXai, apyer aoiSag. 
aSrig oiraog <TTacr*j lld AiofiySeog Sorcrov loiara lf 9 
koi Xeye' tov (iwrav vucS> Aacpviv, aXXa fxayev fioi. 

apyere /3coKoXiKag 9 Moicrai (piXai, apyer aoi- 
Sag. 1 05 
a> Avkoi, 00 vweg, a) av (opea (pooAadeg apicTOi, 
yalpeO'* 6 fiwicoXog v/ul/uliv eyct> Aatpvig ovk er a?' 

vXav 9 
ovk er ava opu/ULoos, ovk aAcrea. X at P A>peuot<ra 9 
Ka\ 7roTafio\ 9 to J yeire icaXov Kara QvjmftpiSog 

apyere /SaMcoAt/ca?, M.otcrai (plXai, apyer aoi- 
Sag. no 
Aacpvig eywv SSe rrjvog 9 6 rag ftoag (SSe vofiievtov, 
Aacpvig 6 rdog ravpwg koi iropriag (SSe 7roriarS(ov Bd m 

apyere ftooKoXucag, Moicrai (ptXai 9 apyer aoiSag, 
£ Tlav Uav 9 eir ecr<r\ iah Kar wpea /maze pa, Avtcaioo, 


eire tv y a/ULCpnroXeis fieya McuVaXoi', epQ' 4 * eiri 
vaorov 115 

tclv ZiuceAav, hiAiicag oe \tir qpiop, anrv tc cra/xa 
Tfjvo AvKaoplSao, to Kai jj.aKape<rarip ay aarop* 

X^yere fiooKoXucag, MoF<rai, rre, Xrjyer aoiSa?. 
ej/0' 4 *, Sva^ koi TavSe (pep evira/CTOio jxeX'nrpovp 
€K Ktjpw avpiyya tcaXav, irep\ j(€?Xoy eXiKTap. 120 
§ yap eywv vir eparros £9 *AiSo$ eXKO/mai qSij. 

Xfiyere {ioMcoXiicaf, Moktcu, 1t€ $ XriyeT aoiSa$. 
vvv fa pep (popeoiTe jSaTOi, <f>op€OiT€ tf aKapQai, 
a Se KaXa vapKicrcros eir 9 apKevOoitri /royuacrar 
iravra $' evaXXa yevoiTO, Kai a ttitv? oyva? eve/- 
Kai, 125 

Aacpvi? hrei OvacrKer koi Ta? Kvva? wXacpos TXkoi, 
K*jl~ 2e ope cop Toi arKwires ari&6<ri yapvtraivro. 

Xfjyere (3ooKoXiKas 9 MoFcrcu, fre, X^ycT* aoiSas. 
j(& [lev t6<t<t ei7ru>v aireiravo-aTO' top <T 'A(ppo$iTa 
ydeX avopdSxrac ra ye jjlov Xiva iraura Xe- 
Xoliret 130 

ck MotpaV y(i> Aa(pvi$ e/Sa poov €kXv(T€ Siva 
top MojVcu? <f)lXop avSpa, top ov NvjjL<f>ai<riv 
XiJ^cre fiwKoXiKa?, "Moicrai, rre, XriyeT aoiSas. 
koi tv SiSov tolp atyOf to tc crKv(f>o$' «? /uliv 

a-weio-to** Taig Molaaig. c5 yalpere TroXXaKt, Mof- 
<rai, 135 

THEOCRITUS II (3). 1 99 

\aiper' iyd> 8* Sfi/Jitv jcgm e$ vtrrepov aSiov ciar£. 
A I. irXqpes toi fieXiTOf to ko\oi> oro/ma, Qvpcri, 

TrXijpes toi cyaSovooVy /ecu air AlytXw icrya&a 

dSeiav, Terriyos eirei tv ya ld (peprepov aSei$. 
qvlSe toi to Senaf 6a<rcu, <p[\o$, o>9 KaXbv 

ocrSei* 140 

'Qpav 7r€7r\v(r6at viv eiri Kpavaicn SoKa(T€i$ lld . 
<S<S' 16i, "Ki<r<raida u tv $' ajieXyi viv* at Se xlftaipat 
ov fxh <rKipTaoreiT€ 9 ju.rj 6 Tpayos v/xjulip avacrry. 

Idyll II (3). 

A shepherd serenades his beloved who is hiding in her 
bower. He tries to move her by prayers, and presents, 
and threats ; but all in vain. The haughty fair remains 
deaf to his entreaties. 


Kov/jLaarSoo 3d wot) tclv lAjj.apvXXiSa* toi Si fioi alyes 
/36arK0vrai kot opo$ 9 kcli 6 TiTvpos ai/ras 7 * iXavvei. 

TlTVp', i/ULlV 10 * TO KaXoV>7T€(plXajU,€Ve 9 (56<JK€, to? 7 * 

kou ttoti Tav Kpavav a*ye, TiTvpe* ical top evop^av 
toI KifivKov KvaKouva (jyvXacrcreo 9 fJLtj rv 10h Kopvy\fy. 5 
<$ Xapietrar* 'Ajj.apvXX\, t/ fi ovk eri tovto kolt 




irapKinrToicra icaXeig tov eporrvXov ; fj pa fxe fiicreig \ 

$ pa ye toi artfibg Karacpaivo/uai e'yyi/Gej' foev 1 
vvftfpa, Kai irpoyeveiog ; aTray^acrdai fie 7rotfjareig 

qviSeTOi Seica jmaXa <pepw TtjvS) 100 Se KaOetXov, 10 
<2 le ix eiceXev KadeXeiv tv* koi avpiov aWa toi oI<tS>. 

Qacrat fiav du/maXyeg c/xbv a^og* aide yevolfxav 
a /3o/j./3ev<ra fAeXicrcra, koi eg Teov avrpov ikoi/ulciv, 
tov Kicrcrov oiaovg Kai Tai' inepiv, a tv TrvKacrori™ . 

vvv eyvwv TOv'Epcora' fiapvg Oeog* $ pa Xealvag 15 
ftacrSbv eOqXai*€, Spv/mtS re juliv €Tpa(f)e jxarrip' 
09 /me KaTacrfAV'Xfiov koi eg oottcov ayj>ig lairTei. 

& to tcaXbv TroQopeva-a 12 * , to irav XiQog. co 
vv/uL<pa, Trp6o"7rTvi*al fxe tov aiwdXov, cog tv (ptXacroo. 
€<tti koi ev Keveolcri (piXa/j.a<riv a Sea Tepy^ig. 20 

tov arrecpavov TiXal fie KaTavrUa XewTa Trotqareig, 
tov toi eywv 9 'AjmapuXX) (plXa, Kicaroio <pvXdar<T(io, 
e/ULTrXe^ag KaXviceaari koi evoS/moiari areXivoig. 

& fxoi eycb, ti irddoo ; tI 6 Suararoog ; oi5^ vwaKoveigj 
tolv jSacVav airoSlrg eg KVfxaTa Ttjvcb aXed/mai 20 , 25 
cbirep 1 * Toog Ovvvcog <TK07riaJ£eTai"OX'7rig 6 ypnrevg. 
KaiKa Srj 9 7roddvo) 9 to ye jmav tcov dSu TeTVKTai. 

eyvtov irpav, ok* ejxoiye jxe/xvaixevcp el (ptXeeig /me 
ovSe to TtjXecpiXov iroTt/ma^afjievov irXaTayricrev^ 
aW avroog dwaXS ttoti ira^ei e^efjLapavdtj. 30 

€?7T€ Kat 'A.ypoi(lb TaXaOea KOcrKivo/mavTig, 
a irpav iroioXoyevcra irapai^aTig^ ovvck eyci fxev 


t5v 101> 0X0? eyK€i/ tv Se fiev \6yov ovSeva Troty. 

% jxav toi Xeuicav StSufiaroKov atya (frvXaarcrw, 
rav jul€ koi a Mepjuivwos 9 Epidaici$ a jxeXavoyjpm 35 
alrer koi StoarS> ol 9 eirei tv juloi evSiaQpvirr^ 

aWerai 6(p6a\fi6$ fAev 6 Se£io$' Spa y iSrj<rw 
avrav ; acrev/mai ttot\ tov ttitvv o?$' airoKXivOeU 9 

K(Xl K€ JUL* ?<Ta>9 TTOTlSoi, €7Tei OVK aSa/JLdVTtVa €<TtI. 

'iTnro/jLevtjs, oica Stj tclv irapOevov fjOeXe yafiai, 40 
jiuxa ev yepcriv e\wv opojmov avvev a xXTaAavra 
o>9 idev, o>9 efjLavtj, 09 69 pauvv a\ar eparra. 

rav ayeXav yia fiavris air* OOpuo? aye Me- 


e9 TlvXov a Se B/aj/T09 ev ay Kolvyo'iv eicXivOfy 
fJLarrjp a ^apiecrcra ireplcfypovog 'AXcpearifiolas. 45 

Tav Se KaXav KvOepetav ev doped jmaXa vo/mevoov 
ov% ovtws "QSwvis ewl 7rXeov ayaye XvcrrraSy 
umtt ovSe fpOlfiievov fJ.iv arep fxacrSolo t/01/t* 13 * ; 

£a\ft>T09 /u>ev ifiiv 6 tov arpoTrov vttvov laioav 
'EvSvjuloov £a\ft> Se 9 (plXa yvvat, 'Icuriava, 50 

09 too-gtodv €Kvpfj(rev 9 orr ov 'irevo'ela'Qe /SejSaXoi. 

aXyeco rav K€<f>aXav r\v $' ov piXei. ovk er aelSoo, 
K€KT€v/mai Se 7re<r(0v 9 kq\ toi Xvkoi coSe fi eSovrau 
o>9 peXi toi yXvicv tovto icaTa fipoydoio yevoiTO. 

Idyll III (10). 

Battus, a lazy reaper, is reproached by Milon because 
he has let himself be spoiled for work by his lovesick 



fancies ; but Battus is too far gone, and can only apostro- 
phise his mistress in a silly serenade. Milon, as a set-off 
to this mawkish sentimentality, caps the effusion of Battus 
with some racy verses of the Reaper's Song. 



MI. 'EpyctTiva fiovicaie, rl vvv, <pfyp€> Treirov- 
0e<9 lle ; 
ovtc top oy/xov ayeiv opQov $upa> cog Towpiv dyes, 
ov(y a /ma XaoTO/uLei? Top 7rXaTiov 9 aXX' {nroXenry, 
wrncep oiV ttoi/jlvcis, tcT? tov ttoSgl kolkto? ervyev. 
irolos T£9, SeiXate, tv y e/c fxeaoo a^taTO? every, 5 

&9 vvv apxpixevos tcc? avXaicos ovtc awoTpcbyeis ; 

BA. M/Xwv d^a/iara, irerpas airoKOfxix aTe- 
ovSa/ia toi crvvi/3a iroQecrai Tiva tcop cnreovTWV ; 
MI. ovSa/na. T£9 Se ttoQos t£>v eKToOev epyaTa 

avSpl ; 
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Twra Yi>^ /uLQxdwtrra? cV aX/p avSpas aeuJev llb - 

THEOCRITUS IV (15). %0$ 

rov Se reovy /Sovicaie, irpeirei Xijmrjpov eparra 
Hv6l<r$€v 1Vb to. /JLarpl kclt cuvav SpOpevolcra. 

Idyll IV (15). 

The scene is laid in Alexandria, in the time of Ptolemy 
Philadelphia. Gorgo visits her friend Praxinoe, and they 
then set out to push their way through the crowd and see 
the splendours of the festival of Adonis, which Arsinoe, 
wife and sister of Ptolemy, was keeping in great pomp. 
What they hear and what they see must be read about in 
the poem. 

Rites commemorating the sad death of Adonis by the 
tusk of a boar were observed in many places, and the 
festival was kept up at least two days. At the suppli- 
cation of Aphrodite, Zeus had granted a short respite 
every year to Adonis, from the imprisonment of the 
shades. His return was celebrated on the first day of 
the festival, which was kept with great and unmixed joy. 
The second day commemorated his return to the world 
below after the time of his sojourn on earth ; and thus 
the festival ended in sorrow. 



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THEOCRITUS IV (15). 311 

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TToXXoV €jUL€U KpcarCTODV TO $€ TTUV JCOtXoK €? <T€ IttX- 

rappei. 55 

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Ovaariceis, & TpnroQare* iroOog oV juloi «y ovap cVrg. 
yjlpa o a ixuvepeia, icevoi o ava otapaT Hjperres. 
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yet? ; 6o 

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<J)9 TiJi/09 TeOvaice, icai avQea ttolvt ejULapdvOrj. 
palve Se fj.iv KaXoiariv aXei(f>aari } palve fivpoiari. 
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kckXitcli d/3pos"AS<i)vi$ ev elfJLacri Troptyvpeoitrw 

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o? o* SiriOev irr€pvy€<r<nv ap<x>\rv')(€i top ASoopip. 

Avtup Tap KvOepeiap hraidl^ova-iv Eparre?. 
etrfiecre XafivaSa iracrav exi (piXiaft 'Y/xeVaios, 
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I flap ovk er aetoofievov fieAo? aoerat, a/ ai 9 
at a? • icaJ tov ^AAWiv ert ttXcop, y 'Yfiepaiop 
al Xa^rre? kXcliovti, top viea t£ Kuvvpao, 
a Aero itaXo? AoWt?, ep aXXyXyeri Xeyourar 
avrai $ 6£u Xeyoprt xoAv xAcov, tj tv Aiowa. 90 
jccu Moioxm TOv'ASmtp apiucXeioiGriP^ASwpiP, 
rai /up hra€tSoi<riv 6 Si (t^hctiv ovk exajcauei* 

OV flOP OVK €V€A€l y JX&pCt 0€ PIP OVK CLiroAV€t. 

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Kpvtrai. 95 


AtXipa juloi <rropaj(€tT€ vdiraiy kcu Awpiov vSwp y 
/ecu TTOTafitot kXcuoit* top ijuL€po€VTa BtWa. 


vvv (f)ura /uloi juLvpecrOe, teal aXcrea vvv yoaoiarOc 
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vvv vaKivde \d\ei to era ypafipaTa, Kail 7rXeov ai ai 
Xd/JLpave <rofr TreraXotcrr KaXos TeOvaice jmeXiKTa?. 
"Apxere ^EikcXikoi tco irevQeo^ ap^ere MoicrcH. 
aSoves, ai TrvKivdi<riv oSvpofievai ttotI (f>vXXoi9 9 
vafxaci Tocg ^EiKeXoig ayyclXare rag Ape6ol(rag 9 10 


Koi to jULeXo? riOvcuce, koI cSXero Acoph doiSa. 

"Apxere ^iiceXiKCu tS) irevOeo?, dp^ere MoFcrcu. 
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olav v/JLerepoig ttotc -^eiXeari yrjpvv aeiSev. 
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Tig o cttI cro/9 KaXaiu.019 Orjarei arTO/xa ; T19 Opacrvg 

ovt£>s ; 
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Tlavl (f)€pa> to fiieXiyima' Tatf dv Kaiceivos epeicrai 55 
to o-to/jlcl SeijUicuvoi, fiij Sevrepa creio (pepijTat. 

"ApXcre IZiiceXiKcu tS> irevOeos, apycTe Moicrai. 
icXaiei icai YaXcLTeia to crov fxeXos, olv ttok 9 erepTres, 
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a J£v7rpi9 (piXeei are ttoXv irXeov, tj to (piXa/ma, 
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"Apyere ^iiiccXiKai tS> 7rev6eo9y apyere Mof<rcu. 7° 
tovto toi, to iroTa/jiZv XiyvpdraT€ y SevTepov aXyog y 
tovto, MeAjy, viov aXyo?. aircoXero irpdv tol Ojtirj^ 

po? 9 
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fjivpecrOai KaXov via iroXuKXavcrTOia-i peeOpotg, 
itavav <T €7rXfja-ag (pcovag aXa* vvv iraXiv aXXov 75 
viea oaicpueis, Kaivw eiri icevuei Taicy. 
cifjLipoTepoi irayah ir€(pCXafxevoi % 09 /mev eirive 
HayacriSog tcpavag, 6 8* eyev irofxa Tag ApeOolo-as. 
yoi fjiev TvvSapeoto KaXav aeirre Ovyarpa, 
Kal QeriSo? fx&yav via, ica\ ATpelSav MeveXaoy 80 


Keivos o ov Tro\€jUL(i)^ ov oaicpva, I lava o e/jLeAire, 
kcu j8ft>Td9 eXtycuve, kcu delScov evofxeve^ 
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kcu iralSoav eSlSacKe <f>iXd/j.aTa, kcu TOv'Epwra 
erpe(f)ev ev koAttokti, koi tjpeOe rav 'A(f)poSiTav. 85 

Apx 6Te ^iceXiKal rSf irevdeo?, ap^ere Mofcrai. 
•wacro, T&lodv, Oprjvel are kXvtcl xoX*?, acrrea iravra. 
AarKpa fxev yodei are iroXv irXeov 'HcwSoio 9 
TlivSapov ov TroOeovTi toctov HoicoTiSe? ^YXar 
ov toctov 'AXica/ft) irepi /uvparo Actr/Sos epavvd' 90 
ovoe to<tov tov aoioov e/xvparo 1 tjiov acrrv 
o*e irXeov ' Ap^iXo^oio iroQel Tldpor olvt\ Se Sax- 

elceri rev to /meXiyiJLa Kivvperai a WivrvXava. 
iravT€9 9 oaroi? Kairvpov TeXedei Gropa, (HcoKoXia&rai 
€K MoicraV, ceo ttotjulov dvaKXalovTi QavdvTO?. 95 
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6 irpiv fjieiSiocoirri <rvv ojUL/mari (ftaiSpo? iSecrOai, 
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ev Se ^vpaKOcrloicri OeoKpiror avrap eyd toi 100 
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/3ovKoXiKci? 9 dXX\ av t eSiSaj~ao creio jULaOrjTas, 
KXapovofjLO? fAcbcras rag AwpiSov § fxe yepalpwv 
aXXoig jtiev tcov oXfiov, e/uo\ 5' axeXctxe? doiSav. 

"A*PX €T€ ^uceXiKai t£ TrevQeos, dp^ere Mof(rcu. 105 
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evSojueg ev paXa fxaicpov aTepfxova vrjyperov virvov. 
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raig NvfiMpaiari $' e$oj~ev ael rov fHarpaypv aSetv 
t<5 $' eyw ov (bOoveoijJLi* to yap jueXos ov kclXov 
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(pdp/JLCLKOV qX0€ 9 B/ft)V, TTOTl GOV (TTO/xa. (papju.aKG) 

ttoiov T019 "xelXecrcri 7roTeSpajuL€ 9 kovk eyXvKavOfj ; 
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tj Sovvai XaXeovri to (pap/ma/cov ; eK<f>vyev (£8dv. 

'AjO^ere ^ikcXikoi t£ irevQeog^apyere Moicrai. 120 
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a?9 'Opfau? Korafias ttotJ TapTapov, tog ttok 

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Seis 9 125 

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IZiiceXiKOv tl Xlyaive, Kai dSu ti (HooKoXidoSev. 
Kai Kelva Y.iKeX\g icaJ ev AiTvaloicrtv eiraiPev 
ay/cecri, Kai fieXog diSe to Acbpiov ovk ayepaorog 


€cr<reiQ y a fxo\ira m }£ ot>$ 'Optpei irpocrQev eiwcev 130 
dSea <poppii<rSovTi iraXiaravrov EvpvSUeiav, 

KOI <T€ 9 BfW, 7T€/A\^€l T0£9 &p€(TlV. €1 Si Tl Kqydbv 

(TvplarScov Swd/JLav, vapa TlXovrei kclvto? aeiSov* 



Iliad, § i. 

Line i. kup&$ . . £X<ty>oio. The dog is the symbol of 
shamelessness, and the deer of timidity. 

1. 4. T£rXT)icas Oujiw, ' thou hast never had the courage 
in thy heart/ The ambuscade was often as dangerous a 
service as leading a forlorn hope. In II. 13. 277 we read 
of *the ambuscade when men's valour is best seen, in 1 
which the coward and the hero show themselves/ t6 Sc 
. . ctwu, * for it seems to thee to be death/ & often gives 
the reason, like yhp in later Greek. 

1. 5. tj iroXd, with bitter irony, ' verily it is far better to 
rob of his prizes [him] who speaks counter to thee/ The 
object to diroaip€iarB<u is the antecedent to os ns, but it is not 
expressed. We may supply tovtov, as the verb commonly 
takes a double accusative. Cp. II. 1. 1&2 ©* ?/x dfaipcZrm 
X(jv(rT)i8a *ot)3os. See below on l. 12. The form diro- 
atpclaBai is possible because alpcip had originally an initial 
digamma or f. 

1. 7. 8r)p>p<Spos pao-iXeds, l prince that dost devour the 
people, since thou art lord over worthless men/ /9o<nX«v? 
should be taken as an exclamatory nominative. In II. 22. 
86 an address to Hector begins with the nominative 

cxctXios and not (rx*TXif . 

1. 8. tj y&p &v, 'for [else] thou wouldest now/ 
1. 9. AXX* Ik toi Ipto, * but I -will speak out/ In later 
Greek we should write ^cpc®, the preposition being sepa- 

324 NOTES. 

rated from the verb by the enclitic. This separation is 
called Tfifja-is, ' a cutting/ But we should only speak of 
tmesis when there is good reason to believe that a com- 
pound verb is thus really split into its component parts 
again. In Homeric Greek the preposition has much of 
the force of an adverb, and as such is only an addition to 
the verb. So here, ' I will speak out, and will swear a 
mighty oath besides* (eVi). 

1. 10. As a knight would swear upon the cross of his 
sword-hilt, so a Greek hero in the assembly swears by his 
official staff, which the herald put in his hand as he rose 
to speak. 

t6 piv. Here, as often in Homer, we have the de- 
monstrative pronoun as the equivalent of the relative, and 
as such we may treat it in translation. At the same time 
it should be remembered that it keeps the demonstratival 
force still, and in the simple syntax of early poetry it 
really begins a new short sentence, instead of connecting 
the next clause with the one preceding. A sentence such 
as this — ' I come from the king who gave the commands 
which I bring to you ' — can equally well be represented 
by three shorter ones — ' I come from the king. He gave 
the commands. I bring them to you/ 

1. 1 1. £irc! $W) . . XcXoutck, ' when once it has left the stump 
(from which it was cut) on the mountains/ 

1. 12. irep! . . 2Xe|/c, 'for the blade has stripped it all 
round/ k is the immediate object of eX«V e » 4>uXXa k«h 
<t>Xot^K the more remote. See above on 1. 6 and Curt. 
§ 402. 

1. 14. SiKounr^Xoi, in apposition with utes, ' dispensers of 
justice who protect laws on behalf of Zeus/ 

1. 15. irpds, with genitive, meaning 'in the name of/ or 
'commissioned by/ Curt. § 46^ B. 

1. 16. fj iroT. Here begin the words of the oath. 

BOM. IL. §4 j, 2. &2$ 

1. 19. &&o0i, 'within thee/ 

1. 20. 8 t , ' in that/ Not on, which does not elide the 
final &, but o re, the enclitic re being a frequente Epic ad- 
dition to adjectives and pronouns. Lat. quod quidem. 

§ 2. 

1. 3. <|>u$|K, ' shape/ from QvcaBai, ' to grow/ 

1. 4. koi \i€ . . . ?€tir€K. Join irpo(T€€nr€ fie pvBov. The 

pronoun is the direct object of the verb, and fivBov the 
accusative of the * internal object/ Curt. § 400. 

1. 7* £mTCTfMJtyaTai, from iirvrpcirew. 

1. 8. luVcs. Here 0W17/U is used with genitive of the 
person : the common construction is with accusative of 
the thing and genitive of the person, as tire d twos ovpUvoi. 

1. 9. ecu is governed solely by liberal, fof cXcaipci takes, 
an accusative. So in Virgil, ' nee veterum memini laetorve 
malorum* Aen. 11. 280. 

1. 10. KafM)KOfi6a>rr€s should probably be divided into 
two words, K&prj Kop6<opT€s, (*eofww>), ' wearing long hair on 
their heads/ It was a distinguishing epithet of 'a^mo/. 
Certain other peoples wore their hair long behind only, 
and were called ZmBev koiio&vtcs. 

1. 12. ouk thi <t>pd£orrcu djKf>i$, 'are no longer divided in 
counsel/ lit. no longer think at variance. ap<f>\s f meaning 
' on both sides/ naturally gives the notion of separation 
and difference. 

1. 14. tyijirrai., from ty-dirrcw. 

1. 15. 2x € » ' n °ld it fast/ 

1. 16. &iroitT&\L€VOS, from aTTO-Trereir^at, 2nd aor. dir- 

1. 18. fj O^jiis iorl, 'which is right/ Instead of b Mfus 
eort, the relative is assimilated to the gender of &>**, a$ 
in Lat. ' Hoc opus, hie labor est/ 


22,6 NOTES. 

1. 20. ^prjTu€tK, used with the force of an imperative. 
1 Do ye keep them back/ 

§ 3. 

1. i. +f), an adverb of uncertain derivation, equivalent 
in meaning to &>s. 

1. 2. ir&rou 'kapioio is in apposition with Bakdaarjs, but 
it also narrows the general statement to a special illustra- 
tion. The Icarian sea is that part of the Aegean that lies 
off the south-west cdast of Asia Minor. According to 
the old story, its name commemorates the fate of Icarus, 
who tried to cross the sea on wings. 

1. 3. tSpopc, here transitive, is from opwyu. 
£irat£a$, ' having burst upon it ;' «r-a«nra>. 

1. 4. Kii^arv). The simile opens, as often in Homer, 
with the conjunctive mood, as denoting a possible occur- 
rence, rather than describing an actual one. But as soon 
as the poet begins the description, the picture presents 
itself to him as & real fact, and he passes to the indicative 
mood in M f wm5« = ' and it (sc. X^«w) bows thereto.' 

1. 7. iroSw 8', ' and from beneath their feet the dust 
uprising hung/ 

1. 10. oupol, connected with opvo-ca, are trenches dug 
in the beach, through which the ships are hauled up from 
the sea and down again. 

1. 11. frird 8' . . . mt\S>v, 'from beneath they withdrew the 
stays of the ships/ ?ppaTa are blocks which keep the 
ship in position, like our ' dog-shores/ 


1. 1. 1*1 w&vov, 'for awhile/ Sowjack, from aor. iMiv, 
besides which only daV<7"" and tebaa are found. 

1. 2. ^ . . . fje. This accentuation follows the rule laid 

HOM. IL. §§ 3, 4. 227 

down by grammarians to be observed where the adverb 
occurs in a double question. 

1. 3. t6Sc, i. e. the circumstance about to be narrated. 

1. 4. ous p.?) = ' nisi quos? In Kijpcs Bavdroio there is an 
impersonation of the ' powers of death/ ifiav 4^pou<rai, 
* have sped away with/ 

!• 5« X& l W ** ww irp&Jo, lit. 'yesterday and the day 
before yesterday;' a phrase used to denote something 
that happened, as we say, ' the other day/ The portent 
had been seen nine years before, but it was fresh in the 
memory still. Some editions remove the full stop from 
typovvai and insert it after nywifa, making the adverbs 
qualify Zftav fopovo-ai. 

J. 7. ^|A€is &€ . . . ffp&opcp, ' and when we were sacri- 
ficing/ The force of the fa still continues. TcXtj&raos, 
(tcXtjcis), is rather 'effectual/ than 'perfect/ sacrifices 
that bring their answer (rcXo*). 

1. 10. Zv$ ItyLrq, ' thereupon appeared/ tvBa resumes 
the words x&fa t. k. np. after the parenthesis. 

So^ou'&s, 'all blood-red over his back.' &a is the 
same as bia, 'thoroughly, 1 as in ba-aiaos. A commoner 
form of the prefix is fa, from sounding the 1 in &a like/. 

Cp. £a-#eoros, {d-$€os. 

1. 12. fJwjiou, 'having dashed forth from under the 

1. 13. m/jma tIkvh, translate ' callow brood/ The words 
chosen are more appropriate to a mother and her children, 
than to a bird. Cp. fj tc'kc rUva, 'who had reared the 

1. 1 6. Join &CCIK& TCTpiy&Tos, (rp/f®), 'twittering 
piteously/ The ordinary form would be Tcrpiyfoas. 

1. 18. AcXigrfpcws, 'after he had coiled himself/ This 
describes him making ready for the spring with which he 
darted at the mother-bird. 

Q 2 

aa8 NOTES. 

djwfr-iaxutav, («ax»), ' as she was crying about them/ 

1. 19. Join k<&t& . . . c+ayc. 

1. 20. dpi-l^Xo? = aptbrjkov, 'a wonder for all to see.' 
8$ ircp €<fav€v=?iK€ (fyoooadc, sup. 1. 1 1. It has been remarked 
that the existence of fossil ammonites has probably sug- 
gested the stories of serpents turned to stone. 

1. 23. 6s . . . *KaTty0as, 'when these frightful portents 
came in upon (interrupted) the sacrifices of the gods/ 
The apodosis is introduced by Kakx a * &'. 

1. 25. fawf, nom. plur. from adjective foem, ' dumb/ 

1. 3a aS0i, * there/ ' yonder/ Calchas means Ilion, not 

1. 32. t&s, 'thus:' the demonstrative to &s. 

1. 33. fiy€. This word has so completely passed from 
a verbal to an adverbial force, that it is used without any 
distinction of number ; and here is joined with plpum. 

1. 34. cts 8 k€v IXwfieK, lit. ' up to the point at which we 
may take/ i. e. till we take. 

1. 37. liraiyqauirrts agrees with 'Apycuw. The words 
from dfttfH . . . 'Ax<u<qv are parenthetical. 

§ 5. 

1. 2. TpoKTiK, ' was championy&r the Trojans/ 
1. 4. KCKopuOp.^a, (jcopvo-o-a), here =' tipped/ 
1. 8. vpoirdpoiOcK ftpiXou, SC. as irp6paxos. ptpdrra, an 
irregular participle from /fySd®, some write Piffovra = 
' making long strides/ 

1. 9. The simile which begins with <&s t€ \4uv . . . makes 
its application to Menelaus in 1. 13. 'As a lion rejoices 
... so did Menelaus rejoice/ ix&F 1 ! * n 1* 9 * s tne gnomic 
aorist, Curt. 494. Join fiu-Kupo-as, 'having lighted on 
a carcase/ aupa is never used of a living thing in 

HOM. XL. §§ 4, 5. 229 

L ii. jwiXa yAp, 'for greedily/ etc yap explains ra- 
vduv; 'he is so hungry that he eats ravenously, though 
dogs and hunters seek to drive him off. 1 

1. 14. <|><1to y&p, 'for he thought to take vengeance on/ 
Some read riWrdai, the aor. being common enough after 
words of promise or expectation or the like, e. g. ravnp 

1. 17. fj-rop, accusative. See Curt. 404. 

1. 19. tis Tc. See § 1. 1. 20. d*&Ti|. See above 1. 9. 
iraXiKopoos must be joined with the verb, * starts back' 

1. 21. jur . . irapci&s, Curt. 402. 

1. 25. The 'unlucky Paris/ is only 'noble in face/ 

1. 26. aW ctycXcs, 'would that thou never hadst been 
born, or that thou hadst died unwedded/ aywos ordinarily 
means 'without children/ but as Paris had none, the 
imprecation will have no force unless we take the word in 
the passive sense. ' Even this I should prefer (see lexi- 
con, s. v. PovXopai), and it would be far better thus, than 
that thou shouldest be a shame and an object of suspicion 
to others/ &XXw follows uir&Juov, an adjective com- 
pounded of a preposition and a verbal stem, on the 
analogy of such constructions as eiriorpofos dvOpwrav, 

prjbevos irpooijyopos, daparw c<f)€OTioi. 

1. 30. <t>drr€s . . Sjajackcu, ' inasmuch as they thought that 
the champion (npSpov) was a hero, because a noble form 
is thine' («fm=«re<m). It seems as good as any other 
way, thus to make irp6pov the subject ; others supply o-e as 
subject and take the two nouns as in apposition, 'that 
thou art a hero-champion/ 

1. 32. fj rouia&c tvv, 4 Was it in guise like this V 

1. 33. lptr\pas, a metaplastic accusative from ipbipos. 
See Curt. 175 and note. 

L 35. wkv, used broadly here to specify a relation by 
marriage. She was sister-in-law to Agamemnon. 

230 NOTES. 

1. 36. irijpa, x^PP* an d KaTT)^cit)K are not exactly in ap- 
position with yvvdiKa, but with the sentence. For it is not 
Helen that is the mingled triumph and shame, but the 
abduction of Helen. See note on § 30, 1. ii. Ka-n\$€ir), 
(icon^y), is said to be the shame that shows itself by 
downcast eyes : koto. . . . <f>a6s. 

1. 39. yFoitjs x'> i« e - *«> ' thou wouldest learn,' apodosis 
to an unexpressed protasis, sc. el dfj pfivaas. 

1. 40. ofa &k xpaurpth ' will be no help to thee.' The 
conjunctive (for which some editors have conjectured 
Xpala-fjioi) seems to express the confidence of Hector that 
the result would take place. The optative juyciir)? ex- 
presses a less certain fact that exists only as a hypothesis. 

So in II. II. 387 we have el . . . ireiprfSeitjs, ovk S» rot 
Xpai<rnj]<ri fitfe. 

Supa 'A^poStTijs are the beauty and charm he carries 
with him. 

1. 42. $ci$qpoKc$, 'too reverential/ to lay hands on a 

1. 43. \6Xvov xiTwm &vuo0ai, ' to don a stone coat, 9 is 
a sort of euphemism for being stoned, being covered with 
a heap of stones. So yfjv tycaaaaOai = to be buried, 
Pind. Nem. 2. 21. 

1. 1. &ru\a, 'he bared it/ from its covering or case, 
which was called ya>pvr6s, r6fy>v aiy&s, ' a bow of wild- 
goat [horn].' Material genitive, Curt. 408. 

1. 2. &v is governed by pep\i]K€i, the participle tux^oos 
serving as an adverbial addition =' with lucky aim/ The 
common aor. in use from rvyxava is the 2nd, erv^ov. 

L 3. $c$cYP&os, ' having awaited its coming in a hiding 
place/ He struck it in front just as it was leaving the rock 
so that it fell backward on to the rock again. 

HOM.IL. §§ 5> 6. 231 

1. 6. dam/pas, • having worked them/ This word de- 
scribes the process of clearing out and sawing the roots 
of the horns, ready for fitting them to the wooden centre 
of the bow. 

1. 7. KopcSyi), ' tip/ The string was a fixture at one end 
of the bow. At the other, a loop of string could be 
slipped over the golden tip when the bow was strung for 

use (ravvcrow&H). 

1. 9. axlQov (or Zoxdov), an Epic 2 aor. from ?x fiv - 

1. 10. Ttplv . . . irpiK. The former of the two is superfluous 
in English idiom, unless we might say, ' lest they should 
rush upon him first, before Menelaus was hit/ 

1. 13. This new arrow, never shot before and armed 
with feathers, is called Ipf&a 6hwduv, a most uncertain ex- 
pression. The older commentators compared the word 
with cpe«r/*o, and rendered ' support' or ' stay' of sorrows. 
Perhaps as *pywa wi&v are the ' carriers ' or ' holders ' of 
ships, we may render here, ' carrier of sorrows/ 

1. 14. micp&s in its original sense of ' sharp.' Cp. netto?, 
the pine-tree with its sharp leaves. Germ. NadeI-holz=. 
' needle-tree/ 

1. 15. \uKr\ytvii, 'born of the light,' 'son of the morning,' 
from root Xv*-. Lat. lux. Cp. \vicdfias, dfi<piXvta]. The old 
rendering, ' Lycian-born,' illustrates the common practice 
of inventing new myths to explain forgotten etymologies. 
The mention of Zeleia, a Lycian town, gives, however, 
some colour to the old translation of Av/opycwJ*. 

1. 18. !Xk€ M, ' and he drew it, having grasped together 
the nock and the string of ox-sinew; the string he brought 
close to his breast, and the iron arrow-tip to the bow/ 
yXu^ffics means the notch or notches in which the string 

1. 20. KuicXoTcpis, proleptical predicate (Curt. 403), with 
h-civ*, ' bent it into a round/ 

2$% NOTES. 

1. 22. fert-irrfofat, from em-ntTopcu. The arrow is repre- 
sented as ' having a desire to wing its way/ like the spear 
(II. ii, 574) that 'was eager to glut itself with flesh/ 

\i\ai6pcvos \pobs haai. 

L 24. Ayc-Xcb), ' Goddess of foray/ who ' brings in the 

booty/ 8ytw~\*iav. 

I. 26. t&fok, • only just so far/ the distance being illus- 
trated by a movement of the hand, dccxrut&r, i. e. * with a 

1. 27. X^rrat, aor. 1. conjunctive, from Xey«, root AEX. 

1. 28. IQvvtv, ' she directed it where the golden buckles 
of the belt met (forofuu, Poet, form of avrcua), and the 
cuirass encountered it with double thickness/ The Iwrriip 
was a leathern girdle round the waist that kept the cuirass 
(6wpr)£) in its place. The Ocftpql generally consisted of two 
curved plates of metal, one over the breast and one at the 
back, clasping under the arms with hooks. At the lower 
edge of the cuirass came a padded apron or flap of quilted 
linen or some soft material (jurprj) ; the (wrrjp spanned 
the waist just where the metal and the linen armour joined, 
at which place the cuirass could be said to have ' a double 

1. 30. Iv-iitto*, ' plunged into"/ 

1. 31. Sid. Notice the lengthening of the vowel by 
emphasis in pronunciation. 
iX^Xc&To, from ikavvcw. 

1. 34. tj 01 irXeioTOK ifpu-ro, ' which was the best defence for 
him,' taking tpvro absolutely. But as ipvew can take an 
accusative of the thing 'warded off/ we might supply 
6"iar6v from the foregoing sentence, tpvro is from pvopm. 

$iairp&, 'onward and through/ 'It went on, even 
through this/ 

1. 35. *ir£ypa+€, ' scratched the extreme surface of his 
flesh/ Cp. the adv. eViypdjSfyv. The word ypctyetn was 

HOM. IL. 5§ 6, 7. 233 

evidently not in regular use in Homer's time for ' writing/ 
which was but little practised, if indeed it had been in- 

1. 37. tis t€. See on § 1. 1. 20. 

The staining of ivory was an oriental art ; here repre- 
sented as the work of Maeonian or Carian women. 

1. 38. irapfyfap, 'cheek-piece/ 

1. 40. tinrijes, rather 'charioteers' than 'horsemen.' 
Cavalry is later than Homeric days. So below we find 


1. 41. d^f^TcpoK, adverbial accusative, 'in two ways;' 
' for a double purpose.' 

1. 42. \kidvBr\v, probably another form for plavOtv, i. e. 
€fwiv&Tj(rap t Other editors regard it as a shorter form of 
the dual [tyuapfynpi which is not impossible, though pipot 
is in the plural, for the notion of the two mpti would be 
enough to suggest the dual number of the verb. 

1. 43. far^vcpOe, 'below.' This picturesque touch is 
quite in accordance with the simplicity of early literary 
composition. We should not think of making such an 
addition now, but in Homer we find vnwcpde introduced 
to characterise frtfdcr, yovw, etc. ; and wrepde, tyvncpO* or 

Ka6v7T€pB( tO describe Kccpakrj, &/iof, X"P €5 or v&rov* 


1. 1. 4). See note on § 13. 1, 19. 
1. 3. Join TaXaatypoKd irep, ' how brave soever.' 
1. 6. inSrrw, 'out in the mid sea it first rears itself/ 
The enclitic re is here untranslatable; only we must 
notice that it has no copulative force: so far as we can 
attach a meaning to it, it seems, from its connection with 
the demonstrative t6, etc., to point to something well 

234 NOTES. 

known, or commonly occurring. Perhaps with the con- 
versational force of ' you know/ 

1. 7. dfjL+l 8£, ' and arching over as it moves along, it 
towers aloft round the headlands, and sends the sea-spray 
spouting up/ 

1. 9. Kirurro, from a pres. juWfuu, equivalent to jtwcopoL 
The only actual point in the comparison is resemblance 
between the rapid sequence of the thronging waves, and 
the ranks of the Achaeans following each other fast. 

1. 10. kAcuc &2, 'and each of the captains cheered his 
own men/ otw, from &s [&*], ' his/ the possessive pro- 

1. 14. clp&oi, from cinntfu, «Wa), ci/mxc, 

1. 15. Tp&cs, The sentence begins with a nominative, 
but in 1. 18 the construction changes, so that the original 
subject has no verb. 

1. 16. &p.c\Y<S|J>€i'<u, Middle voice, * getting milked.' 

1, 19. 6|*te . . . YTJpus, ' not an identical language, npr one 
utterance/ to, a dialectical variant for fUa. See § 9. 1. 31. 

1. 20. iroXdicXijToi. This clause introduces the reason 
for €fA(fUKTo. The multiplicity of languages came from the 
various nationalities in the Trojan host 

1. 21. -rods lUy* the Trojans; the other Gods who sup- 
ported the Trojan cause were Apollo, Aphrodite, and 

1. 24. With the description of "Epis, compare Virgil's 
picture of Fame : ' Parva metu primo, mox sese attollit in 
auras, \ ingredilurque solo, et caput inter nubila condit* Aen. 
4. 176. 

1. 25. &rr^pi£c is the gnomic aorist. 

1. 26. ff+iK=the contending parties. 6poiiov, * common/ 

1. 29. <r6v $ ?Pa\o*>, ' they dashed together their leathern 

1. 31. htkqri dXX^Xtjai, 'encountered one another/ 

HOM. IL. §§ 7, 8. 235 

cirkrfvro, a syncopated aor. 2. med. from n(\dfa. The 
actual form suggests a present irkrjfu. 

1. 32. oijjwy?), the ' shriek/ belongs directly to oXXvpeVow, 
and €vx»X^, ' the boast/ or, ' shout of triumph/ to okkwruv. 

1. 34. xetpappoi, * storm-swoln/ a true epithet of moun- 
tain torrents. 

1- 35- H.wrydyiceiai', (fuyvvvai, Syicos), 'where the gorges 
meet.' The dual aufipdXXcTov shows that the picture is 
intended to represent two streams from opposite sides. 

1. 36. KoiXt)? x*p<tf>pi)s, ' the deep-worn channel/ that is 
scarred (xa/xio-o-crai) in the hill side by the violence of the 
torrent after storms. 

1. 37. ckXuc, gnomic aorist. 

1. 38. Y&ero. The final o is lengthened because laxq 
takes an initial digamma, Fiaxq. 



1. 4. 6dXap>K=the ladies' ' bower;' d&pa, the men's hall; 
avX^, the courtyard. When the plural b&iiara y 1. 1, is used, 
it includes all these departments of the house. 

1. 7. irdpoiOc, 'in front of him.' 

1. 8. The ring, mSpKi)?, that ran round the spear, was a 
sort of ferule or collar to tighten the spear-head on the 

1. 9. Iirorra (generally in the compound dn<fn(nciv)= 
' busied with/ ' furbishing.' 

1. 12. djKf>nr<S\oun, the 'attendants/ to whom Helen 
was assigning their tasks of needlework or spinning, re- 
present a subdivision of the dftoai yvvdiKfs. 

1. 14. 8aifi6iac, 'reckless man.' The epithet can imply ^ 
any strange conduct, that seems as if it must be referred m 

2$6 NOTES. 

to what we should call ' possession/ A man * possessed ' 
is not himself; he is under the influence of an overmaster- 
ing power (dalfjL&v). ou koXA, ' not rightly hast thou let this 
bitterness sink into thine heart/ Hector supposes, or pre- 
tends to suppose, that Paris must have some grudge against 
the Trojans, which keeps him from taking his place in the 
battle field. And he reminds him : * It is on thine account 
that this tumult and war is all ablaze round this city. 
Thou in truth wouldst quarrel with anyone else, whom thou 
mightest see skulking from the fight/ 

1. 19. am, 'up!' irupds, a local genitive, Curt 425. 

1. 23. T&row. We should expect a sentence introduced 
by 8<rov to follow : ' It was not so much from spite that I 
was sitting idle, as that I wished/ But the second sentence 
appears only as an adversative clause, ' but I wished.' 

1. 24. irpoTpair&rOai, (rpeireiv), 'to give myself up to/ 

1. 26. Join &pp,r\ai pc. irapciirou<ra, ' having talked me 
over/ So irap-avdav is used, and similarly irap-rjyoptiv. 
poi k<h auT<J, ' even to me myself/ 

1. 27. £irajA€ip€Tai aVSpas, ' passes from man to man/ 
i.e. comes to men alternately. 

1. 28. 8u«. The conjunctive, almost with the force of 
the future indicative. It is probable that in this abrupt 
form of sentence we see the origin of the use of the 
conjunctive in final sentences. The addition of fata? or 
Ifypa would transform this construction into the ordinary 
one. Or we may use it to illustrate the close etymological 
connection of the conjunctive and the future indicative, 
which have some forms quite identical, as in the aor. 1. 


1. 32. koi^s. See on § 1. 1. 1. 6itpuo&r<rv)s, * loathly/ pro- 
perly that makes one shudder as with cold. 

L 33. #s o+€\^ jxe oTxct&u irpo^powra, * Would that a 
blast of wind had passed and carried me off with it 1 ' 

HOM. IL. §§ 8, 9. 237 

1. 36. An&fxrc, dirocpoy and diro€pa-€i€, are moods of an 
aor. 1, which some refer to 3pp» (in a causative sense), 
others to epdv (for ap8«), ' to wash.' No other forms of 
the verb are found. We should expect op in the apodosis, 
' the wave would have washed me down/ but it may be 
supposed that Helen looks upon the thing as already done. 

1. 38. cirevra, 'thereon/ 'in that case;' if the Gods have 
so ordained. 

1. 39. Ss jjJij, ' who had some sense of the wrath and the 
many reproaches of men/ 

1. 41. w. . . $t«, 'wherefore I think that he surely will 
reap the fruit of it/ 

1. 43. <J€ $peVas djjwJ>t^pt]Ke. Curt. 402. 

1. 44. circic' cpeio, ' because of me, the shameless one, 
and because of the folly of Alexander' (Paris). 

1. 45. Join otaiv cm-Oijice. 

1. 48. ouhi, equivalent in force to ov yap. 

1. 55. fafapoiros, 'returning/ 

§ 9. 

L 2. Zicaufc. The Scaean gates stood, as the name 
(vKtu&s) implies, at the west side of the city. It was, the 
main gate and from its tower there was a wide view. 

1. 5. 'Hctuov. This is called by grammarians attractio 
inversa, the antecedent being assimilated to the case of 
its relative &. 

nXdicos is a spur of Mount Ida in Mysia; the town 
of Thebe is called, from its situation, Hypoplacian, ' under 
Placos;' as we speak of Wootton-under-Edge, Shipton- 
under-Wychwood, etc. 

1. 7. cxcto, 'was had to wife by Hector/ 

1. 8. tj ot €n*iT ^vrqere, 'she then met him/ 

1. 9; mlprioK aunts, * quite a. babe/ 

338 NOTES. 

1. 11. Zicafu&rSp&or. Hector named his son Scamandrios, 
after the river Scamander, which was reckoned as the tutelary 
god of the city of Troy. The Trojans, to do honour to 
Hector, 'the sole defence of Uion/ called the child 
' Prince of the city,' aarv-foa£ . 

L 13. <n*rrg, join with to«r *s ncu&a. 

L 15. tv4+» 01 x«f>i, lit. ' she grew (i. e. fastened) on his 
hand.' oi, dative, Curt. 432. 

L 17. fypopor, 'ill-starred:' xhm> properly an adjective, 
' bereaved/ and so joined with genitive <rcv. 

1. 20. o€u tyajuapTouar}, ' when 1 have lost thee.' x^"* 
Su'ficKcu, ' to enter the earth/ in the same sense in which 
we say ' to be put into the ground/ 

L 21. Irunrgs, See under tycfro, cttcotw. 

1. 22. #x € °> nom. from &x°*> parallel with Baknvprj. 

1. 26. t6 yc, ' he had a scruple against Ms/ i. e. against 
stripping his former foe. 

1. 28. Join It&4x**v> 'heaped over him a mound.' 

1. 30. 01 hi pot . . . ot \Uv irdircs, ' qui vero tntht septem 
genili suntfratrts . . . illi omnes . . .' 

1. 31. l« ^ifum, 'in one day.' The fem. la for pia is not 
uncommon ; but here we have a corresponding masculine 
form equivalent to ivL 'AtSrjs in Homer is a person, not 
a place, so that with'Atdo? must be supplied &£/mi or some 
such word. "Aidos must be referred to a nominatival form 


1. 34. prrlpa . . . chroira, ' and my mother, who was 
queen under wooded Placus, (when he had brought her 
here along with the rest of his spoils), he set her free 
again, after he had received a vast ransom/ wipa, which 
begins the sentence, would be the natural object to <urc- 
XwcT€, but as a parenthesis intervened, the word is, as it 
were, forgotten, and the object is expressed anew in ity 
AirlWc. The words 3 yc (a combination generally serving 

HOM. IL. § 9* 239 

to refer back to the principal subject of the sentence) 
introduce the apodosis to eW. 

1. 37. The sudden death of women is ascribed in 
Homer to the arrows of the 'archer' (16s — ^4m) Artemis; 
those of men to the shafts of Apollo. 

1. 42. \<*6v 8c, 'Halt the host by the wild fig-tree:' 
this stood at one side of the Scaean gates, near the city 
wall, ' where the city is easiest to scale, and the wall open 
to attack.' 

1. 43. firXero. The aorist of ircXoftm is often used, where 
the English idiom puts the present tense, but here the past 
tense is really accurate, as the reference is made to a 
former assault 

!• 44- Tp Y € > ' at tn * s spot.' 

1. 45. djjwj)!, ' in attendance on.' 

1. 47. tj irotf tis <r+iK cVunre, (cWira>), 'whether anyone 
told them, well versed in prophetic lore.* We should 
expect not faorpwei, but a past tense like ?wcnre. 

1. 50. TfiSc irrfrra jiAci, ' all this is in my thoughts ;' 
referring back to (1. 41) Andromache's appeal to him 
not to leave her a widow, and their child an orphan. 

1. 52. iroXcpoio depends on v6a<fitv, 'if I should skulk 
away from the war;' with reference to Andromache's 
advice, fufiv cm irvpy^ 1. 40. icaic^s &s, ' like a coward.' 

1. 53. oo&e* fie, 'nor doth my own heart prompt me (to 
bide away) since I have learned ever to be brave.' 

1. 55. dpKu'jicyos, 'seeking to win,' i.e. to secure. efy>- 
wfiai, from root dp, has for aorists the forms apiaOcu and 
apaa-Oai : to the same root belong alpco, dccpo. li&v atrrou 
kXcos = ' meant ipsiusfamam! 

1. 59. dmoraw, ' in time to come.' The past is described 
in Greek as ra ndpoiOc, irapos, because it has already come 
before the eye ; the unknown future comes up behind us, 
the back being turned to it, and so it is called ra owiW 

240 NOTES. 

1. 61. oZ kck . . . -niaouv, 'who shall fall beneath the 
foemen's hands/ For the aorist optative with m in this 

future Sense Cp. nab dc Ktv cvxcoXtjv Upuipy koI Tpaxri XimtHfXV 
*ApytUjp 'EXtPtfv, II. 4. 173. 

1. 63. &r<roK acu, SC. fikyos poi pAci oiriWw, from L 59. 

1. 64. &>njT<u k€k, 'shall carry you away;' perhaps with 
the further sense, common to ay«r6ai, of carrying you 
away as his wife, diroupas is described as an aor. 1. 
participle from an unused present dnavpda, the imperf. of 
which, aTnjvpcov -ac -a, is in use. From this aor. 1. a future 
is formed, as airovprjo-ovo-i, II. 22. 489. 

1. 65. irpds &\\t)$, ' at the bidding of another.' 

1. 66. Mcaoijis, sc. r^w;, a spring, according to some, 
near Therapne in Laconia. 'Yircfrcfo, in the neighbour- 
hood of Pherae in Thessaly, where some authorities place 
Messeis also. 

1. 67. irrfXX' AcKaloji^KT), 'sore against thy will/ This 
construction with the adverbial accusative voKka is just 
like the Latin equivalent, ' multa reluctari,' Virg. Geor. 4. 
301. lvuMurtT[at], 'will be laid on thee/ Notice the 
free use of elision in Epic Greek, which is reduced to 
much narrower limits in Attic poetry. 

1. 68. cfaflflri, 'may say/ 'will say:' hardly to be dis- 
tinguished in force from the indicative future, which 
occurs below, 1. 71 : the indicative gives a somewhat more 
distinct assertion, Curt. § 513. Join KaTot-x^ouaai^. 

1. 69. fidxcoOai, ' at fighting/ Curt. § 562 obs. 

1. 70. The gen. TpwwK depends on aptoTcvco-**. 

1. 72. x^ T€l > fr° m x4™ f > (x aT ^\ <m y° ur want.' dptffciy 
depends upon roiovbc, 'of such power as to ward off 
from thee/ So we find dtos cmivos hp fiovKtvcfxcv, Od. 14. 

449; ov yap ar\ oraOpoio-i ptvtiv crt ttjKikos ct/ii}, Od. 17. 20. 

1. 73. AXXA, 'but may the heaped earth hide (jumi-jca- 
Xvnroi) me. 

HOM. IL. § 9. 24I 

1. 74. 0o$|, 'thy cry for help;' 4Xia)0p,&$, 'thy being 
haled away/ The two nouns form one idea (cv 81a 8voiv), 
= ' thy cry as thou art haled away.' 

1. 75. 00, 'his;' from possessive pronoun o*. 6p<^aro, 
(opeyca, o/Wywfu), 'reached out for. 1 

1. 77. £k\iV0i), join with &|r, 'shrunk back/ lit. leaned. 

&tux6cis, 'scared/ drv^Ofuu, (arrj). 

1. 79. hetvbv, adverbial to kcuokto, 'nodding fearfully/ 

1. 80. £k 8' £y£ka<r<T€ y ' laughed out/ 

1. 83. irijXc, (ttoXX©), 'dandled/ 

1. 85. 8<5tc Sfj, ' Grant indeed that this son of mine too 
may become, even as I, famous among the Trojans, and 
as valiant in might, and [grant] that he may rule mightily 
over Ilion/ 

1. 89. &vi6vra, after eirrijo-t, * may say of him as he comes 
back/ An altogether unusual construction with ctircti'. 
$cpoi, ' may he bring back/ 

1. 92. kt)<£Sci, 'fragrant/ Linen was kept then, as 
often now, with sweet herbs to scent it. 

1. 93. SoKpu^cK, as we say, ' smiling through her tears/ . 

1. 94. icaTcpcIcK, (from tcarappefa, epice Kappcfa, II. 5. 

424), 'fondled/ 'stroked/ 

1. 95. jjiot, ' I pri'thee/ 

1. 96. 00 yap tis, 'for no man shall send me to Hades 
against my destiny/ lit. 'beyond my apportioned lot,' 
i. e. sooner than is ordained, atao is probably connected 
•with tiros (Attic to-os). 

1. 97. irc^uypipoK, ' evasisse! This usage is 
found also in Od. I. 18 ir€<f>vyfievos fcp akffK&v, Od. 9. 
455 we^vy/xci/ov cIvch okeOpov. 'But his doom I declare 
that no man hath escaped, not the coward, nor yet the 
brave, when once he hath been born/ 

1. 99. t& ad adTTJs='/«0 ipsius opera! See sup. 1. 55. 

1. 10 1. cpYOK iiroixeaOai, 'to set to their work/ 


242 NOTES. 

1. 1 02. irouriK foSpeorox is the antecedent to roi The 
words ifidi be fiakiora are parenthetical. 

1. 103. eTXci-o, i. e. took it up from the ground, where 
he had laid it, sup. 1. 82. 

1. 105. £rrpoira\i£ofiii'if), a frequentative form, ' ever- 

§ 10. 

1. 1. tjAios, 'now the sun was just smiting (with his 
rays) the fields . . . when they (i. e. Trojans and Greeks) 
met one another.' tjirco*', Epic imperf. from dvrd<a. 

1. 2. dxaXappciTao. The epithets remind us that the 
Homeric idea of Oceanus is that of a great river en- 
circling the earth. 

1. 4. xaktir&s fJK, 'it was hard matter/ So we find 
kok&s ty> II. 9. 551 ; Brjv ?jv, II. 6. 131. Others take rjv in 
the sense of i&jv, ' it was hardly possible. 1 

1. 6. The ajia£a is different from the fypa, or war 
chariot, being a cart, commonly on four wheels, drawn by 
mules or oxen. 

1. 7. eta from ida>. 

1. 8. irupitaiTJs iir€vf\v€ov, ' heaped them on the pyre.' 

1. 13. rjfjios. Here begins another day in the narra- 
tion. &p4t-Xuia) «>{, 'the morning twilight,' as we say; 
but we rather look at it as the beginning of the dawn, 
whereas here it is represented as the ending of the night, 
1 the half-lighted darkness/ dpfa-XvKr) may be compared 
with Lat. luceo, and Gk. \cvk6s, from root Xv*-, seen in 
Xvicd/Say, an old word for ' year,' meaning ' path of light/ 
Od. 14. 161. 

1. 14. fypero, 'roused themselves/ Syncopated aor. 

from eyeipo). 

1. 15. TupPof, 'and round it [the pyre] they made one 
general tomb, having reared it above the plain/ With 

HOM. IL. §§ 9, io. 243 

this use of cgayciv cp. Syciv Tci^or, Thuc. 6. 99 ; ' Turrifk . . 
summis sub astra eductam tectis* Virg. Aen. 2. 460 : * and 
up to it they built a wall, and lofty towers, a protection 
for their ships and themselves, and in them [i. e. in the 
turreted walls] they make a well-fitting gate/ 

1. 18. iruXai does not mean more than one gate, but the 
plural is used because the gate had two leaves. 

1. 20. £ir 9 auT<3, ' close at the wall/ 

1. 21. cric<S\oiras, 'palisades/ These were pointed stakes 
set at the bottom of the ditch to prevent its being crossed. 

V7TCp6cV 8e O'KOkfatVO'lV I 6£c(TlP T)pT)p€l, TOVS toTTaCTaV vUs 

'A^cucou I itvkvovs <a\ peyaXovs drjtcov dvdpcov aXeoop^v, II. 12. 

55 foil. 

1. 26. rj p<£ tis, 'Is there then anyone of men over all 
the wide earth who will ever again tell his thought and 
his design to the immortals ? ' Poseid6n is nettled at the 
independence of the Achaeans. They had done their 
great work without consulting the gods, or without even 
attempting to secure their favour by sacrifices. The force 
of the accusative in eVl yaiav expresses the idea of different 
nations spread over the surface of the earth. 

1. 28. Stj aurc. The final 1? coalesces with the diph- 
thong av, and the two words are scanned as a dissyllable. 
auT€ may be rendered ' after all ;' it is intended to intro- 
duce a new feature in the conduct of the Achaeans. 

1. 31. toC, sc. Tci^coff. Sctok t, equivalent to eVl t6(tov> 
ccp odov, ' over as much ground [as that] over which/ i. e. 
as far as the light of day spreads. 

1. 32. 'The wall that men will forget* is the city wall 
of Ilion which Poseiddn and Apollo, by command of 
Zeus, built for Laomedon. 

1. 33. dGXrjcrarres, 'with hard toil/ 

1. 36. Join aXXos Qe&v, any other god rather than Posei- 
don might view with dismay the scheme of the Greeks. 

R 2 

244 NOTES. 

1. 39. aypei jiAy, 'up then/ An old and common 
formula of encouragement. dypea> may be taken as an 
Aeolic form of alpia, and the meaning then is, * catch 
hold ; ' \uav is a Doric form of \u\v. 

1. 41. KaToxeucu, this infinitive, like icaAityai, is used with 
the force of an imperative, * Break it up, and tumble it all 
into the sea/ 

§ 11. 

1. 1. f4^y a +poK&>iT€$, 'proud at heart/ for their victory, 
yc^upas, ' gaps ' or ' passages/ is perhaps the meaning. It 
is interpreted by some as the spaces between each bat- 
talion ; by others as the open ground between two con- 
tending armies. It is to be joined with ctaro. 

1. 4. fhrXero. See on § 9. 1. 43. Aorist of custom, as 

also ecpavev. 

1. g. (Ticomat, like Latin speculae, ' look-outs/ i. e. heights. 

1. 6. oupavoQev is really equivalent to ' from below/ for 

it expresses the lowest point at which the sky begins, 

from which it seems to open out long vistas of stars. 

Mr. Tennyson renders the whole passage : — 

'As when in heaven the stars about the moon 
Look beautiful, when all the winds are laid, 
And every height comes out and jutting peak, 
And valley, and the immeasurable heavens 
Break open to their highest, and all the stars 
Shine, and the Shepherd gladdens in his heart/ 
uircppdyr), 'opens up/ As the eye looks upward 
the sky seems to open and show stars beyond stars. 

1. 9. Tpcrfoy . . . iTupot, ' the watchfires of the Trojans as 
they kindled them, burned bright/ 'iXuSOi irpd, literally, ' at 
Ilion, in front thereof/ for irp6 does not govern % l\i66i but 
is added as a nearer definition of place. But, for transla- 
tion, ' in front of Ilion ' will be accurate enough. 

HOM. IL. §§ 10-12. 245 

1. 10. lr&p 8c liuta™, this does not agree with o-eAai, but 
with 7rvp& out of irvpd. ' At each watchfire sat fifty men in 
the blaze of the firelight/ oikai and not <reXq is the right 
form of the dative of aekas. So we find deVat, yqpat, K*pat 
in Homer. 

1. 13. The horses are described as standing by the 
chariots and waiting for the break of day. The Dawn is 
described as ' royally-enthroned/ because she is thought 
of as a queen. 

§ 12. 

1. 1. Sioyci^s is a Homeric epithet for heroes, and 
especially for kings, who are regarded as belonging to the 
lineage of Zeus. Translate ' royal' 

1. 2. xf>*I f*^ fcfj, 'right it is that I should frankly 
speak out my reply just as I mean it and as it shall be 
accomplished, that ye maj not prate in my ears, one 
after another, sitting at my side. 1 dTnjXey^ws, probably 
from dno- and akeya, meaning 'carelessly/ 'reckless of 
consequences.' Notice that AirociirciK, which means to 
' say " nay " ' in Attic Greek, has in Homer the simpler 
sense, to 'speak out/ Achilles is afraid that, after the 
speech of Odysseus, he shall have to listen to the story of 
Ajax and Phoenix. 

1. 5. 6ji«s. Notice the difference between this word 
and ofKos. Translate ' equally with/ i. e. even as the gates 
of Hades. 

1. 6. §s x> i« e. os kc. 

1. 8. oin-c *ATpeLhr)v . . . o3tc Aamous, are subjects to 
7r«o-€/x«/, to which ifie yc is the object. 

1. 9. i-ntl . . . iro\cfu£oi, ' since, as it seems (apa), there 
was no gratitude for my ceaselessly fighting for ever with 
foemen; the same lot falls to one that keeps aloof, or 
whether one does battle with might and main/ 


246 NOTES. 

1. 10. fuXcfies, a word of most uncertain derivation, is 
referred by some to vrj and X* iirav, ' never leaving off/ by- 
others to vrj and 8k\v<r6cu, ' never dying out. 1 

1. 11. poipa may be the meed of honour, or the share 
of booty. After jiifom we should expect 7ro\cpi{ovTi, but 
the construction is varied. 

1. 12. uf= fua, 'one and the same/ 

1. 14. o£8l ti pot, 'nor is anything gained for me, be- 
cause/ etc., lit. ' lies round me/ ' invests me/ 

1. 15. irapapa\\<5fA€K>s, 'imperilling my life/ Like 
ifruxas napBcfievoi, Od. 9. 255* ttoXcjuJcip, an infinitive 
added to define the sphere in which the self-sacrifice was 
shown, sc. ' in the way of fighting/ ' in the field/ 

1. 17. |A<£ora»c' . . . XrfPgai, 'a morsel, when she has got 
it, and it fares ill with herself/ She starves herself to 
feed her brood. 

1. 18. KUKTas TauoK, 'I passed many sleepless nights/ 
As Iovhv properly means to ' sleep/ we may suppose that 
it is intended to make a point by this contradiction in 
words, 'to sleep sleepless nights/ This usage is called 

1. 19. 8i£irpT]o"<TOK, the Epic form for bUnpawov. 

1. 20. dpSprfai. The words of Achilles seem here to be 
designedly ambiguous. He must either mean ( 1 ) ' fight- 
ing with heroes about their womankind/ a bitter way of 
describing the conflict with Hector and the other Trojans 
for the recovery of a woman like Helen. Or (2) ' fighting 
with heroes to win their wives/ alluding to such fights as 
those in which he had carried off Bris6is from her hus- 
band Mynes (II. 19. 291 foil.); or Diom£d6 (II. 9. 665); 
or Iphis (II. 9. 667); or HecamedS (II. 11. 625). It 
cannot be rendered, as some would interpret, 'fighting 
for husbands/ with allusion to Menelaus. The succeeding 
lines give great probability to the second (2) rendering. 

HOM. 1L. § 12. 247 

1. 21. (t6k nr|U(rl . . . irc£6s. This is equivalent to 'by 
land ' and ' by sea/ 

1. 22. icai-A TpoirjK. This includes the neighbourhood of 
Troy, and refers to such cities as Th6b6 (II. 1. 366); 
Lyrnessos (II. 2. 691); and P6dasus (II. 20. 92). 

1. 25. omo0c, ' aloof/ 

1. 26. Join Stot-Sa<rd<jK€To (frequentative aor. from bat- 
opai), cx€<tk€, 'kept/ 

1. 27. Y^pttj predicative, 'as meeds of honour/ 

1. 28. Toun jjlc^ 'with them indeed those prizes abide 
secure, but me alone of the Achaeans has he robbed, and 
has kept my winsome bride/ 

1. 31. tvriyaye, referring to the voyage to Troy. 

1. 33. fAcpdirw d^Opwuw depends upon pouroi. ' Are 
the Atreidae the only ones of mortal men that love their 
wives ? (Nay verily !) since every man that is good and 
wise/ etc. 

1. 35. t?|v at the end of the line =' her/ 

1. 36. Ik 6upou, ' with all my heart/ 

1. 38. €o cIS<Sto$, ' knowing him as I do too well/ 

1. 41. TJ |A€K &) jidXa, 'verily, he has wrought mightily 
without my help/ 

1. 44. ou8 9 fls,='not even with all that/ 

1. 46. dird tcixcos, ' did not care to push the battle far 
from the walls of Troy/ 

1. 47. 6<rov = ' only/ Lat. tantum. ty\y6v. This tree 
stood near the Scaean gates. 

1. 48. otoy, sc. e>€, 'awaited me in single combat/ 

1. 50. fc'Jas: pc'flfiv, which properly means only 'to 
do/ gets the special signification of ' offering ' sacrifice ; 
like Lat. facer m e and operaru 

1. 51. Ktji^ros, from Epic form vr\ka> for *€«, ' to heap up/ 
iirrjK irpoeptWw, ' after I have dragged them forth.' After 
the participles pigas and vrj^a-as we naturally expect the A 

248 NOTES. 

principal verb in the apodosis, such as nXeva-ovpcu <rw 
vrivaiv cpaU kol avbpdo-i, instead of which the construction 
changes into the second person ctyecu, leaving the parti- 
ciples to stand alone. A similar anacoluthon is found in 

II. 3. 211 ap(j)a> 8* {{opevco, yepaparepos fcv '0&/cr<revff, H. 6. 
51066* dykairjQi irenoiOais | pipcfia i yovva <f>€p€i, 

1. 52. at kIv t<h rbk jicjm^Xt), 'if these things have any 
interest for thee/ 

1. 53. Join fjpi jidXa, 'very early/ So pdk' ?p«, Od. 19. 320. 

1. 54. fiepiwros, from perf. pApaa. Another form of this 
participle is p* padres. 

1- 55- 'E^oaiyaios is a title given to Poseid6n, because 
earthquakes were attributed to his agency. 

1. 56. Phthia is both a town and a district in Thessaly, 
the home of Peleus and the Myrmidons. 

1. 57. IvQ&he Ippuv, 'when I came hither to my cost/ 
€pp€iv is specially used with this implied sense of coming 
on an ill-starred journey. Cp. the phrase (f^dpca-Oai irpos. 

1. 58. aXXoK &', ' and more gold besides and ruddy cop- 
per and well-girt women and grey iron will I carry home 
from hence, all that I have got as my share/ He will go 
back to Phthia and increase his treasures there by adding 
to them all his share of the booty from Troy. * But mine 
especial prize (sc. Bris&s), that same man who bestowed 
hath taken away again, insulting me/ 

1. 62. tw it&vf, ' tell to him (infinitive with imperatival 
force) all I have said, in the presence of his people, in 
order that the other Achaeans too may be wrath at him, 
if ever again he hope,' etc. 

1. 65. iiruipivos, (cm-cwvpi), t ever clad in impudence as 
he is/ so that he is likely enough to try such a trick 
again, ipol yc . . . lS&6ai, ' to look me in the face/ 

1. 67. ou&c p.kv cpyof, SC. ovpirpd£<o, suggested by <ru/x- 

HOM. IL. §§ 12, 13. 249 

1. 68. irapafjtu6i)aaifjiT)K, 'advise/ 

1. 69. 8ifcT€, 'will find;' brjas, bfjopev and d^crc are the 
only forms found. They are referred to an Epic present, 
with a future sense, drj<o. TCKjiwp, 'end;' i.e. means of 

1. 70. £Qev, governed by vircpcxw. 

1. 71. unepioyt, i. e. holds a protecting hand over it. 

1. 75. The privilege of councillors is to speak freely. 
(TcSw is probably the contracted form of <raoi, viz. o-a> with 
the introduction of o, as 6pd<o, 6pS>, Epice 6p6a>. Others 
take <roo) as the conjunctive from <ra<fo>, viz. a-a6rj, o-a$, <ra> 
or <r6<£>. 

1. 76. fire! oO, 'since the scheme which they have now 
devised, because of my deep wrath, is not feasible.' This 
probably refers to the attempt at self-protection by means 
of the rampart, to which the Greeks were forced to have 
recourse through the absence of Achilles from the field. 
Others take it of the unsuccessful embassy. 

§ 13. 

1. 1. SouiroK, the tramp of the pursuers' feet. 

1. 2. IXitcto y&p, 'for he hoped in his heart that his 
comrades were coming from the Trojans to make him 
return, Hector having ordered him back.' 

1. 5. \au|n)p&, predicate, equivalent to an adverb, 
1 briskly.' 

1. 8. Xayuds, Epic form for \ayws. ^irciyrroK, ' press 

1. 9. |A€|atjkws, 'crying.' The present, wKdofjuu, is a 
later word. The forms used in Homer, besides this 
perfect, are the aorist participle /ia/cav, and an imperfect 
formed from pcfjujica, viz. efxeprjKop. 

$5° NOTES. 

1. ii. Xoou Airo-Tp^arrc, 'having cut him off from his 
people/ i.e. having got between him and the Trojan 

1. 12. dXX' 3t€ M|, ' but when he was just on the point 
of getting among the [Greek] sentinels, on his flight to 
the ships, then Athena inspired Tydeid£s with strength, 
lest any of the Achaeans might be first in boasting that 
he had hit Doldn, and he [Diomede] might come up too 

1. 1 6. Soup! firataauK, 'rushing on him with his spear/ 

1. 1 8. £ji.j)s &ird x €t P^s is to be closely joined with oXc- 
Bpov, 'death at my hand/ So aitb pcvprjcptp oto-ro>, H. 13. 


1. 19. flj fa, 'he spoke/ 5 is the 3rd sing, imperf. 

from a defective verb 7-fu, of the same etymology as the 

Lat. a-io. The form is common in Plato, in the phrase 

5 6*^= 'he said/ 

1. 20. £u$ou, contracted for iv£6ov, the accent following 
that of the contracted nominative ev(ovs, and so being 
paroxyton and not perispomenon. 

1. 22. ftafi.pau'ui', according to some 'tottering;' while 
others render, more likely, ' stammering/ 

1. 23. kix^ttji', ' the two came up with him panting for 

1. 24. SaKptW?, notice the force of the aorist, ' with a 
burst of tears,' Curt. § 493, obs. 2. 

1. 25. i\ki Xuaopu, 'will ransom myself/ cpe here = 


1. 27. iw, partitive genitive, ' of which my father will 
lavish on you vast ransom/ 

1. 28. im vr\v<Av 9 Ax<hwk, i. e. detained in safe keeping 

1. 30. KaraOujuos cforw, ' weigh upon thy heart/ 

1. 31. drpejc&s, (drpcicris), 'frankly;' not from rp«» or 

HOM. IL, §§ 13, 14. 251 

rp€x<a, but from Tp«r©='not swerving/ The interchange 
of < and 7r is common, as in wroo-oy, Ionicb oicoaos, etc. 

1. 35. Join njos cm yXa^up&s with irpoir\K€. 

1. 36. yuia, subject to frpf/xe, ' shook under him/ 

1. 37. iroXXtfat*' p, 9 aTTjai, * by many delusions' (i.e. 
false promises) 'Hector drew me from my senses/ 
Others give irapU rjyaye, ' misled/ and join with it both /*e 
and voov, as an instance of the same combination as in 
§ 1. 1. 12. 

1. 40. 0o*| k6{ means 'swift-coming night/ a graphic 
epithet in countries that do not have the long twilight of 
our northern latitudes. 

1. 44. p,€*ro a+iW, ' among themselves/ 

1. 45. KaprfTu d$i)K<STes aiwp, ' overdone with hard toil/ 
d&&>, from <L8tjv (Lat. satis), 'to have enough and more 
than enough of anyming/ 

§ 14. 

1. 1. p.<£<myi, 'the scourge/ not the lightning, as the 
older interpreters supposed, but the chastening hand 
which brought defeat 

1. 2. itXpivot, perf. pass, from ttXa. So ickpeda, II. 24. 
662, 'cooped up/ loxapcWro, 'were kept back/ 

1. 4. taos &AXg means somewhat more than l like a 
storm ; ' it is rather ' with all the fury of a storm/ 

1. 6. <rrp6J>€Tcu. The beast is represented at bay, so 
that ' he keeps turning' his front to the assault of the dogs 
and huntsmen. 

1. 7. iropYTjS^, i.e. close packed like a solid wall. 
7Tvpyos is elsewhere used of a serried mass of warriors, as 

in II. 4. 334 07T7ror€ nvpyos 'A^atco!/ SWos encXOwv | Tpoocou 

1. 10. dyrj^opiTj 8e, ' but his courage is the death of his&.' 

253 NOTES. 

Sicra, an aorist of custom, parallel with the present indica- 
tive in the narrative. 

1. ii. Tap<J><?a, 'oftentimes,' used like the more common 
adverbial accusative TroXXa. He is supposed to watch for 
some weak spot in the ranks of huntsmen, and to make 
his rush at that point, and where he makes his rush the 
ranks give way. 

1. 12. -nj t cijcoucri introduces the apodosis to fairy. 

1. 14. ofoi ot. The direction of the accent shows that 
61 is the enclitic pronoun, * for him/ See Curt. 433 c. 

1. 15. r6\)Ui)i> y sc. btaPatpcfjLcv, 

1. 16. Aird-SciSio-rcro. The broad ditch 'frightened 
them away.' 

1. 17. o5t ap' uircpOop&iK. This seems to mean, 
' neither close (i. e. its edges were not close) together, to 
leap over, nor easy to cross.' The ditch was too wide 
to be cleared by a leap, and too deep to be easily filled 
up and crossed by horses and chariots. oxcS&k and p^tBu), 
with which we must supply fy, both refer to T<£<f>pos, and 
for a similar use of o^So? with «/*l cp. (cvapa) ov a-x^dov 
iwriv ikc'o-Ocu, II. 13. 268. Others take o-xc86v as an ad- 
verb qualifying {mcpOopcctp, ' it is neither easy to overleap 
it standing close, nor to cross it/ 

1. 18. KpTjfxyoi, 'all along the ditch stood steep 

1. 20. iaratrav. The scholiast gives this as a shortened 
form of the transitive aorist eorqo-a, 3rd plural. It would 
seem simpler to read the imperf. iorao-av. 

1. 22. £4a, pronounced as one syllable. 

1. 23. irc£ol may be taken as the subject to pevotvcov, 
'the foot-soldiers were pondering whether they could 
accomplish it/ Instead of the direct future indicative, 
reXeoutf would be the more natural mood. 

HOM. IL. §§ 14, 15. 253 

§ 15. 

1. 1. fir' tao WTaTo, (relva), 'was evenly balanced:' lit. 
ivas drawn up to a balance, a metaphor from weighing 
in scales. 

1. 4. TJuacf Siairpuo-ioi', ' raised a thrilling shout/ foanpv- 
a-iop (adverbial use of the neuter adjective), seems to be 
an extended form of btanpo, with the substitution of v for 
o, according to Aeolic usage, yeywy&s, from ycyava, a 
perfect with present meaning. From this perfect a new 
present, yeyaWa>, is formed, and in Attic Greek we find 
ycyavio-KG). The special meaning of ycyavciv is ' to make 
one's self heard ;' i£aKovcrrov fioav, Schol. ycywm should 
be closely joined with i\v<rev, as in the common formula 

<P<ovr)cra£ irpooyvfta. 

1. 6. ^i€T€=' immittiie! 

1. 7. buacri, from oZas, Ionic form of ovs. 

1. 11. 4ott)k€i describes both the size and the shape of 
the stone. We generally say 'a stone lies;' but this 
cone-shaped stone stood up high above the ground, 
irpufi.fds, ' at bottom;' this use of the adjective is common 
with ficVor, irp&Tos, atcpos, etc. 

1. 12. Join Srjfiou <Wpc, 'men of the common people.' 
The chieftains are always represented as superior in 
strength as well as in position. 

1. 13. 6x\i<T<reiav, 'could heave upon a cart/ 

1. 14. k<u otos, ' quite alone,' ' all by himself/ 

1. 16. ap<revos. The ancients held that the fleece of a 
ram was thicker, and so heavier, than that of other sheep, 
olds, gen. from ols [i. e. Vis, Lat. wis], Epic form of oh. 

1. 16. 6\iyov may be taken as an adverb with cimy**, 
'does but lightly weigh on him;' or perhaps, from its 
emphatic position in the sentence, as an adj. with axBos, 
' the weight that presses him is but small/ 

1. 17. Join Htos acmowK, 'straight at the tora&vc^ * . - 


254 NOTES. 

which strongly covered the gate solidly built/ The gate 
is made in two leaves (dueX/for) ; and is fastened by two 
bars, or ' holders ' (oxycs from ex©), which are described as 
' crossing ' {imiiioi&ot). This does not seem to mean that 
the bars cross in the form of the letter x; but that the 
bars are horizontal like an ordinary bolt, and that the 
crossing implies, that one bar is shot from the left-hand 
leaf into a staple in the right, and the other shot from the 
right-hand leaf into a staple in the left ; ' and one key 
fitted the two/ This is simpler than to understand kXtjIs 
here of a central pin. 

1. 21.'os, 'having planted himself/ further 
described by eS Siap&s, ' with legs well astride/ 

1. 23. jWj$€ dir', 'he broke away/ 

1. 24. ppiOoo-unj, ' by its weight/ 

1. 25. iay^irt\v, from eax^Oovy an aor. form from Zx<o. 
Ziirpayev, from btary^ya (Epic form of fiiare/^©), 2nd aor. 
passive toer/iayiji/. 

1. 27. Hector is described as looking 'black as night/ 
i. e. with stern and lowering brow. uiro&moK means pro- 
perly the part of the face below the eyes ; here it is used 
for ' countenance ' or ' gaze/ 

1. 28. Icoto, (ZFearo), more commonly written ccrro, 
pluperfect from eWu/u, perf. clfiai. 

1. 30. IouXto, syncopated 2 aor. from fVaXXo/xai, the 
1 aor. occurs in 1. 3 of this §. ootrc is sometimes, used as 
a dual in Homer, 8<r<rc </>a«i>a>, II. 3. 14; sometimes as a 
plural, as cWe </>ai«i>a, II. 13. 435. The form may be 
shortened for tfo-o-ce, if we regard it as a dual ; for o<r<rca if 
it be taken as a plural. Here it stands as a neuter plural 

Subject to debrici. 

1. 31. 4Xi£<£fi.€i'os, 'having turned him round/ 
1. 34. ironrjTAs, equivalent to the more usual e3 noirp-ds. 
ij>6f}i)Qev fob njas, * fell back in flight to the ships/ 

HOM. IL. §§ 15, 16. 255 

§ 16. 

1. 2. firci T^TponTo irpos I8u ot. This is equivalent to 
cVel rerpappevos ty Idv npbs avr&, ' since Ajax had turned so 
as just to front him/ 

1. 3. ttJ fa, 'where:' this must be taken closely with 

arivTurc, for both the clauses, eWi . . . ot and ovb* d(f)dpapr€, 

are parenthetical. The spot where Hector struck him 
was at the crossing of the two straps, one of which sup- 
ported the shield, and the other the cutlass. 

1. 5. tcS. The use of the dual shows that it was the 
double thickness of leather that ' shielded his tender flesh/ 

1. 6. taSo-ioK, to be taken predicatively with cKtfrvyc. 

1. 8. AmoWa, ' as he went back/ into the covert of his 
own troops. 

1. 9. tc£ pa iroXXo, 'which were rolled in numbers/ 
This use of a distributive plural, after a noun in the 
singular, is not uncommon in Homer, e.g. Od. 4. 177 

fiiav ttSKlv c£a\aird£as, at 7rcpivcucTdov<riv. We are not to 

suppose that the stones were in motion now, as the word 
^kuXikScto would naturally imply. But the tense does not 
lose its characteristic meaning, for the stones ' had been 
rolled there and were lying there still/ Cp. Od. 8. 63 

rbv n€pi fiov<r e^tXtycrc, SiSou 8* dyadop re kclkov re. The 

effect of the double gift, poetical inspiration and blind- 
ness, still continued with the bard, whose case is there 
described €XP- aTa > 'stays/ These were put at either 
side of the keel, to keep a ship from heeling over when 
drawn up ashore. 

1. 1 1. aVru$ = the shield's rim. &YX&fa, Epic form of 


1. 12. orp6fjipoK o"' #s, 'he made him spin like a top/ 
Cp. Virg. Aen. 7. 378 ' Ceu quondam torto volitans sub 
verbere turbo' The subject to ircpiopape is Hector. 

256 < NOTES 

1. 13. irXrryf), the lightning-stroke. 
1. 14. Qieiov. It is difficult to say whether sulphur was 
so called by the Greeks from its apparent connection with 
the fires of heaven, or from its purifying power in fumi- 

1. 15. t&k 8' 011 ircp !x*i 6p<£<ro$. With this description 
of the oak, and the dismay of the beholder, cp. Macaulay, 
Lays of Rome : 

'And the great Lord of Luna 
Fell at that deadly stroke, 
As falls on Mount Avernus 

A thunder-smitten oak. 
Far o'er the crashing forest 

The giant arms lie spread; 
And the pale augurs, muttering low, 
Gaze on the blasted head.' 

(Horatius, v. 382.) 
1. 16. xa^ €<iro $ H 'f° r the bolt of Zeus is terrible/ 
be gives the reason of the beholder's fear. 
1. 17. "Ektooos jacVos, 'the mighty Hector/ 
1. 18. cK^aXcK, 'flung it away;' more graphic than 'let 
it fall/ He must have had two spears, for he had cast 
one at Ajax. iic aurw 8* dams ^cfc+toj. In the uncertainty 
whether idQOrj (or ed^drj) is to be referred to ( 1 ) en-opai, or 
(2) eda), or (3) dirrm, we may be content to follow Butt- 
mann (Lexil. p. 242 foil.) in adopting (1), and to trans- 
late ' fell, or followed, after him/ or perhaps ' after it/ sc 

ey X ci. 

1. 21. ipueaOai, 'to drag him to their side/ 
1. 23. TTplv, 'before that could happen/ 
1. 26. ou tis c6 torfieaev, ' no one neglected him/ The 
enclitic ev throws back its accent on ns. 

HOM. XL. §§ 16, 17. 357 

§ 17. 

1. 2. IkiitX^oktcs, used intransitively, 1 aor. from eVi- 
Trkfio-o-a. dpuKTT), which agrees with rd<f>p^ 9 is separated 
from its noun by the insertion of ical a-KoXoTrea-a-Lv. This 
may be accounted for by regarding kcu o-jcoXrfn-to-o-t as 
equivalent to an epithet, e.g. cncoXcwrecro-i apapvig, 'the 
palisade-planted ditch, deep dug.' 

1. 3. Suokto Zk tcixos IvdyicQ, 'shrank back perforce 
behind the wall/ 

1. 5. firunrcucoOai, lav, infinitives with imperatival force. 

1. 7. auTou, ' on the spot.' 

1. 8. XcXdxwcri irupds, ' Give him his portion in the 
funeral fire/ The reduplicated aorist from Xayxdva, found 
only in the conjunctive in Homer, has always a causative 
meaning. Similarly XeXaOelv, from XavOdvcw, 'to make to 
forget.' Notice here the future force of the conjunctive. 

1. 9. Ipuouai, future from ipv& without sigma. 

1. 10. KaTwp,a86k, 'down on their shoulders/ 

1. 12. dpoKX^aaircs, 'having cheered their horses,' sc. 
with a cry. Ixok, ' guided ; ' i. e. kept or turned them in 
the direction of Hector. Ipuarfppc&Tas is a metaplastic form, 
metri gratia, for epvo-apfidrovs. 

1. 14. IpeiTrwv, 'breaking down with his feet the edges 
of the trench, he threw (the earth) in the midst,' etc. 

1. 16. wrov t* £irl=e<£' otrov yiyvercu dovpds (p<0Tj. This 

measure of length specially characterises cvpciap. 

1. 18. irpox&iro, 'poured forward/ With irpd 8' 'AmSX- 
\(ay some such word as kU must be supplied, out of the 
notion in irpo\€ovro. 

1. 20. With &s otc tis tydpaQov supply ipbirji from ?p«7re, 
'as when a child throws down his sand-heap near the 

1. 21. mfjiria, or yiprt'17, has for its dative in Homer vqnuu H 


358 NOTES. 

and vrprUjiai, for its accusative vrpnaas. We must suppose 
in these forms a vowel inserted and then assimilated to 
the vowel which follows it. 

1. 22. oWx«u€, aorist of customary act 

1. 23. tcrfjiaTOK Kal di£d>>, L e. the wall that had cost them 
such trouble. 

I.30. ircp is to be closely joined with "A/iyei. So Od. 

II. 441 yvvauci 7rcp. 

1. 31. Join Kurd Kaw^. The protasis is still maintained 
in crv 5* wrccrxco, ' and if thou didst promise and assent.' 

1. 33. With twk prfjaai the apodosis begins, 'Call to 
mind these things/ 

1. 36. dprfw dicoy, * hearing the prayers/ 

1. 38. Qopov, from Optima. 

1. 39. cupuirfyxHo, ' the great and wide sea/ 

1. 40. roix^y, ' the ship's bulwarks/ 

KaTa0Vj(T€Tcu, 'comes down upon/ aor. 1. conjunctive. 

1. 42. kcitA tcixos ifr\<r*v } ' crossed the wall/ 

1. 44. !inrwK=' chariots/ 

1. 45. imj3c£iTcs, ' when mounted on them/ 

1. 47. mujxaxa, to be taken predicatively with the verb, 
' which lay by the ships ready for a sea-fight/ koXX^ckto 
apparently means, 'spliced/ and so, not in one length. 
kotA crrrfpa, ' at the point/ 

§ 18. 

L 2. Protesilaus, from Phylace in Thessaly, was the 
first of the Greek heroes to leap from his ship when the 
fleet reached Troy, and was slain the moment he touched 
the shore. See II. 2. 698 foil. 

1. 3. Airfyyaye yalav, 'carried him back to his land* 
With this accusative cp. £vwfy«i> ytpcuas mj6 Vy « ^ ^ 

HOM. IL. %% 17, 18. 259 

1. 6. &fi<f>!s jjlcVo^ forms the antithesis to cyyvQcv Urrdpwoi, 
' they did not await afar off the hurtling of the arrow/ 
diKTj, from oicnra. With aftiftis in the sense of ' far off' cp. 
Aiof d/xc^lf, II. 8. 444* 

1. 10. ficXd^Sera is an epithet of uncertain meaning. 
It signifies literally 'bound with black/ and perhaps 
alludes to the handle strengthened with iron bands (I6as 
aifypos), or made of some black wood like ebony. 

1. 11. dir* wjwDy, 'off the shoulders,' where they had 
been hung by the rckap&v. 

1. 13. irpiipmfjOci' is used exactly as a genitive after 
Ad/3ei>, ' seized it by the stern.' Cp. *lfoflcv /xefoW. 

o&x* pcGict, ' he never ceased grasping the taffrail with 
his hands/ For the construction cp. II. 24. 48 Kkavo-as koI 
obvpdfievos fi€0(T]K€. 'Taffrail' is, perhaps, the nearest 
English equivalent to ctyAcwnw, which is the ornamented 
piece of wood rising above the stern. The Latin form of 
the word is ' aplustre.' 

1. 16. cIJiok jjpap, 'a day that repays us for everything/ 

1. 17. rijas IXcik stands as epexegesis of &£iov %pap, and 
is grammatically governed by c<&»kc. Ocuk &6o)ti. Hector 
says this because he considers the ships are doomed. 

1. 18. kok<5ttjti, 'cowardice/ 

1. 21. t<5t€ is in strong antithesis to vvv in the next line. 

1. 26. OprJKus. The ship in Homeric times was not 
decked entirely, but had a short raised deck at the bows, 
and another at the stern, on which the helmsman stood to 
steer. There seems to have been a low bench or foot- 
rest, seven feet long, that crossed the after- deck at the 
point furthest from the stern. This footrest was used to 
give support to the pilot while steering. The picture 
before us is that of Ajax slowly driven from the stern, 
and yet disputing every inch of ground with his assailants, 
till he is pushed back as far as the 'footrest,' and '&*&.<&: 

s 2 

260 NOTES. 

the deck altogether. So that he now stands just where 
the benches for the rowers begin. 

1. 27. &cSoKi)fi.6'os, 'awaiting them/ 'at bay/ 

1. 32. r\i Tims, 'Do we think that there are any helpers 
in reserve, or any strong wall, which may ward off de- 
struction from men?' 

1. 33. apcioK is not the neuter of the comparative <i/mW, 
but another form of apfjiov, l warlike/ 

1. 35. ^repoXK^o SrjpoK, ' a host to turn the fortunes of 
the day/ lit. inclining victory to one side ox the other, 

(erepos—dkicf)) . 

1. 37. irdircp KCKXifieVoi, 'set close at the edge of the 
sea, on the plain of the mail-clad Trojans, we sit far away 
from home ; wherefore hope lies in deeds of valour, not 
in remissness from war/ y&p, which is here thrown into 
the first clause, is the preparation for tg>, almost being 
equivalent to ' since — therefore/ 

1. 39. €<t>€TT€, ' busied himself/ ' set to work with/ 

6£u6€rn, ' pointed/ As these Homeric adjectives in -«* 
are directly derived from nouns substantive, we must refer 
ogv6cis immediately to ofv, ' a point/ the neuter of 6&>s, 
used substantially. 

1. 41. x&pw, <t0 please;' like Lat. 'gratia.' 

1. 42. rbv 8* Afos. Here begins the apodosis. c Whoso- 
ever rushed up . . , him Ajax wounded/ 

ScSeyp^os, like ScSoKTy/xeW, sup. 1. 27. 

§ 19. 

1. 1. OuXufi/irou, the mountain of that name, where sits 
Zeus the gatherer of clouds (pefaXrjycpera Zcvs). 'He 
draws the storm from the sacred ether/ that is, the sky 
that lies about the summit of Olympus, and the cloud 
moves on thence and fills the atmosphere. 

HOM. 1L. §§ 18, 19. a6l 

1. 3. <JxS0o$ is the descriptive word in the sentence, to 
which lax*) adds only a qualification. It is the panic-rush 
accompanied with a cry. The howling of the wind in the 
Xai\a\|f is the point in the simile that is parallel to laxy, 
and the <j>6pos resembles the tumultuous speed of the 
driven cloud. 

1. 4. ovhi k<&t& jioipai', ' and in no seemly order/ 

1. 5. cfOk Tttjxcai. This is added, because in the panic 
many threw their arms away ; but Hector kept his. The 
Trojans were left behind by him, because in such hasty 
flight no doubt the passage of the causeway was wholly or 
partly blocked. 

1. 8. a£arrc, (cfyw/u). The dual of the participle is used 
not inaccurately, because, though ttoXXo! «nroe are men- 
tioned, they really are divided off into so many pairs, 
each war chariot being drawn by two horses. 

iv irfKorw £upp, 'where the pole begins;' i. e. close up 
to the chariot 

1. 10. ot 8t, the Trojans. 

1. 1 1 . Tjidycy = bi€0'Kcbd<r6t](rap, Schol. 

ocXXa, ' a storm [of dust] went spreading up beneath 
the clouds and the horses galloped on/ 
1. 15. Ixc, (sc. imrovs), * he drove his horses with a cheer/ 

&£<xri, i. e. the axle of Patroclus' car. 
1. 18. k&Xcto 6up&$, 'his heart called him on against 

1. 1 9. rbv 8' ?K<t>€pOK, SC *E*Topa. 

1. 20. fU|3pi6€, c is loaded/ We should rather say, ' the 
storm lies heavy on the darkened earth/ 
1. 2 1. XaPp&raTOK iffiup, ' torrents of rain/ 

1. 22. x a ^ €<ff ^ l Tl> * is wroth/ 

aVSpeao-i is governed by the participle. 
1. 23. o-koXi&s stands predicatively with Kplvaxrt, 'decide 
perversely/ and 'banish justice/ 

afa NOTES. 

1. 24. flew? oitik, 'the anger of the Gods,' perhaps from 
aroiuu, of the punishment that follows the sinner. 

1. 25. twk is generally referred to vdar»i>, borrowed from 
Xa/9pc$raroi> v&op above, 'with such floods/ It is simpler 
to make it refer to the subject of Kpiwai and e'fcXdowrt, 
' their rivers/ 

1. 26. diroTfAT)you<n, 'the swollen channels cut off many 
knolls/ That is, as the waters rise the highest points of 
the broken ground stand out separate from one another 
like so many islets. kXitus contracted from kkvrvas, like 

1. 28. iv\ K&p = ' praecipites! nhp was taken by the 
ancients as an old form of *apr\. Others write cn-uc&p as 
one word. 

piiriOci, intransitive, ' waste away/ Ipya dpOfx&nw are 
' farms :' ' hominumque boumque labor es.' 

1. 30. £ir&cpcrc, (K€ipo>), « cut through/ He broke the 
Trojan ranks and got between them and the city, 

1. 31. iraXi|MT€T^s, used adverbially, as cirinjdcy, means 
only 'back again;' but it is constantly used of a fruitless 
journey on which we have to ' retrace our steps/ 

!• 33* ttotojaou is the Scamander; reixos the part of 
the Achaean wall still standing. 

1. 34. iro\£<av iroiv^Vy i. e. took vengeance on the Tro- 
jans for the many they had slain. So in Od. 23. 312 «* 

djreruraTo ttoivtjv Icpdificov erdpoav. 

§ 20. 

1. 6. {{iTcro, from Samfuu, a poetical form of avraa>. 

1. 7. rbv i6vra o6k lv6r\<T*\>, 'non intellexit eum vententem;' 
for rbv is here the demonstrative pronoun and must not 
be combined with the participle according to the usage of 
later Greek. 

kotA k\6vqv, ' through the battle-broil/ 

HOM. JL. §§ 19, 20. 0,6$ 

1. 8. J^pc, ' mist/ This is a regular phrase in Homer 
to describe invisibility, and Virgil imitates it in the words : 
' At deus obscuro gradienies aere saepsit. 9 

1. 10. x €t P* KOTairpT|K«i, 'with down-dealt blow/ lit. 
with descending hand. 

1. 11. toG \kiv diro KpaT&s, ' illius quidem a capite! 

1. 13. auX&ms Tpu<t><£\cia, 'the vizored helm/ a£Xa>7rcr, 
literally, ' with eye-holes/ seems to refer to a sort of peak 
continued downward from the front of the helmet over 
the eyes. This face-plate was pierced with holes or 
sockets (avkoX) through which the wearer could see. 

1. 14. irrfpos yc \iev, i. e. so long as Achilles wore it, it 
was not ordained by the Gods that the helmet should be 
touched by the foeman's hand; 

1. 17. fuero, ' it protected/ 

1. 18. <tx€&40€k hi. Zeus granted to Hector the short- 
lived glory of wearing the famous helmet, ' but death was 
near him/ as he was doomed soon to fall by the hand of 

1. 19. ir6>o^ of. These words refer again to Patroclus. 

1. 20. KCKopuGjieVoy, sc. xo^*?* 

1. 23. fl-nj here means 'stupefaction:' he was dazed. 
For the construction top Sc (frpeVas cIXe see §§. 1. 1. 12; 

1. 24. T04&1', 'astounded/ An aorist participle from 

stem ra$-, or Barr-, to which belong the forms ri$rjnn and 


1. 26. iTjXuuV, like 6prjkiKir)v, an abstract noun used here 
with the force of a concrete, = 6/^Xucar, ' his compeers/ 

iK&acrro, from Kalwfuu, (Kabwfiai). 

1. 27. nnnuniKfl, 'horsemanship/ in Homeric times was 
confined to the management of the chariot, as there were 
no mounted warriors on the field. 

1. 28. $r\<T€v d<J>' timw, ' sent from their chariot/ Pfav | 

264 NOTES. 

the causative aorist from /SmW tinros in dual and plural 
is frequently used to denote what the horses are drawing, 
rather than the horses themselves. 

1. 29. irp«T ikfov seems to mean, ' being newly come to 
the field.' SiScutk^kos, in the sense of ' skilled/ is here 
used with the genitive, on the analogy of elb&s. 

1. 30. riaTpljcXeis (-kAw) ImrcG, * charioteer Patrdclus !' 
The name u6rpoKKos follows two declensions in its oblique 
cases. With the form of the vocative here cp. the gen. 

UaTpOKkrjos and aCCUS. UarpoKkrja. 

1. 31. ovhk ScCjiaao-c, 'gave him no mortal wound/ 
irXtryrf SafiOo^cU, below, is used in a somewhat different 
sense =' mastered.' 

1. 33. Yufipov, ' disarmed/ 

1. 39. Siairpd & x^ " ^<w<r€, 'drove on the blade 
right through.' 

1. 40. ^Kaxe, an aorist given under dxaxt'f®, ' sorely dis- 

1. 41. x^PRl* <m strife/ 

1. 44. iroXXA dofyiaiKorra, 'heavily panting/ 

1. 45. tr€^v6vra irokias, ' after having slain many men/ 

§ 21. 

1. 2. Olw, notice the accent. 
1. 3. off irw TTJXe, SC. i6vras. 

jji€Ta<rirw^ {pcO-iim), 'having followed them up/ 
1. 6. tA & Tpoai owkc ^iptiv, ' his own he gave to the 

Trojans to carry/ 

1. 8. 01 — TTorpl, equivalent in meaning to ' to his father/ 

ol is the dative of the enclitic pronoun, and not the article 

with 0cq\, as may be seen by the direction of the accent 

on &. 

HOM. IL. %% 20-22. 265 

1. 10. yr)p&$, 'when he had grown old/ the participle 
of the aorist cy^pa in the same line. 

1. 11. Join fardvtuQtv Kopv<T<r6pcvov, 'harnessing himself 
apart from the rest.' 

1. 14. oSbi ti toi, 'no thought of death weighs upon 
thine heart.' 

1. 15. oxeS^K etox, 'is drawing near.' 

1. 17. irr\))s, 'trusty* or 'kind:' a word of uncertain 

1. 18. Notice the difference of accent, in two lines, be- 
tween the words Kpcrr&s and Kpd/ros. ' For the moment I 
will grant thee grand victory, as recompense for these 
things, viz. that never shall Andromache receive at thy 
hands the splendid armour of Peleus' son, when thou hast 
returned from the field.' The negative really qualifies 
iwrijoam, meaning that he never shall return, and An- 
dromache shall not take the prizes at his hand. With' 
iKVwrrf\<ravn Sl£cr<u cp. II. I. 596 Traitor idegaro X €i pt 

1. 22. Join im-rcikrc, 'nodded assent thereto.' 

§ 22. 

1. 2. Tirar6 trfav. Cp. note on § 15. 1. Here rather 
in the sense of ' spread round them/ like vi>£ riroxai «ri 

{Zfxrrdio-i, Od. II. 1 9. 

1. 3. t6 t lircoo-tfpcvoi', 'which sweeping on, after it has 
blazed out on a sudden, burns some city of men, and 
houses consume in the mighty glare, while the blast 
of the roaring wind fans it' (lit. the strength of the 
winds roars upon it) ; ' so a ceaseless clamour of steeds 
and of armed men was assailing them as they went/ sc. 
carrying off the corpse. 

1. 7. itrUvai is elsewhere used only with a ^esg3os&. 

266 NOTES. 

subject, dtnx?)? seems to be a form of d&fxifcrr' con- 
tinuous;' the prefix d being only euphonic, and not 
having the privative force. 

1. 8. dpfuPaXcWcs, lit. 'having put on/ 'clothed them- 
selves in/ like rWi/ifW akicfjv. We might rather expect 
the middle voice, but with this use of the active cp. Eur. 

Androm. IIO dyopav , . &ov\o<rvpav <rruy(pfa> dp(f>ifiakov<Ta 

1. io. $6pu piya rffiov, 'a great balk of ship-timber/ 

1. II. Tcipcti*, 1. e. retpcrai. 

1. 13. Urxayin\y f 'were keeping the Trojans back/ The 
simile that follows describes the 'wooded spar of a hill, 
stretching far into the plain, which kept back the terrible 
streams of powerful rivers, and sets the current of all of 
them to the plain, turning their course, and they cannot 
with all their strength break it, as they flow on.* 

1. 14. tctuxtjkws, from Tvyxdvco, means little more than 
' being/ ' finding itself there.' Cp. Od. 10. 88 tv irepi ncrprj 
fjklftaros Tervxi]K€ biafi7T€p€s. ircBtoio may be taken with Siairpu- 
aiop, as if the adverb followed the force of the preposition 
with which it is compounded; or it may be taken as a merely 
local genitive, and bumpva-iov as only adverbial to rrru- 
xn K &s- The foreland acts partly as a dam, partly as a 

1. 21. vtyos, a graphic word for a 'covey' or 'flight.' 

1. 22. k€k\^yoitc$, as if from a new present, jceKX^yw, 
formed from KCKkrrya, (jcXdfa>), is in the nominative case, 
as if the preceding line had run ^ap€s rje koKoioI. ouXov, 
' loudly/ from oZkos, («Xe«), meaning ' close-packed/ 
irpoftwii' I6vra t ' see him from afar coming on.' 

1. 27. £po?) has apparently contradictory meanings. 
Properly it is ' quick movement/ ' rush/ and then * quick 
movement away/ ' withdrawal/ and so (apparently) ' ces- 
sation ' or ' abatement.' 

HOM. IL. §§ 22, 23. 267 

§ 23. 

1. 2. KcCpT], acc. sing. Epic form of napa. 

tfjos, an Epic genitive, from the adjective tvs, ' good/ 
the neuter of which is the familiar adverb cfl. There 
seems no reason, beyond the usage of the ancient critics, 
why this form should be written with the rough breathing. 
It is not unlikely that in this passage we should write eoTo, 
from the possessive pronoun tis or 6s. 

1. 5. tA pkv W|, ' verily, this has been accomplished by 
the will of Zeus, even as thou didst afore entreat him, 
with uplifted hands, that all the Greeks should be cooped 
up,' etc. From c2X« we have an aorist iakrjv, 3rd plur. 
akev t II. 22. 12 ; infin. dkrjvai, as in II. 16. 714, or, as here, 

1. 11. dXXd ti fioi iwfjSos, ' But what pleasure have I 
from this?' 

1. 16. PpoToO d^pog. One form of the story is that 
several of the gods had sought the hand of Thetis, but 
learning that the son that should be born of her would be 
more powerful than his father, they gave her, against her 
will, to Peleus. Achilles says to his mother, ' Would that 
thou wert still living yonder among the sea-nymphs, and 
that Peleus had wedded a mortal wife I' 

1. 19. vuv S\ The sentence is elliptical. There is no 
verb to which vvv 8 leads up. But the sense is not ob- 
scure, ' but now [they have made thee my father's wife] 
in order that,' etc. 

1. 23. Join diro-6\&nrfl, 'may lose/ 

1. 24. IXwpa, (plur. from cXa>p), diroTurty, 'may pay for 
his spoiling/ 

1. 26. oT dyopeueis, 'in accordance with what thou 

1. 27. irlrpos troipos, 'fate waits on thee/ 

a68 notes. 

1. 29. auTuca T€0mtt]^. Achilles is so far from being 
checked by his mother's gloomy foreboding, that he is not 
content to be ancvfiopos, he says, ' Nay I may I die at once.' 
ouk IpeXW, ' was not destined.' 

1. 31. &\<f€v, a contracted form of Hcrjow (for which the 
common Homeric form is etewjo-ev), 'he wanted me.' 
For a similar contraction cp. the form of the conjunctive 

of Keifiai, viz. Krjrai for Kcrjrai. 

1. 32. vQvV eirei. The sentence is anacoluthontic, for 
the verb in the apodosis is never expressed. But the 
form of the sentence is renewed and the verb given in 

1. 45 vvv 8* elfi &<f)pa Ki\tl<o *EKTOpa, 

plofuu, with a future sense, like ef/u. 

1. 35. Ituhtiov ax©09 dpotfpqs, 'are useless weight upon 
the soil/ 

1. 36. toios Ibv, concessive, 'though being such an 
one/ In this line the diphthong ol in otos is scanned 
short before the following vowel. 

1. 38. &s . . . AirtfXoiTo, ' utinamperiretl' 

1. 39. !<|>6)K€, gnomic aorist, 'drives one on/ Wrath 
is here described under a double simile: it is sweeter, 
from the hope of vengeance, than the wild honey that 
drops from the trees, and it rises and spreads in the heart 
like the smoke that goes up from a fire. 

1. 43. TrpoTCTu'xGai, 'be a bygone thing/ Like the use 
of Lat. ' Troia fuit:' 'has been, and is not/ Achilles is 
willing to forego the quarrel with Agamemnon. A 
sterner necessity (avayKtj) absorbs all his thoughts, the 
duty of avenging the death of Patroclus. 

1. 46. S^ofMii, ' will accept/ or ' welcome/ 

1. 48. ofl&S y&p oubi. This repetition of the negative, 
separated by yap or pev, is frequent in Homer, in the 
sense of ' assuredly not/ ' no ! not even/ or some similarly 
emphatic denial, like our ' no ! never!' 

HOM. IL. §§ 23, 24. 269 

• 1. 49. 8s ircp refers back to 'HpoicXiJoff, or, more properly, 
by constrnctio ad sensum, to /Sfy 'HpaxX^ot, as an equivalent 

for 'HpaKkrjs. 

1. 51. 6poiT), i. e. a parallel fate with his, viz. daprjvcu. 

1. 52. kcictojku, ' shall lie still/ The antithesis is be- 
tween Kcio-opai expressing inactivity and k\&s Apoip)!' im- 
plying success in fighting ; and between Ivei kc Q&vv and 
yw hi, ' now, may I win fair fame !' 

1. 53. ouhi f&e ircurcis. Equivalent in meaning to ov ydp 

fl( n€L<T€LS. 

§ 24. 

1. 2. at0pt]Y€^)9, as an* epithet of Boreas, means, not 
'making clear weather/ but, 'born in the heights of 
heaven/ It is not a misty wind of the lowlands or the 
sea, but coming clear and fresh from mountain tops. 

1. 6. y&aroe, 'looked bright/ Cp. Horace's 'ridet 
argento domus,' Od. 4. n. 6. 

1. 7. fiird goes closely with irocr<ru\ 

1. 14. dirdv€u0€ y«Vcto, 'flashed afar/ 

1. 15. Ik irrfrroio <franfy], 'is seen from the sea/ 

1. 17. (rraOfjup £k oioir&o, 'in a lonely homestead/ The 
picture described is that of the watchfire of the herdsmen 
on the mountain pasturages above the sea. If the latter 
part of the description in the simile has any bearing upon 
the circumstances of the arming of Achilles, it must be 
that the mention of the storm suggests the wild and fitful 
gleam of the watch fire as the gusty wind deadens it and 
then fans it up again. 

1. 20. irepl is adverbial to B4to. 

1. 23. &s . . . Oapei&s, 'which Hephaestus sets thick 
about the crest/ 


270 NOTES. 

1. 24. miptflr) U, 'Achilles made trial of himself in his 
gear, to see if it fitted him, and if his fine limbs moved 
free in it/ 

1. 26. tw M. The magical suit of armour not only did 
not weigh the hero down, but was ' like wings ' to him. 

1. 27. crupiyyos, 'the spear case/ 

1. 30. riT|XidSa, 'the ashen shaft from Mount Pelion/ 
Cheiron was a centaur who Jived there, and who was 
teacher to the young Achilles. 

1. 33. Join dpf>!-2<7av, ' put round them the yoke-straps/ 
From €pwpt, 

1. 34. Kord 8* VCa, 'they drew the reins behind (the 
horses) up to the close-framed car/ The reins passed 
from the horses' heads through rings on the yoke, and 
were tied to the rim or rail that ran round the car 

1. 36. Itf Tinrouv d^pouacK, ' leaped upon the car/ See 
note on § 20. 1. 28. 

1. 37. om0ev 0rj, 'mounted after him;' not in the 
meaning of ' stood behind him ;' for the fighter stood by 
the side (irapa&anis) of the charioteer. 

1. 39. -irarpta The gods had given these horses to 
Peleus at his marriage with Thetis. SidvBop kq\ BaKLov . . . 
roifs (T€K€ Zc(j)vpco dv€fjM> ctpTTvui Uoddpyrj. The Homeric 
notion of &p7rvta is that of a storm-goddess. 

1. 41. clXXws, 'in other sort,' explained by the words 
below, fuyff »*, etc. 

1. 42. lupcv. In the absence of any certain information 
about this word we must be content with the interpreta- 
tion of the Scholiast, cfaiv ?x<»/aci/, 'when we have had 
enough/ Some refer the word to a verb a<», farai, 'to 
satisfy,' others to the verb 117/w, but the first derivation 
fails to account for the form, and the second suggests no 
intelligible meaning. 

HOM. IL. §§ 24, 25. 271 

The sentence in full would run, fM7$c XiWc rbv qpioxrja 

<os ndrpojeXop iXiirfrc, 

1. 44. ir68as aWXos, ' swift of foot.' 

1. 46. IScpiirouaa, (cpewr©), * streaming down/ letfyXi) 
may be rendered ' collar :' it is strictly the pad above the 


1. 47. auSrjcKTa I9r)it€, 'made him voiceful/ 'gave him a 

1. 48. Kal Xiijk, ' in good sooth will we at least to-day 
bring thee back safe/ 

1. go. Ocds \i>iyas is Apollo, who was the cause of 
Patroclus' death too. 

1. 56. <roi aurw, emphatic, ' for thee thyself/ We shall 
have no part in it. The god and the man who com- 
passed the death of Achilles were Apollo and Paris. . 

1. 57. t+i SajiTJmt, 'to be violently slain/ The 'Epwvcs 
are represented as the watchful guardians of the appointed 
order of events, and as aid to the Molpat, in which 
capacity they appear here, preventing Achilles from 
escaping or seeking to escape his doom, by learning too 
much of the way in. which it was ordained to come to 

1. 62. dXXa Kal Ifimfjs, * but yet notwithstanding/ 

1. 63. 8&<\v Ik&aai TToX^ioio, ' drive them to full satiety 
of war/ tibrjp may be taken as governing 7roXe/xoto, or 
perhaps 7roXc/*oio may be a sort of local genitive after 
eXao-at, analogous to the genitive in the phrase dumpfivaeu/ 


§ 25. 

1. 1. Sppaii'c. Hector had been revolving in his mind 
the possibilities of meeting Achilles in fair field, or of 
making terms with him by the restitution of Helen. 


1. 2, 'Eku<£Xu>s, a name of Ar6s, the war-god. 

1. 3. riTjXid&a, see above on § 24. L 30. 

1. 9. KtpKos. The falcon, described as l swiftest of birds,' 
is said to ' speed in pursuit ' of a dove. 

1. 10. oifidw and 01/07 are from the root J, as in l-evai. 

1. 11. ihraiOa, an adverb from wrat, a form of tnro, 
means here ' away from him/ lit. from under him. XcXtj- 
ko>s, see under Xdo-Kv. 

1. 1 2. rap^ia {iratcnrei, ' swoops often upon it.' 

1. 13. UMs ir^rero, 'sped straight after him.' 

1. 14. tcixos (too, ' towards the shelter of the wall/ 

1. 15. It is not possible to identify the relative positions 
of the watch-tower, the wind-swept fig-tree, or the two 
basins; they must all lie near the 'Scaean* or western 
gate of Ilion, between the town and the plain, through 
which the &pa|iTds led in the direction of the Greek 
camp. Strabo, the Greek geographer, understood by 
{pipcds a plantation or group of fig-trees on an elevated 
knoll ; but this was only by way of explaining ^yep&rro, 
which can well be applied to some lonely fig-tree, with its 
branches bent inland by the winds from the sea. ftpoupw 
are basins in which the springs well up. There seems no 
real difficulty in joining injyat Swiftdvdpov, for although the 
ultimate sources of the river lay further off, these may 
well be feeders of the main-stream. Others join Ayafrr- 
ffouai and translate, ' well up from the Scamander,' sup- 
posing some subterranean connection between the river 
and the springs. One of these springs is warm, and 
steam rises from it, in the winter ; the other runs as cold 
in summer time as hail, or snow, or ice. 

1. 23. iv aur&tav (mjy&v), 'close at the springs are five 
broad washing-tanks of stone/ i. e. stone-lined. 

1. 24. oiyaXdciTa, « bright-white.' This is a good in- 
stance of a constant epithet, applied generally to a noun 

HOM. XL. %% 25, 26. 273 

without having any connection with particular' circum- 
stances. For when clothes are brought to be washed, 
they are dirty, and not o-iydkdevra. 

1. 27. favyuv, supply 6 fuv to parallel 6 8 faurOe dia>ioa>v. 

1. 29. KapiraXip*? characterises both efavyc and. dttar. 
Uprfiov. An ox for sacrifice, or a hide, might be an ordi- 
nary prize for a race, but here they were ' trying to win ' 
(dpvvo-Oriv) something very different. They were running 
a race for Hector's life, the one to take it, the other to 
save it. Join dlOXia iroaw dy&pwv, 'prizes for the fleet 
feet of man/ 

1. 32. rlpjxara means here the 'turning-post,' Lat. 'me fa,' 
and the simile seems to suggest that at this point Hector 
doubled and retraced his steps again in the direction of 
the city walls. 

1. 33. rb hi, ' and a great prize is ready set there/ rb 
5e, rendered ' there/ has the effect, natural to the demon- 
strative pronoun, of pointing to the prize as if it lay be- 
fore us. 

1. 34. Tpiiros* a shortened form of Tpinovs. 

deSpds KOTaT€0nf|ciTos, ' when some hero is dead/ The 
allusion is to the games that often formed a part of the 
funeral rites. 

1. 35. ir6\w vipi does not mean much more than 
'roundabout near the city/ They did not run right 
round it, but kept a circling course, now near and now 
further away from the Scaean gate. 

§ 26. 

1. 1. k\ov4w, ' driving him/ 
1. 2. Join eePpdc £\d$oio. 

1. 3. 5p<ros, (Zpwfii), as we say, 'having put him- up/ 
Sitjtch goes directly with Sid . . . p^acras. 


274 NOTES. 

1. 4. t&p V ct irc*p tc, ( and should the fawn hide from 
the dog by crouching under a bush, yet the dog tracking 
him out runs steadily after him.' 

1. 6. o& Xf|0c, ' could not elude the gaze/ 

1. 7. iruXdwK AapSavuiuK depends upon drrtor dtfcurfai, 
' to rush straight for the gate into the shelter of the well- 
built towers/ which we may suppose flanked the Sternal 


1. 9. ct mfe ol, (dative of enclitic pronoun), 'in hope 
that from above his friends might defend him/ 

1. 10. Toaarfiu, ' so often did Achilles, outstripping him 
and getting in front, turn him back towards the plain.' 
Achilles got between Hector and the walls, so that Hector 
had to retrace his steps again and leave the neighbour- 
hood of the walls for the open plain. trapa^O&s, see 
under irapa-QBavv. Achilles thus got ' on the city-side ' 
of Hector (ttotX tttSXios). 

1. 12. ou ShWtcu, supply ro. 

1. 14. &s 6 t6\>, 'so the one could not catch the other 
by running, nor he (the pursued) escape/ 6$ is the de- 
monstrative pronoun, equivalent to ofcos . 

1. 15. ir«s &c* k€v. The wonder here expressed is why 
Hector could elude pursuit so long, seeing that Achilles 
was evidently the swifter. Nor could he have done 
so, had not Apollo ' come near to him, for a last and 
final meeting/ and inspired him with fresh spirit and un- 
usual speed. But this was the last time the god could 
come to his help, as Fate already demanded its victim. 

1. 16. iJktcto, see on § 6. 28. 

1. 18. Xaoiaiy 8 s decVcuc, i. e. he shook his head to warn 
his Myrmidons not to shoot. 

1. 20. 8cuT€pos, see on § 13. 12. 

1. 21. At the critical moment, Zeus lifts the golden 
balance, and puts the fate of each hero in either scale. 

HOM. IL. §§ 26, 27. 275 

1. 25. 2Xkc, ' he drew up the beam,' so that the scales 
hung free, and the 'fated day of Hector sank, and 
dropped netherwards/ The subject to «x«to is "Eicropos 
ato-ipof Jjpap, not "Em-wp, for els 'AiSao, ' in the direction of 
the land of Hades/ is only a graphic periphrasis for 
'downwards/ Apollo then left him, as his fate was 
sealed. Cp. Virg. Aen. 12. 725 foil. ' Iupiter ipse duos 
aequato examine lances \ suslinel, et fata imponit diver sa 
duorum, \ quern damnet labor et quo vergat ponder e letum! 

§ 27. 

1. 2. h <r$vp6v, 'he bored the tendons of both feet be- 
hind, from heel to ankle/ This means that he passed 
the knife between the ' tendon- Achilles/ and the ankle- 

1. 3. ck 8i<t>poto. So ' religare funem ab lillore,' Lucr. 
7. 860. IXkcctOch laae, ' let it drag/ 

1. 4. Join de&-&€ipa$. 

1. 5. l\dav, ' to make the horses go/ 

1. 6. KoyuraXos, ' a cloud of dust rose from him/ 
dpf>i-mirarro, ' were spread all abroad/ 

1. 8. t6t€ 8c makes an antithesis to irrfpos. The tragical 
nature of the outrage is enhanced by the scene being laid 

e/7 iv irarpibi yaifl. 

1. 11. tiXXc, 'tare her hair/ In this sense the middle 
voice is more common. 

1. 14. cIxokto, 'were taken up with/ 'plunged in/ So 

K7]\r]6fiG> eo-xovro, Od. II. 334 ; & axei crxofiei^, Od. II. 278. 

1. 15. tw &€, 'and the scene was most like this, viz. as 
if the beetling heights of the citadel from top to base were 
being devoured by fire/ With the form of sentence cp. 

'Odva-aijos dvrf) tg> UeXrj a>s ft i fiicparo pavvov i6vra Tpcoes, 
II. II. 467. 

T 2 

276 NOTES. 

1. 19. K<5irpoK only means 'the dirty ground/ 

1. 21. ox^ € i 'hold off.' 

1. 23. Xuraufiai, almost with the force of indicative 
future, ' I would fain beseech/ 

1. 25. Toi6o"S€=n;XMcovTOff, 'of such an age as I am/ 

1. 27. prfXurra, 'and most to me beyond all others hath 
he caused sorrow.' 

1. 30. oS &x°s> 'grief for whom,' Curt. § 413 e. "A$o* 
(tepov) cforw, ' within the home of Hades/ "Aldos, a meta- 
plastic genitive, as if from *A*9, not 'A1&79. 

1. 31. lv xcpow, <m m y arms/ 

1. 32. tw, 'in that case/ Notice the free combination 
of plural verb with dual subject. 

§ 28. 

1. 1. 6piovro, only in this tense in Homer, from a pre- 
sent dpeopat, a later form of Zpwpai. 
1. 2. y^frca, ' driving the clouds before them/ 
1. 3. tKaroe drjficmi, ' came to the sea to blow upon it* 

Tf6vTOS 9 sc. OpTjUlOS. 

1. 6. apuSis, 'together;' for there were two winds 
blowing. Others join apvBts ZpaWop, l urged the fire into 
one solid mass/ 

1. 9. d+ucro-fycKos, sc. by dipping the &ira$ into the 


1. 10. +ux^. Notice the solemn effect produced by 
the entire absence of the dactyl from this line. 

1. 1 1. Join ou iraiSos &rWa, = ' natt sui ossa' 

1. 12. ku|i4>iou, 'new married,' so that the parents had 
hope of grandchildren. 

1. 15. 'Eaia^pos, 'the morning- star comes forth to an- 
nounce daylight/ 

HOM. IL> §§ 27-30. 277 

1. 17. cfiapati'CTo, 'began to die down/ Notice the 
shade of difference between the process described by the 
two tenses. 

§ 29. 

1. 2. tt)\ucou, see note on § 27. 25. 
6\wS, 'miserable.' 

1. 3. ircpiyaiiTai, ' his neighbours/ further described by 
dp}>ls £6vt€s. 

1. 4. Tcipooai, sc. by raids on his land. 3<m, ' is there, 
so as to ward off mischief and ruin/ 

1. 6. iitt t IXircTot, ' and hopes moreover, day after day/ 

1. 7. dwd Tpoi^0€K. The preposition here is superfluous, 

as in air ovpav68tv. 

1. 8. iraK&iroTfios, sc. ctfu. 

1. 11. lijs, see on § 7. 19. hj&iSos, equivalent in meaning 

to pip-epos. 

1. 12. Y u " a i K€ s> concubines, as distinguished from 
Hecab§, the wife. Priam lives in Oriental style. 

1. 1 3. twk fUi> iroXXwK, ' of most of these my sons/ 

1. 14. ctpuTo, 'protected, avToi>s,=' the citizens/ 

1. 15. rdv, 'him;' deferred antecedent to 65. KTcutfs, 
the indicative aorist, without augment ; to be distinguished 
from KTeiv&s, the participle. 

1. 18. aMv T€, sc. c/ic. 

1. 19. IXceii^Tcpos, 'more to be pitied' than Peleus, be- 
cause having no hope of any son's return. 

1. 21. ttoti crrlfia, 'to stretch forth my hand to the 
mouth of my child's murderer/ Because to grasp the 
chin or beard was a common form of supplication. 

§ 30. 

1. 1 . dir 9 aivvos &\co, ' thou hast passed away from life/ 
Join K&S-Xeiirci$,:=jcai'aXcifrci?, 


278 NOTES. 

1. 2. v^mo$ ciutws, ' quite a babe/ 

1. 3. Sk T^KOfic^, ' whose hapless parents are thou and 1/ 

1. 5. vipaerai, (ntpBa), middle future in passive sense. 

So Tp&<rc(r6ai olto, II. 12. 66. This use is not unfrequent 

in the Tragedians, as nprjarercu, Soph. Ant. 687 ', a£t«a*Tui, 

ib. 890 ; <j>vkd£erai, Phil. 48. 

1. 6. f&uoxcu, imperf. 2nd sing, from pvaKopcu, another 
form of pvofuu. fiii' aM\v, sc. irSKiv. 

3x*s> 'didst keep;' 'didst protect* She alludes to 
the derivation of the name "Eicrmp. So says the Scholiast. 

1. 7. dxVjaorrai, ' will be carried off,' as slaves. 

1. 8. fi€T& rgcri takes up the word dXfyous. 

1. 9. deiK^a, such as the duties of a slave. 

1. 10. MSkeuw, 'toiling under the eye of a hard master.' 

1. 11. SXcOpoy, an accusative in epexegetic apposition to 
the whole preceding sentence. Cp. Aeschyl. Agam. 225 

Zrka d' ovv Ovrrjp yevecrOai Ovyarpos, yvvaiKoiroiwv troXcfMav 

Afwydf. See note on § 5. 36, 37. 

1. 12. The antecedent to w is ns *Axaiui>. 

L 14. 6ha£ IXok. 'To bite the ground' is a familiar 
phrase to express ' dying/ 6-bag is to be connected with 
hoK-v-v, not with 68ovs. The word oottctoi' is a ' standing ' 
or ' constant ' epithet of odbas and adds no touch to the 
picture here. 

1. 16. T<j>, 'wherefore/ 

1. 17. If dprjT^K (and not apprjrov) be right, we might 
understand it to mean 'that against which men pray' 
(apdofiai); or rather take it as predicative with ericas, 
' thou hast made sorrow and wail desirable* a phrase with 
which we might compare Iptpos ydoto. 

1. 19. Xcx&w £k, i. e. ' from thy dying bed.' 

1. 20. iruKii'di' 2-iros, ' some word of wisdom,' i. e. some 
last advice which she might always carry about with her. 

1. 21. jicinngiiTjK, optat. from perf. pepanipai, 0*4/utthjo*a>). 

HOM. IL. $$ 3<>-32« 279 

§ 31. 

1. 2. lw<$s ircp &r forms a strong contrast to cV 6av6rou6 
irep cuoy, but the two adverbs are hardly translatable. An 
emphasis of the voice on the two contrasted expressions 
would most nearly represent the force ; ' while alive indeed 
. . . and even in the hour of death ' may perhaps serve for 
a rendering. 

1. 5. irlpyacrite, 3rd sing, of the iterative form of the im- 
perf. from irepwjfu, Epic form of 7rcpao>, * was wont to sell 
them/ as he had Lycaon, a son of Priam, II. 21. 78. 

1. 6. dfuxOaX&is is perhaps connected with o/u'x^, 
'mist/ 'vapour,' referring to the clouds of smoke that 
sometimes overhung the volcanic isle of Lemnos. The 
constant communication of the Greeks with Lemnos 
disproves the common rendering, 'unapproachable;' 

Schol. airp6(r[UKTos» 

1. 9. d^cmjcw, ' yet not even thus did he wake him to 
life again.' 

1. 10. £p<r^€is, lit. 'dewy/ means here 'fresh/ explained 
by Trp<5a<t>aTos, (perhaps from </>&&, 7re'-<£ar-ai), 'just dead.' 
Sudden deaths of men were attributed to the ' pain- 
less shafts ' of Apollo ; those of women to the arrows of 
Artemis. The corpses of those who had died thus sud- 
denly would not wear the emaciated, exhausted, look of 
those who had been wasted by long sickness. 

1. 12. £iroix6p.€Kos, 'visiting them/ 

§ 32. 

1. 3. &s irpli> w+eXW d\&r0ai, ' Would I had died first !' 
1. 6. dau+rjXdK, 'unworthy;' perhaps, with Schol., from 

dcro<pT]\6s, (ao-ofos), with Aeolic v for o. 

1. 8. yaXlws, (Lat. 'glos'), 'sister-in-law/ eirdTepcs, (Lat. 

' ianitrices'), ' wives of brothers.' 

280 NOTES. 

1. 9. &tupi), (Lat. ' svcrus'), refers to Hecab€, Ixupos to 

1. 10. t6v yc takes up the gender of dacpvy, disregarding 
the three feminines. 

irapcu<t>(lji€Ko$, (7rapd(j)Tjfu) f ' speaking gently/ 

1. 13, Trc+piKoav, 'turn with horror from me/ as the 
cause of the fatal war. 

I. Solon and Groesus. 

§ i- 

1. 2. aXXot re ol itdvT€$, literally, ' both others, viz. the 
whole body of the sages from Hellas ; ' we might trans- 
late, ' not only all sages besides . . . but also Solon/ 

ao^urral had not yet acquired any of the meaning 
that belongs to the word in later Greek, and in the or- 
dinary English use of 'sophist/ Pythagoras is called 
oroQurrfis by Herodotus. 

1. 3. o>s Ikootos . . . dmKK&iTo. The optative is used 
here with the meaning of indefinite repetition, (Curt. 
§ 558. obs. 1), ' as each one of them happened to arrive :' 
meaning that the ol names did not come all at once. 

1. 4. 26\uv. This interview can hardly have taken 
place. Solon's legislation belongs to 594 B.C. and his 
ten years of absence from Athens lie between 593-583 B.C., 
and Croesus did not come to the throne till 563 B.C.; or, 
if an interview did take place, it must have been a different 
one from the story given here. 

1. 6. OcwpiTjs. See note below, on yr\v ttoXXtju. 

1. 7. dmyicaaOf} (so inf. -(Kjtoi). The optat. (after drndrf- 
firjcre) would be more usual; but cp. Curt. §§ 531, 532, 
and obs. 

1. 8. otoi tc 4jcrap, * were able,' lit. were Just the sort to 
do it. re here is the Epic re of emphasis. 
. auTO iroifjaai, SC. Xvcrai. 


1. ii. ciutwk . . . tlvtKtv. 'Solon having left home for 
these very reasons' (sc. that no change should be made), 
' and for the sake of seeing (new sights)/ etwees' governs 
both genitives. 

OcwpiTjs has the defining article, because it has been 
already mentioned. 

1. 13. "Afjuuris. For his history see later, in the Story of 

irap&'Apaaii', 'to visit Amasis/ 


1. 3. tacScuciwrai'. This verb is conjugated in Herodotus 
both from tcuarvcw and fowcvwat, so that we find ibeUwov 
as iraperf. and chimpa or &et£a (sometimes ede£a, Ionicfe) 
as the 1 aor. 

1. 4. Or\r\<j&\L€vov. The Attic form would be dcao-dperop 
from 6*dofuu. We also have Brfeupcuos, and (hjffo-ofuu. 

1. 5. &s ol,s=* quemadmodum ei,' the enclitic ol throws 
back the accent icarA Kaipbv ty=* commodum eratJ 

1. 6. trap' ^pias y&p. The word yap explains t/iepos 
€7rfjk0€ pot, the clause giving the reason being thrown first, 
as often in Homeric syntax: 'since many stories have 
reached our ears concerning you, therefore the wish has 
come upon me.' 

1. 9. YtJK ttoXX^k £irc\^)\u0as. There is something Ho- 
meric in the language used to describe the journeying of 
Solon, Octopus clv€K€v, ' to see what was to be seen/ Cp. 
leVat iroXkfjv eVi yalav, Od. 2. 364, and ib. i. 3, where it is 

said Of Odysseus, tg ftdAa 7ro\\a n\ayx0q . . . 7roXXw # dr- 
Opomcou idtv aarea kol voov eyva>. 

1. 11. AiriJwK thai 6Xp«uTaTos. By common Greek 

usage, predicative quaWftcs&oxv* xd.OTva%\& the principal 

subject are in the noxnm^\N^\ c^.* &CKk^»^^^ ^*Hna» fc** 

SOLON AND CROESUS. I. §§ i, 2. %8$ 

Ai6s vlos. In Latin, 'Uxor invicti Iovis esse nescis?' or, 
'Phaselus Me quern videtis, hospites, Ait fuisse navium 
celerrimus! See Curt. § 571. 

1. 13. tw 16m xf"l<r<&p«i'os, literally, 'adopting what 
really was [the case]/ i. e. frankly speaking the truth. 

1. 14. TAXoi>. The accusative assimilated to the form 
of Croesus* question, el nva elbcs oKpiararop; as though 
the full form of the sentence were, TcAXov c&paica o\j3ia>- 

rarov ovra. "* 

1. 15. ^irurrpe^ais. An adverb of doubtful meaning, 
generally rendered 'earnestly/ In Hdt. 8. 62 ewwrpafi- 
fUva «ri7 seem to be 'earnest words;* because they are 
energetically ' brought to bear/ eirurrptQcTai, on the subject. 
Koifl, i. e. irofy, 'In what respect?' The termination 
of the feminine dative is a frequent form of the Greek 
adverb, as in ravrji, «rj, kom^, etc. 

1. 1 7. touto jjl€k . . . touto 8£, like rb fuv . . . t6 8«=' in the 
first place ... in the second/ 

cu tjkouot)s, similar in meaning to cd exetv, 'to be 
in a good state;' only, cS tjmv contains the notion of 
having reached a high position, and c$ fy* 1 * merely de- 
notes the state without this picturesque addition. See 
below, rod ffiov ev rJKovriy and in B. 5. 62 xp r it JL ° r<DV ™ J)kovt€s> 
where the genitive may be taken as the ordinary case of 
reference, or perhaps better with a local meaning. 

1. 19. Trdrra Trapa/ict^arra, sc. tckvcl, 'all of them sur- 
viving/ Tellos lived to see his sons with their children 
growing up round them. 

1. 20. a>s t& trap' ^jjuk, as circumstances are among us/ 
Solon means to contrast Athenian simplicity with the 
extravagance of Lydian society. 

1. 22. prfxis- This battle at Eleusis was probata 
against the Megarians. The Megand ^a& oyv£\»3^ «»& 
of the divisions of Attica, but a£tet \5aa «X»ra> <& ^» 

284 NOTES. 

Heraclidae it passed to the Dorians. Hence there wa& 
a constant jealousy between the Athenians and the 

1. 24. %r\\kWTir\. See note above on 1. 15. 

1. 25. a&Tou Tiprcp, 'there, where;' i.e. just where. 

§ 3. 

1. 1. tA kotA t6> TAW, 'when Solon, in the case of 
Tellos, had urged Croesus on (to further questionings), 
by describing so many happy points in it, Croesus asked 
further/ — ra Kara top TekXou may be taken as here trans- 
lated, or may be considered as governed by a word like 
Xc'-yaw, suggested by the participle cfrras that follows. 

1. 5. yivos, accusative, ' by birth/ 

1. 6. fiirijK, ' was theirs to enjoy.' jmchnu, in this sense 
resembles the use of \mdpx*w. 

1. 7. toi^Sc, 'of such a kind as this/ What the par- 
ticular kind or amount was is contained in the expres- 
sion d(ffKocf)6poi fjo-av, and, more generally, in the story that 
follows, — how they drew their mother in the car. 

1. 9. p)Tlpa. Their mother was priestess of Hera, 
whose temple stood some six miles away from Argos. 

1. 10. a^i belongs to ov iraptylvovro. The insertion of 
the enclitic in this unusual place shows that the definite 
article (of 8e) had not the mere force of an article, as in 
later Greek; otherwise, it would be quite necessary to 
construe ol 6V a-c^i jSo'cs closely together. Cp. rd dc 01 

ovvopa clvai 'louv, Hdt. I. I ; tqv bi oi rraiSwj/ top 7rpca- 
pvrepov tin f lv, Hdt. 3. 3. 

1. 11. ^KKXTjiopeyoi, 'barred by the (shortness of) the 
time' from adopting any other course. 

1. 18. 6 0c6s does not mean any particular god, but is 
equivalent to our general phrase ' heaven/ 

SOLON AND CROESUS. I. §§ 2-4. 285 

1. 19. fiaXXoy is superfluous, as there is already a com- 
parative (aptivov) in the sentence. So in B. 1. 2. we 

find 6 fieya irXovcrios fiaXXof roO «r' rifieprjp t\ovrot 6XJ3uoT€pos. 

1. 21. oW tIkvuv ^KupT]a€, 'to think what noble sons 
she had gotten/ The Argive men praise the strength of 
the youths ; the women their filial devotion. 

1. 23. tou dydXjiaTos. The statue of Hera in her 

1. 25. Souycu tV Qebv, 'prayed that the goddess would 
give to Cleobis and Bito.' The aorist infinitive, expressing 
here only the action of the verb, derives its apparent future 
sense from the force of «/x €T0 > which implies a looking 
forward to a fulfilment. 

Join fipurroK-Tuxcii', the infinitive being quite analogous 
here to the Latin supine in u with an adjective, =' best- 

1. 28. iv t&cT ioypvTQ, ' tenebantur in hoc exitu viiae,' a 
further description of the foregoing words ouk^ti &vi- 

1. 29. iroiTjo-djicKoi, 'having had made,' Curt. § 481. 


1. 3. ^ 8£ ^jjLCT^prj, ' Is our prosperity, then, thus flung 
away by you into mere nothingness?' hk suggests an 
antithesis between the prosperity of Croesus, and that of 
Tellos and of the two Argive youths. 

1. 4. c5<rr€. . .£irou]aas, Curt. § 565, obs. 1, 'put us on 
a par with.' 

1. 6. Iirun&\k€v6v ji€, ' thou art questioning about human 
affairs me who know that heaven is altogether jealous and 
works confusion/ The same thought occurs again in 
the Story of Poly crates, (see Chap. V). What we express 
in such words as, ' he that exalteth himself shall be abased/ 
the Greeks put in another way, — that the powers of Ke^N^cv 

2&6 NOTES. 

could not brook anything that seemed to rival their 
greatness or their prosperity. The huge animals that 
walk the earth are stricken by the thunderbolt, for the 
god will not suffer them to vaunt themselves; and the 
same bolt singles out the tallest trees and loftiest houses ; 

<f>i\€€i yhp 6 $€os to \mcpt\ovTa iravra koKouhv, Hdt. *]. IO. 

IvTtSiukKptSxpoviS. Notice the article, 'the long period' 
of the world's history. 

1. ii. IkmZvo . . . X^yw, 'but as to the question thou 
didst put me/ (sc. whether thou wast happy), * I say not 
yet that thou art.' 

1. 13. fiaWop d\0uorcpos. See note on sup. §. 3. £■>' 
f\\i.tpi)v 2x o,rro s> ' tnat nas enough for one day.' 

1. 15. TeXcimjaai rbv fttov, 'that he end his life well/ 
The infinitive is added as an explanation of the ' fortune 
that accompanies him.' 

1. 16. td-irXouroi. The prefix fa, as in the Homeric 
ein(a<f)€\a>s y (clkotos, etc., comes from &a (through they 
sound of the iota, i. e. 8/a) and means ' thoroughly/ 

1. 17. 0wu, genitive of reference, depending on the ad- 
verb |&CTpUJ$. 

1. 19. irpo^xei tou cutux^os, 'is ahead of the lucky 
man in only two points.' 

1. 20. 6 p.kv=6 ttKovctios. 6 8^ = 6 fitrplas ?x<»v fSlov. 

1. 22. ToiaiSe, ' in the following points ;' the enumeration 
of these begins with amjpos, for the' sentence opening with 
&tt|k p,cK introduces some limitations rather than advan- 
tages. 'While indeed he is not better able to endure 
calamity and accomplish ' (supply ewfXeVat from sentence 
above) ' his desire ; but these things his good luck keeps 
off from him ; yet is he sound of limb/ etc. 

1. 26. irpds ToiiToun, 'besides this/ 

1. 27. t6k <rb frjTcis belongs closely to o\0ios, ' that man 
deserves to be called the happy being whom thou seekest/ 

FALL OF CROESUS. II. % i. 287 

1. 28. firurx&u', 'wait!' Curt. § 577. Similarly Kakitw. 

1. 30. auWaPciK, ' to unite in himself.' 

1. 33. w« &€, ' even so, no one individual man is all- 

1. 36. Ix«k SumXAj, ' continue to hold.' 

1. 37. irap £jm>1, 'in my judgment.' 

1. 38. Sik<u6s !<m <J>^pcaOai, ( deserves to win.' 

1. 40. uiro&$as okflw. Notice the force of wro in com- 
position, ' having given a glimpse of prosperity.' 

1. 41. dflrpalrc, for this use of the aorist see Curt. 


1. 42. ixapi£eTo, ' he showed Croesus no favour, and 

having made him of no account, Croesus dismisses him 

from his presence ' (notice the force of the middle voice), 

' having judged that he was ignorant who,' etc. In owe . . . 

iroiT)o-rfp,ci'o$ the negative only qualifies the participle, and 

is not carried on to airowcpireTai. The change of subject 

in the sentence is very awkward; but unless we could 

venture to read dfmOfjs, and refer only to one subject, 

Solon, this arrangement is unavoidable, \6you otikfds 

may be called a genitive of price, or value, Curt. § 421. 

II. Fall of Croesus. 


1. 1. T€aa€p€ajtai&€K(iTY). The formation of the ordinal 
number shows that the cardinal, Tco-aepeo-KotbeKa, is re- 
garded by Herodotus as indeclinable. Thus we have 

T€(T(T€p€(TKaid€Ka £T€d. 

1. 2. iyiv€TO Kpouw. Cp. ftieTrjg xpopos iy€y6vc€ ravra r$ 

7roifX€vi rrpfio-o-ovTi, Hdt. 2. 2. Also Luke 1. 36 'This is 

288 NOTES. 

the sixth month with her that was called barren/ prjv etcros 

€<jt\p avrij. 

1. 5. 6$ ofl irpocxripcc, ' when it did not succeed/ The 
subject to the verb is not orpaTitj, but t6 irprJYpa, if it be 
necessary to supply a subject at all ; it is, however, better 
to take the verb as impersonal. 

1. 7. MdpSos. The Mardi, or Amardi, were a nomad 
Persian people, who followed the regular army of Cyrus, 
as the Kalmucks accompany Russian troops. 

1. 9. <J>u\aKos, the regular form in Herodotus for <f>v\a£. 

1. 12. twk nm AuBeW, for nva tS>v AuSwk. So in § 2 

infra, t&v tis Hepaccov. 

1. 1 3. cm Kuvlr\v, ' to recover a helmet.' 

1. 14. di'cXlfici'oi', 'having picked it up/ 

1. 15. is Bu\ibv e'PdXero, like the Homeric phrase iv Ovp§ 

1. 16. KaT afabv, 'after him/ not identical with per 
avrbv, ' post ilium* but rather, 'secundum ilium,' that is, 'ad 
eius exemplum? 


1. 2. tA p,cV aXXa £iu£ikt)s, ' cetera quidem non ineptus.' 

1. 3. cucotoi, from nom. cvcoto). 

irav is ciut&k, ' had done all he could with regard to 

1. 4. aXXa tc . . . £ircir<S}i$e£. We should naturally expect 
7r€7rofi(f)cos to match cm^paj^p-cyos, but the finite verb is 

1. 7. fi€*ya nqmc, so fiiya vrjmos is applied to the fool- 
hardy Patroclus, II. 16. 46. 

1. 8. Mjk, * voice/ 

1. 9. dfA<J>i9 cpjieroi, ' /<?Ǥ? /#*' melius est, hoc procul a te 
abesse' dfi<f>ls, lit. 'separated/ and so 'afar.' 

FALL OF CROESUS. II. §§ 1-3. 289 

1. 12. dXXoywSaas. aXXoyvoelv is properly to 'take a 
man for some one else ;' so, generally, =.' ignorare. 1 Join 
Ijic 6? diroKTc^oM', ' was coming up to slay/ For this form 
of sentence introduced by yap see note on Chap. I. § 2. 
1. 6. 

1. 13. 6ir&, 'by reason of/ as below, vv6 beovs. 

1. 14. ou& . . . dirodahkiK, ' it was no matter to him to be 
smitten and killed/ 

1. 17. !ppr]$€, ' gave vent to,' of something pent up. So 
' rumpere vocem,' Virg. Aen. 2. 129. See Curt. § 400. 

1. 19. j*€t& 8c is the antithesis to irpamw. 

§ 3. 

1. 2. T&racpcaicaiScjta cVca, sc. 560-546 B.C. 

1. 4. xP t l <rr nP 101 '- Croesus had been deceived by an 
ambiguous utterance of the Pythia, and induced to go to 
war with the Persians, on the promise 'that he should 
ruin a great empire/ For he forgot that that empire 
might be his own. The words of the priestess are said 

to have been, Kpoi<ros*A\vv buftas fieyaKrjv apxh v Karakvcref,. 

This is like the oracle given to Pyrrhus, l Aio te, Aeacida, 
Romanos vincere posse! 

1. 9. tw 8c Kpounp. The construction here changes to 
oratio indirecta, some word like \cyerai being understood. 
cpcXOciy, ' animum subiisse.' 

1. 10. <5s. . . cipijpcW, ' quemadmodum ipsi divinitus esset 
enunciatum* i. e. in accordance with the will of heaven. 

1. II. Ot = Kpo/(T6). 

1. 12. us^ Spa, 'and that when this [thought] came 
upon him/ Commentators generally take irpocrrijmi here 
as equivalent to irpo<r-<rriji'ai, from Trpoo-icmy/u, as irpot<myu 
does not seem to give the required sense. For the omis- 
sion of one 0* cp. Trpo-crxcWaff, from npoaex^y Hdt. 1.2. 


290 NOTES. 

1. 13. &v€v€ik&il€vov. See Buttmann's Lexil. s. v., 
'having sighed deeply/ lit. 'having drawn up a deep 

breath/ from dva<f)€p€<T0di. Then avaar€Pa(avra gives the 

next stage, viz. the audible groan, after the long silence. 

1. 16. Tiro TOUTOK £micaX&iTO =r/r ovtos tirj ov ewucaXcotro. 

koX toDs, not to be taken immediately with irpoocX- 
(Mktos, but, ' and that they . . . having gone up to him.' 

1. 19. rbv &v . . . l\Qeiv. Equivalent to en-ueaXeofuu tovtov 
bv iraai Tvpdwouri is \6yovt cXOeiv [irpti] p^yakiov xPVt JL ^ T0>v 

wpoerlfuja-a fo. The meaning being ' whom I would have 
given anything to see conversing with princes/ xP T )H^ TW|f 
is governed by the comparatival force in irpocTi|M)o-a. 

1. 22. SxXok irapcx&nw, lit. 'causing him trouble;' i.e. 
distressing him- by their importunities. 

1. 23. dpxV> use d adverbially, 'to begin with.' 

1. 24. diro^Xaupiacic. The mood looks like a remini- 
scence of the oratio indirecta of the last paragraph. 

1. 25. ota $?) ctiras, ' having said so and so ;' this is not 
a part of Croesus' speech, but a remark put in by the 
writer to remind us of Solon's saying without quoting all 
his words again. 

<3$ tc auT«. The construction is carried on from the 
sentence before; a>s rjXBe km air<xt>\avpla€i€ 9 &g re, k.t.X., 
' and how everything had turned out for him.' 

1. 26. ouhiv ti fiaXXoy, ' speaking not so much with re- 
ference to himself as to the whole human race.' kmnbv 
refers to Croesus, the main subject of the passage. The 
actual translation of the words is, ' not at all more with 
reference to himself than ' etc., but the sense of the words 
is that which is given above ; for it is a common Greek 
idiom to use words that actually express less than is meant. 
For example, ofy rJKKrra often stands in the sense of 


1. 27. iropa o-^uri auTotcri, ' in their own eyes/ 

FALL OF CROESUS. II. §§ 3, 4. 2$1 

1. 30. dp,|iinf)$, perf. pass, from &n-«v. t& ircpi&xaTa, 
' the edges.' 

1. 35. firiXcgrfpepoK, 'having considered/ 

!• 37- t^I^ Ta X" rT¥ l , '> <a s quickly as possible.' Supply 
6&6v, Curt. § 405, obs. 2. 

1. 39. tou irupos ImitpaTvjtrai, ' to master the fire/ 


1. 4. €i ti ol . . . t%wpr\Br\ t ' if anything acceptable had been 
given him at his hands/ 

1. 7. 1$ aiOpiT)?. The preposition is not local. The 
meaning is not that clouds gathered 'out of* the blue 
calm sky; but that * after/ or ' with a sudden change from - 
calm, the clouds gathered. So in § 3, supra, dvaarevagarra 

€K TroXKrjs f)<TvxLri$. 

1. 13. &.v£yvwr€, 'taught* or 'persuaded you/ The 1st 
aor. has a factitive sense, as seen in cprjo-a from j3mW 
dvcyu&v means only 'recognized/ See Curt. § 329. 

1. 16. Tjj ofj p^K cdSaijiowj, ie. urged thereto 'by thy 
good-luck, and mine own ill-luck/ He speaks as if their 
respective fortunes had been like powers of fate driving 
him on into mad and reckless acts. 

1. 18. ouTw &v6t)t6s l<rn <fc T19 aip&Tcu. This is equiva- 
lent to ' nemo est tarn demens qui helium maliff Ss rw has a 
qualitative force. 

1. 20. iv y&V yAp Tfl, SC. Clpr}VQ. 

1. 21. Tauto, subject to yeyea&u.. 

V 2t 

292 NOTES. 

III. The Story of Cyrus. 


1. I. Iircfiirc lirl [rovrov] t&v Pouk6\mv . . • t&p ^m- 
inwro . . . vipjovra, * he sent to that one of the herdsmen 
whom he knew to be pasturing/ etc. 

1. 3. ^iriTT|8cftiTc£Tos, ' the most suitable/ for the purpose 
of Harpagus. That is, ' most lonely/ or, ' most dangerous;' 
where the child would be sure to die speedily. 

1. 12. ok6>s &k . . . &icuf>0ap€iT). This phrase is properly not 
a final but a modal sentence. That is, it is not exactly 
equivalent to 4 in order that he may perish most quickly/ 
but, ' in the way in which he might perish most quickly/ 

1. 13. IkAcwc ^iircie, 'he bade me tell thee.' 

1. 14. irepiiroufj<n|s, ' spare it.' irepirrouip is equivalent ft) 
irtyciv tivcl irepulvoi, i.e. ' cause anyone to survive.' So we 

have butffrfolpai *al irepi7roifj<rai t Hdt. 7. 52. 

1. 15. <re Siaxp^v6a6ai, 'that thou shalt endure.' So in 

C. 167 ovroi ficv tS>v QcokclUcw toiovtco p6p<p dtcvpnenyro. 
Others render, cjgcXcvcc «7reu», ok*0py [avr6v] <re dia^p^o-co-^ai. 

'that he (the king) will slay thee.' 

ta-opae iKK€iii.€vov t ' to see him exposed.' 


1. 3. t« 8* apa Kal afrrw, ' now his own wife, just at that 
time, as fate would have it, is delivered of a child as the 
herdsman was gone away to the city.' 

1. 6. t<5kou dppoS&i'. This verb is generally construed 

with an acCUS., as appabecov ovbev Trprjypa, Hdt. 7. tix. But 

the genitive may be used with it, as the thing about 
which one fears, on the analogy of detenu nv6s 9 Soph O T 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. §§ I, 2. %$$ 

1. 9. liri<m\, l stood by her/ 

1. 1 2. t& jjL'/JTc IBcik <5<t>eXov. In this clause rb is object 
to Jfttw, ' which I fain would neither have seen/ In the 
second it seems simpler to make it the subject to StycX*, 
supplied from tfyckop. l And which never ought to have 
fallen/ Another way is to make r&, (1st), object to Ibiiv, 
and, (2nd), subject to ycveo-Bai, both constructions being in 
government with tfyikov. ' Which I would I had never 
seen — which I would had never befallen/ 

1. 21. t6k TaCra 4m0lfi€r&' poi, 'who had laid these in- 
junctions on me/ 

1. 23. t&k wos olKeritav ctcm, 'that it belonged to one 
of the house-servants/ 

I.25. jcXauOpAe . . . 'Apwdyov, 'the open exhibition of 
mourning in the house of Harpagus/ iv 'Apn&yov, sc. 


1. 26. irp^Ka t€, 'at once/ fr/xfea is always followed 
immediately in Heredotus by re, so that many editions 
write np6KaT€ as one word. 

1. 28. Ocpdiroiros, governed by irw$awofuu. 
cKcxcipiac, ' put in my arms/ 

l. 29. 6$ &po cfrj, ' saying how he was/ etc. 

1. 31 5&€ ^cnrl, 'here he is/ Cyrus, it will be seen, was 
thus named after his grandfather. 

1. 32. &pa &€ IXeyc Kal direScucKU€. This use of kch serves 
to point the close or immediate coincidence of \tyiv and 

dirobeiKvveiv. Cp. xpovog bi€(f>v Kal iravra <n£e iffiprvro, Hdt. 

1. 61. Translate, 'even as he spoke he uncovered and 

showed the child/ 
1. 36. ofiic I<|Mf| ot«S$ tc etmi, ' said he was not able/ 
1. 38. diroX&aOai, ' that he shall perish/ The subject 


1. 41. <ri 84 &8c iroiY)w, 'Do thou do thus/ Here & 

introduces the apodosis to the protasis that te%pc& Nft&w 


294 NOTES. 

Arc/. This construction is common in Homer, and is 
probably an imitation of poetical usage when found in 
Herodotus. In Hdt. 5. 40 we find £ircl roiW ircpicx&ywfo 

<T€ SptSfiev rrjs ?x flf yvvauc6s, ov 8^ ravra ?ro/ec. See Curt. 

§628, obs. 
1. 43. Wtoko, retivtbi, (sc. reKj/ov), l have brought forth a 

still-born child/ 

1. 45. aXfiSacai d&iiccW, 'wilt be detected cheating.' 

1. 46. ffcffouXcupcVa. Herodotus frequently uses this 

plural of the adjective or participle, as vopi(6pcvd core, 7.2. 

So &}Xa, dSvj/ara, etc., and, in Homer, <fwKra f wurra, in the 

sense of * escape/ and ' trust.' 

1. 48. Join icrfpTa with eu \£ytiv. 

1. 51. toOto^ yAv irapaSiSoi. Here per introduces the 
apodosis to the protasis rbv yAv tycpc. ' The child which 
he was carrying, intending to put it to death, this he hands 
over to his own wife ; but his own son,' etc. 

1- 53« * v T <? *♦«**> ' in which he had been carrying.' 

1. 55. TpiT»| ^plpr), ' the third day after the child had 
been exposed.' But the Greek idiom, literally, is, ' the 
third day had come for the child exposed/ 

1. 57. twk Twb. irpof&o-jtoi' : see supra t&p riva ouccrcW. 
1. 58. is tou 'Apirdyou, SC. oucov, as above, iv 'Apnayov. 

See Curt. § 411. 

1. 60. cl8c 8ict toutcji', lit. ' saw by their means/ The 
phrase may be compared with the name given in the next 
section to the king's principal officer, tySakfihs /Sao-iXco?. 

1. 62. floTcpoy toutwk, ' subsequently/ 


1. 3. a&rai, i.e. the /SoimeoXmu mentioned above in the 
earlier part of the story. 
1. 6. ^iriKXrjaiK, ' they chose as their own king the so- 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. %% a, 3. 295 

called child of the herdsman/ With imKkrjiriv may be 
supplied Kakeoficvov, the noun then standing as cognate or 
adverbial accusative to the participle. So in Homer, 
€iruc\i)(Tiu Kakeovo-i, ' they call by the sur-name,' or cttIkXtjo-iv 
without a verb, as here, =' nominally/ See Curt. § 404. 
The force of M is that the name is properly an additional 
or extra title, given for some particular reason. 

1. 10. &s £k<£otw cpyoy irpocrrdaow, 'appointing to each 
one severally his duty.' This use of &s to bring out the 
distributive force of cicaoros depends upon some such com- 
pletion of the sentence in the mind, as npoarrdaaav iicdoTcp 
cpyov as c«caoro> npoardaaoi, ' mandans cuique opus faciendum 
ut cuique mandabat! So Hdt. 6. 31 8kg>s & Xa£ot nva r&v 

vrf<ra>v a>s CKaarrjv alpcopres ol fidpftapoi i&ayqvevov Toys apBp&irovs, 
which is equivalent to ol ftdpfiapoi alpeovres ras pfjo-ovs, &s 
CKa<TTT)V alp€oitv t k. r. X. 

cts W| . . . £kAcu€ aur6v. The sentence would naturally 
run cva . . . ovp.irai(ovra . . . cVccXcw, but it begins with the 
nominative case, as though ds were the subject to ciroirjo-e , 
which of course is impossible, as cVo/iyo-e is really in a 
parenthesis introduced by ydp. 

1. 14. SiaXaffeiy, 'to arrest/ lit. = iKaripvikv Xaj&Vdat, 'to 
seize hand and foot/ or, ' to seize round the waist/ 

1. 15. ircpiioirc, aor. 2. (from irtpUira), infin. trepioTTiiv, 
imperf. ircpiciirov. 

1. 1 6. fi€T€i6i), aor. pass, from fteriq/u, (p*0irifu). £irei re 
. . . Tc£xtoTa=' quum primum' 

1. 17. paXX6e ti, 'he was more wounded by the disgrace 
(avd£ ia) than by the bodily pain/ 

1. 18. diroiKTilcTo, 'he complained of what he had 
suffered at the hands of Cyrus/ 

1. 19. ofi Kupou, i.e. ovx wo KvpoO, 'not saying he had 
suffered it at the hands of " Cyrus," but from/ etc. 

1. 21. opyjj <&$ €tx€, 'ut erat 9 ira percitus? Similax ^sk& 

2g6 N0T6S. 

of the verb are *v ?x«, &r^aX«w 2x* lp > w**fc /«* &s ?x«p 

KopuvfifOa is liptv, etc. 

I. 38. \6yov etyt ouhlva (tS>v efrcracro'o/ievwy)^ 'made no 
account of them.' Xeyw properly means to 'reckon,' 
'count/ 'tell/ and so \6yos keeps up this sense in its 
meaning of 'account/ 

1. 39. & 8, as in Homer, els 6 *c, ' until/ 


1. 3. irpoa^peoOai ^stauTdy, 'to resemble himself;' that 
is, as we say, ' to resemble his own/ 

1. 4. IXeudcptoWp-r], sc. fj Karh bovkov Traido, 'more inde- 
pendent/ than a slave's child would utter. 

1. 6. fir! xptvov, ' for a while.' 

1. 7. S^ kotc=' tandem aliquando.' Afcpeixfefc. See on 
dpevdKdfitpav. (Chap. II. § 3.) Perhaps here with the 
implied sense of ' having recovered from ' his astonishment 


1. 11. irlpirei, 'dismisses.' 

1. 13. fiouKoO^ira, 'after he had been left by himself/ 

1. 18. AyrfyKas fi€Y<t\as, ' a great strait/ An euphemism 
for torture. Cp. Tac. Hist. 1.2. c Supremae clarorum vi- 
rorum necessitates* 

1. 21. rhv ^<5rraXdyoK, 'the real story/ 

1. 22. KaT^Paiyc is Xit&s, 'went on to entreaties/ *icara- 
Paiveiu (only expressing the opposition to fyxopcws), is here 
construed both with is \tras and with kcXciW. With the 

later construction cp. Karcftau'c aSns irapaiTcdfjLevos Hdt 

I. 90. 

1. 25. XdyoK iJStj, 'from that moment made much less 
account of him/ His only interest in the herdsman was 
his desire to get the truth out of him ; when that was done 
ffil)f he had served his purpose. 

STORY OF CYRUS, III. §§ 3S* $97 

1. 34. iroifyrw is probably the 1 aor. conjunct., as it is 
not uncommon to have in final sentences, after a past 
tense, the conjunct, first (Trot^ro), followed by the optative 
(etrjv). The former mood denotes the primary object or 

1. 38. <J>&s <rl -re ctwu. Here we should expect <f>ds re, 
coupling KaX&ros with <t>as, but the order of words is 
inverted. The Grammarians call this figure Hyperbaton 

1. 40. kotA Tdffie, c in the following way.' Then ivrci- 
XdfiCKos follows to explain what way that was. 

1. 42. axpi 08 TeXeuT^aei, * till he shall die/ 

1. 43. taiTcXla iroufyrrjj equivalent to cmTcXeag. 

1. 46. etSof Si 9 iKeivw. See above § 2 ad. fin. 

1. 47. oSrtas 2<7x«, ' such was the case/ 

1. 50. t6v 01 Iveix* x&kov^' quam in ipsum intus habebat 

1. 51. KaT<£ir€p= Ka^T &ir€p, ' quemadmodum.' 

I. 53. £iraXiXX4yr)TO. 7raXiXXoy€«i>=7raXii' Xcycu'. ' When 

the story had been repeated by him/ sc. rb rrprjyH** 

Karipaiv€ \£y<av. See above, Karcfkuve is \trds. 

1- 55- &H XlywK is a pleonasm not uncommon in Hero- 
dotus. It is usually found at the point of change from 
oratio obliqua to directa. ' He went on to say/ 

1. 56. lKa\kvov jieydXws, 'I was sore distrest, and I 
reckoned it not as a light matter being put at an enmity 
with my daughter/ 

1. 58. TouTo pip . . . touto 84. See above (Chap. II. § 2). 

1. 60. awn-pa, ' thank-offerings for preservation to those 
of the gods to whom the honour is due/ 


1. i. irpoo-Kunfyaas. The Oriental salutation, as frequently 
in the Bible, 'bowed down with his face to the eaetit' 

298 NOTES. 

1. 2. ficydXa iroiv)o-rfpcKo$, ' thinking it a great matter/ 
Vj apapT&s . . . cycyfrce, ' his disobedience had turned 
out so well for him, and that under such lucky circum- 
stances he had been bidden.' 

1. 5. Tpia leal 8&a kou jwiXwrra, * near about thirteen.' 
1. 10. ita-rd pAca, 'limb by limb;' like the Homeric 

totafukftoTi rafxwv. 

1. 16. tou iratB&s, genitive after to SKka ndvra. 
1. 22. Kal KdpTa ^<j6rjmi, * that he had been very much 
delighted.' «u goes directly with jcdpra, as above, «u 

fxeyakos, etc. 

town irpoacKcn-o, the antecedent to rourc is the unex- 
pressed subject to irap€<f)€pQP : ' (lit quibus erat mandatum! 
1. 25. *irpo«rrc£rr€s or irpo<r<TrdpT€s. See note on Chap. II. 

§ 3- i- I2 - 

1. 28. oih-c . . . Y^cTat. This combination of otfrc . . .tc 

is unusual : we might expect ovk i£eir\ayr), oXAa . . . yipew, 
or perhaps o#r« i^en\ayr\ ovtc ckt6s iavrov yiverat. But cp. 
Siccus fi^TC yXi<7^6ify er* o[ 'Adqpcuot, dia<rK€&ao-fi*'voi tc etc*. 

Translate, 'He showed no horror, but refrains himself/ lit. 
becomes within himself, i. e. in his own control. 

1. 30. 0cPfHUK<H, from j3i/3pa>07ca>. 

1. 33. ^rrcuOcf &, ' and after that, he was going, I sup- 
pose, to collect all (the remains) together and bury them.' 
f pcKkc, ' was likely/ expresses the writer's notion of what 
would probably happen. 


1. 2. aXXws . . . fix*, sc. trjkSurai, ( was able (to show it) in 
no other way.' There were guard-houses and patrols at 
all the bridges and passes on these roads. 

1. 4. \ay6i' fiT)xaKf)ad)jLCK09. The way in which he ' pre- 
pared ' the hare, was by slitting it up, and ' plucking off 
none of the fur, but [leaving it] just as it was;' then he 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. §§ 5-7. $99 

inserted his letter, and ' sewed it up again/ We should 
expect after ov&b air&rCKag [cwroTiXXo], to find another par- 
ticiple like l&vas & &(nrcp erge. 

1. 8. foe OripcuTg, ' as though to a huntsman/ 
1. 10. Join dird yXubroi)? with lirciirciK, 'to bid Cyrus by 
word of mouth/ Kupoe is the subject to dicXcu', prfiiva to 


1. 15. £ircX£ycTo, ' read it over/ lit. pondered its meaning ; 
cp. II. § 3. 

1. 16. crk y&p Ocou This sentence really gives the reason 
for the imperative tutu, the force of yap here being, ' " in- 
asmuch " as the Gods regard thee, " therefore " avenge 
thyself upon/ etc. 

1. 18. kutA \lIv yAp, 'for, as far as his intention went, 
thou art a dead man/ The full form of the sentence 

would be th jack yap Kara rrjv tovtov 7rpo0vp,irjv . . . rb 8e Kara 
0coi>s, 'for on the one hand . . . but on the other , thanks to the 
gods and me, thou livest/ But rb pev is not expressed. 

1. 20. k<h irdXai, ' long, long ago/ 

jrdvra is here subdivided into ' doth what you suffered 
and what I suffered/ 

1. 24. TTJoircp, ' cuius terrae dominus est Astyages, huius tu 
eris dominus' 

1. 28. iJk t€ . . . M^Suk, * or if any one else of the notable 
Medes ' be chosen general. 

1. 30. irpds <rio yeitSjiCKoi, 'taking your side/ So np6s 
twos €«/ai. See Curt. § 467. 

1. 32. toO yc M6Jo€y ' matters here being all ready/ 

§ 7. 

1. 2. ruK&rj. Gyndes is the modern Diydlah ; Cyrus was 
on the march from Ecbatana, otherwise the Gangir, which 
is actually divided at Mendalli into a multitude of petty 
streams, might seem to have a better claim. 

300 NOTES. 

1. 3. £k84$oi, ' empties/ 

1. 4. toGtok &vf. The original construction of the pant- 
graph beginning with «r«' re is forgotten after the paren- 
thetical description of the Gyndes, and is taken up again 
in an altered form by as bafkuvcar hmpato, the apodosis to 
which is introduced by Mavra. 

1. 7. tp«K tmruH. These horses were sacred to the sun 
(Mithras), and drew the sacred chariot of Zeus (Ormuzd). 
jPpios, ' petulantia, ' skittishness/ 

1. 8. ou|M|nfaa$, (iron), l having swept him away/ carried 
him off under its waters, <f>tp<ov \uv imofipvxtop. 

1. 10. tooto 60pi<ram. See Curt. § 401. 

1. 12. tou Xoiirou. See Curt. § 426. 

Kal yucaiicas, ' that even women should cross it.' 

1. 14. fi€Tcls, (/xetffyfu), 'having abandoned.' 

1. 15. KaT^T€iK€. . .Suupuxas, 'he marked out and drew 
180 channels by the straight line/ It seems simpler thus 
to take 6iroSl$as as merely meaning, ' destgnans ducendas, 
scfossas;' others make aypiwrwioG a predicate both with 
KartT€ivc and wro&'faff. This use of a cord to trace a 
straight line is found in Homer, though under different 
circumstances, where Odysseus squares his balks of timber 

ical €7ri aradfifjv IQvvtv. 

1. 18. ir&vra rp6imv, 'in every direction/ As there were 
180 channels branching from either bank of the river, the 
total number was 360. 

1. 19. ota, like aVc, = ' quipped 'utpote,' is often used 
with participles and genitives absolute. See Curt. 
§ 587. 6. 

1. 20. i)kcto, from &v€tv, Ionic form of avvav. Cp. Horn. 

Od. 5* 243 6oS>s be oi rjvvTO ?pyoy. 

T*)K 0cpciT)K, SC &prju, SO rfjp xei/*€piV>/t>, Hdt. I. 202. 

1. 21. auTou TauTTj, lit. 'there in that place' =* in that 
same place/ So often in Homer, avrov T^d* cvl v<kp«». 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. §§ 7, 8. 3d 

§ 8. 

1. 3. faAajiirc, properly used of the break of day ; here 
applied to spring, as the dawn of the year. In Hdt. 8. 

1 30, we have tapo* iirCkapy^avros. 

1. 7. louw&rrcs, from €<r<nfo>, a dialectical form of the 
ordinary ffcnrdo>. 

1. 10. irpo-€0"-^|arro, Ionic 1 aor. from n-poccrayo/buu, 
' brought beforehand into the city/ 

1. 11. \<fyov ouS^ko. See above, § 3. 

1. 13. foorripoi . . . irpoKoirrofiimjK, 'and since his affairs 
were advancing not one whit the farther/ The metaphor 
in wpoKOTrreiv is from pioneers cutting and clearing away in 
front of an advancing army. 

1. 15. t& iroiT)T^0K ot fy= ' quid sibi erat faciendum.' 

1. 17. 4| IpfSoXfjs, 'just off the inlet/ where the river 
flows into the city. 

1. 18. omo-Gc, as we say ' below ;' the city is regarded as 
facing up the stream. The combination of foraaaH with 
Irlpotis seems inaccurate ; the difficulty may be avoided by 
supplying fripavs before the words i( ififkikrjs, ' he posted 
all his serviceable troops, some at the inlet, others at the 

1. 26. \L\kvt\v ioOaay 2Xos . This was a lake or reservoir 
which had been dug by the Babylonian queen Nitocris, 
as part of her engineering works on the channel of the 
Euphrates. This reservoir was now a marsh. 

1. 27. fiirowxmljirorTos, 'having sunk down/ 

1. 30. Join 6$ with prfXurni ktj, to which it adds a general 
or indefinite force =' as near as may be to a man's mid- 

1. 31. ica-rd toOto resumes Kara t6 peetipov, after the paren- 
thesis tnrov€vo<rnjK6Tog ...«;,' along it, I repeat/ 

1. 34. 06S' ft? . . . §U$&€ipav, ' the Babylonians, toNi\&% 


303 NOTES. 

not so much as suffered the Persians to enter the city, 
would have destroyed them utterly.' This literal translation 
shows that the whole sentence is an affirmative one, and 
that the negative ovbc belongs only to ircpud6vrcs. The 
position of the A? may be accounted for, because it belongs 
to n€pud6vT€s as well as to bityOupw, the sentence really 
consisting of two clauses (though blended into one by the 

use of the participle), ovd* hv ncpicldov . . . KOKurra Ay dec- 

<t>0€ipav. In the next sentence we have KarcucXijiaavres h* . . . 
Tka&ov av <r<t>€as. Here the first A? serves as a signal to show 
that the form of the sentence is conditional, and the particle 
is repeated, when, after the long parenthesis, the principal 
verb occurs. 

1. 36. t&s iruXftas Is t&k iroTap&K ixpvcras, the participle 
used with intransitive sense, as we say, ' giving on the 
river/ The river flowed through the city, dividing it into 
two main sections. Along each bank of 'the river ran a 
low brick wall (alpaalrj). The city intersected by streets 
at right angles to each other; some of them parallel to the 
river, the others leading directly down to it, and ending 
in a wicket (m/Afc). 

1. 39. vvv hi, the antithesis to d pev wv t above, line 32. 

1. 40. irap&mrjadK or+i, ' were upon them/ 

1. 41. oiKtwUvuv, equivalent in sense to the more usual 

t&k . . . laXuic&w, ' after that the parts about the out- 
skirts of the city had been taken/ There is nothing 
surprising in the story that the inhabitants of the central 
part of the city knew nothing of this, when we consider 
the dimensions that Herodotus gives us of the city of 
Babylon ; describing it as a square, each side of which 
was 120 stadia, or 480 stadia in all, representing a circuit 
of about 55 English miles. 

J. 43. iLavQ&vw, tVie vnfixB&N^ \a isa&fc v* ^*x\si uuon 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. §§ 8, 9. 303 

the verb in the parenthetical sentence, m Xcyercu vnh r&v 

ravrjj oiKrjfiev&v, So in Hdt. I. 65 &s 8c avro\ \cyovai 
AvKovpyov €K KpfjTrjs dydycarBai ravra, where the infinitive 

stands as if Aeyovo-i and not as Xryovo-t had preceded. 

1. 46. ical tA KdpTa, lit. * found it out very much indeed/ 
that is, learned it in terrible earnest. 

1. 47. T<$Te irp&TOK. Babylon was taken a second and 
a third time by Darius Hystaspes. 

dpai'pt)To, Ionic form of the pluperf. pass, of a<pea>. 
In Attic the per£ and pluperf. are Sprjfuu and ip^v re- 

§ 0- 

1. 1. Mao-aayereW. The Massagetae lived eastward of 
the Caspian, probably on the most southern portion of 
the Steppe region, the deserts of Kharesm, Kizilkhoum, 

1. 3. t<5 X<fyw, ' in pretence.' He was not wooing her 
for herself, but for her kingdom. 

1. 4. juK=Ki)poi/, not to be joined with avrfjv. 

1. 5. dirciira-ro, ' forbade him. 1 

1. 6. irpocx<£pc6, used impersonally, ' seeing that he got 
no advantage by guile/ lit. that it did not advance for him. 

1. 7. 'Ap<i£v)s. Probably we must understand by the 
Araxes, in this passage, the Jaxartes (Sir), and not the 
historical Araxes or Aras, or else the Oxus (Amoo). Pos- 
sibly the name Aras or Rha was given by the natives to 
all streams, which would account for Herodotus' perplexity. 

1. 9. hi&flaxnv, in predicative apposition to y€<j>vpas, 'to 
afford a passage.' The ' towers ' built upon the boats that 
' served to ferry them across/ were to prevent the bridge 
beingjattacked and broken up by the enemy. 

1. 13. M^Sw. In the time of Herodotus \3tie fofc^Oass^ 
between Median and Persian was VvatdVy iscogBaxfc&» 


304 NOTES. 

1. 14. itoiwrai . . . cnreu&cis, 'stop busying yourself with 
your present business.' This form of sentence is like xPW 
drj <T€ noUeiv r& iroUeis, i facere quae fads* 

1. 15. k% KcupdK, 'to thine advantage/ 

1. 16. 4jp&s Ak^xcu 6p4w, 'endure seeing' (that is, 'en- 
dure to see *) ' us.' 

1. 17. ouk &v. In Attic prose we should expect the 
sentence to run, rod ovk ifcXfiartts, 'since thou wilt not 
choose' . . ,<rv dc, <f>*'p€ f p6x0° v "<!>**> 'therefore give up the 
toil.' But here, instead of the one part of the sentence 
being made dependent on the other, the meaning is given 
in two separate clauses, ' thou certainly wilt not choose ; ' 
' do thou then,' etc. 

1. 18. AXX& . . . ctKot, 'but anything rather than keep 

1. 19. 81* VjoruxiT)S is like &' opyrje, dta (f)6fiov eivai. See 

Curt. § 458 c. 

1. 28. o-ufA0ou\cu<5fA€Kos . . . iroitg, ' consulting with them 
which of the two he shall do/ noi4g> deliberative con- 

1. 29. owcg&riirroi', ' the opinions of them all coincided 
together.' The metaphor in orvv-€K~wLnrHv is from the 
V")4>ot or voting pebbles heing emptied out of the urn. 
Here it is easily applied to ywptu, that word being equi- 
valent to ^»}<£oi in its general sense. 

§ 10. 

1. 3. ctiroK . . . 3ti . . . dirooTptycu'. Sometimes in Greek, 
though the dependent sentence begins with tin, the infini- 
tive mood follows instead of a finite tense. It is more 
common when a long parenthesis comes in between, 
during which the force of fo has been, it may be said, 
forgotten. Heie tYiere \% tio «m& rcasaa^ •sccA \j\e qqq. 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. §§ 9, 10. 305 

struction must be accounted for on the ground that Sn 
serves only as a mark to show where the quoted words 
begin. What Croesus had said irpfctpov to Cyrus was, hr*i 

T€ fl€ $€01 Zft&KCLV bov\6v (TOt, dlK(MO>, €t TL €POp€Q) liktOV, (Tt]fJLaiu€lV 

<roi, Hdt. I. 89. 

1. 6. iraO^paTa — paO^paTa. Appearing in Aeschylus in 
the shorter form naSos, ftddos. In English, * pain ' and ' gain ' 
would give something of the intentional jingle. 

1. 8. ToiauTrjs, i.e. aBavarov. 
ouBck TrprJYjia, ' no good/ 
1. 11. kukXos. The same idea as in the Wheel of 

1. 13. tj&iri &v, ' without more ado then.' "'Hfy introduces 
the application of these remarks to the present case. Its 
use implies that the opinion of Croesus which follows is 
the immediate consequence of the views stated above." 

1. 14. tA IpiraXiK % 'the very contrary to/ Adverbial 
accusative with yvkwv c^w. 

1. 17. irpoouiroXXtfcis, 'thou losest therewith/ 
1. 19. Iir* Apx&s, the plural expressing 'provinces/ or 
perhaps ' satrapies/ 

l\wri, rat. contracted from c\avva>. So below eXck. 
1. 20. kucwk Maoxraylras comes in awkwardly here. It 
is a sort of echo of vikS>v &e at the beginning of the sen- 
tence, and it serves to limit the vagueness of w«b> to the 
special hypothesis of 'supposing you to conquer the 
Massagetae/ But, after all, the clause is superfluous. 

t6ut& y&p, ' for against that notion I will set this (as 
an alternative)/ t&vto is explained by the words &n . . . 
Topvpios. In Ikciko) he refers to his previous words wkoitc? 

McKrvayercu ov rh onlcrai <f)€v£ovrai t aXX' cif apx&s t&s <v^i 

I 23. n}g dpxrjs, genit. after IA5. 


306 NOTES. 

1. 24. &Trr\yr)iklvov t from a deponent verb, but with a pas-, 
sive force, as elsewhere in Hdt. pefupripcvov, Karfpyao-pevov. 

1. 26. Su^rfiras is the accusative because it forms the 
subject to infin. irpocXdciK, 'that we having crossed the 
river, advance over as much [ground] as they pass through 
[in their retreat before us].' 

1. 27. TiiBe iroicuin-as, 'acting as follows.' rdfc is ex- 
plained by the paragraph beginning rovrouri Z>v roun 


1. 32. irpoOcimi is in the same construction as the 
infinitives irpo*\6clv and ntipaardai above, namely, after doxm. 
' My view is that we having with lavish hand killed many 
of our sheep, should set before these men a feast.' 

1. 36. rb 4>\aup<$TaTOH=that part of his army which is 
called above to dxpr/iov tov arparov. 

1. 39. dm$c|is. So Hdt. I. 59 ?pya <Mrode£aj*€i«>i (diro&ue- 
wpi) peyaka. 

§ 11- 

1. i. awioravav, 'were at variance,' 'clashed together/ 

1. 4. KaT&= Kaff St, 'prout.' 

1. 7. &i8ou. Notice the force of the tense, ' was giving ;' 
i. e. purposed to give. This custom of the Persian king to 
name a successor before he took the field, is mentioned by 

Herodotus, *J. 2 bci piv (Aapttoi/) dirobefcavra /SacriXea Kara row 

U€p(T€(OV v6pOV OVTti) OTpaT€V€0'6cU, 

1. 14. Ka8apoC, 'able-bodied:' lit. 'clean' or * clear' 
without the hindrance of r6 dxprfiov. 

I.18. &Xc£ofMfi'ous, from pres. aXefo/iat, 'though de- 
fending themselves/ i. e. notwithstanding their resist- 

1&4ktc$, agreeing by a construct™ ad sen sum with the 
noun of multitude rpirrjpopls, Curt. § 362. 

STORY OF CYRUS. III. §§ 10-13. 307 

§ 12. 

1. 4. \Lifikv lirapOrjs . . . cl . . . ^pdrrjaas, ' Be not elated . . 
that . . . you have overmastered.' The words toiovtv <j>appdic<p 
resume and explain apmXivip Kapnco. 

1. 7. liraFairXcSciK, ' come bubbling up to the lips/ 

1. 9. KaToL t6 Kaprcp^K is the antithesis to SoXoSaas. 

1. 10. uTr<5Xa0€ rbv \6yov, 'accept my proposal.' 

1. 12. Kcrruppuras TpiTTjjiopiSu For this unusual construc- 
tion with dative cp. dyakfiart KarayeXap, Hdt. 3. 37. 

1. 15. iirlwv bvevziyPivruv, 'verborum quae renuntiaban- 
turl from an-oQcpeiv* 

1. 18. Arijicc, ' set him free/ i. e. by its effects passing off. 
avUvm is a picturesque word, analogous to the expression 

Sqaras <f)pepas olvco. 

Ivo. r\v KaKoG. See Curt. § 638. 1. 
1. 19. «?tux€, sc. rov \vdrjvai, 'obtained [his freedom]/ 
1. 20. top xcip&f £Kp<£rr)<T6, ' got the use of his hands/ 

§ 13. 

1. 3. Som, sc. raim\v ttjv fxdx r l v [«nw«»ir] wrai. 

1. 5. offro touto y6K<SfUK0K, ' that the affair took place as 

1. 9. ovvlyzubai, ' they closed/ 

1. 12. auTou TauTg. See above § 7 ad fin. 

1. 13. tA irdrro, 'in all/ sc. from B.C. 558-529. 

1. 15. IB((t)to. The verb di-£etv is really a reduplication 
of the same root that appears in ft-rcli/ (£17=8/17). In the 
middle voice the forms 8i'Cecr&u and biCncrdat are both 
used by Herodotus. 

1. 18. l-nikcye, 'uttered them over (M) the body/ 

x 2 

308 NOTES. 

IV. Cambyses in Egypt. 


1. i. ni)\ouoria>. The Pelusiac mouth of the Nile was 
the most easterly of the seven branches. It was so called 
from the city of Pelusium on its right bank. 

1. 4. t$|k awSpoK, SC. yrjv. 

1. 7. irX^fei iroXXuK. So we find Hdt. 1. 51 peyafci 


1. 9. KaTeikr\Q4vTwv, (jcarcikectp), ' cooped up.' 

1. 10. dp& iroTafi^^ • up the river/ sc. the Nile. The 
fleet of Cambyses contained Phoenician, Cyprian, and 
Ionian ships, as well as ships from Lesbos, the chief city 
of which is Mytilene. 

1. 13. d\&s, (from <SXfc), 'all together/ ' en masse! The 
same root appears in the word aklCctv, but Hkfjs does not 
occur in Attic writers, who use d6p6os instead. 

1. 17. irap&rrrjcray, ' in deditionem venerunt! 

irpoacx^es, ' adjoining the Egyptians/ This includes 
the various communities of Libyans settled between the 
Egyptians in the East and Cyrene and Barca in the West 
See Hdt. 4. 168-172. 

1. 19. £n£$arro. Notice the force of the middle voice == 
* tributum sibi ipsis imposuerunt! 

1. 21. 6jAoiws Kal, as in Lat. ' aeque ac. 9 

iTcpa Toiairra takes up the words above, from wapc 

bovav to enefnrov. 

§ 2. 
1. 1. T€ixos, * the citadel/ or ' fort.' So the forts in Scythii 

are Spoken of as 3jct«> rci^ca peydka, Hdt. 4. 124. 

L 2. icaTuras iirl Xupv), ' having made him sit there fr 
way of degradation.' So in Soph. Aj. «ri Xa>£ ? . 

CAMBYSES IN EGYPT. IV. §§ I, 2. 309 

1. 5. Bieireipd-ro ttjs +uxfjs, ' put his courage to the test.' 

1. 6. crrciXas goes with IoOtjti, ' having equipped/ 

1. 7. he 58«p, as we say, ' for water.' 

1. 8. &iro\l£as must not be taken directly with dpSpuK, 
but irapOivovs is to be supplied again, in the sense of ' virgin 
daughters,' or else ano\i£as may stand as a parenthetical 
sentence, ' having selected them.' 

1. 10. irap^icraK, (irapicvai), 'passed by.' 

1. 12. dir&Xaioi', 'wept responsive to their daughters' 

1. 13. 2kia|/€. This means that his head was bowed so 
that his features were not seen, as the procession passed. 

1. 14. Sctf-rcpa, adverbial, =' next.' 

1. 17. ScSep&ous. The participle agrees, by a construct™ 
ad sensum, with rbv naiba per a\\<ov, because these words 
are really equivalent to a plural, i. e. rbv ndiha kq\ SKKovs. 

1. 1 8. Mvriki)vaUiV is genit. after roiat afl-oXo/icVoicn. 

1. 24. SeiKoi iroicurrwK, ' sore distrest at it,' lit. making a 
terrible thing of it. 

t&uto . . . OuyaTpl, * he only did the same that he 
had done at his daughters passing].' 

1. 26. <rvvr\veLKc, 'it fell out,' 'happened.' «5<rr€ follows 
with infinitive, as in Hdt. 1. 74 cn/pqi'cucf &<rre Ttjs ftaxi* 

avveaTtixrq^ rr)P rf^pTjv cgaTrivas vvicra y€V€<r6ai. 

twk <rup.iroT^o)K ot &K&pa, 'a man of his boon com- 
panions.' For this use of of, the ethical dative, see Curt. 
§ 432 foil. 

1. 27. tyijXig is properly one who has passed the prime 

Or fjkiKia, = cos cmb rrjs fjXutlas &v, 

lKireirra>KOTa Ik t&v coWcjk, ' qui ex bonis exciderat,* 
' who had been deprived of his property,' lit. of what was 
[his] ; cp. the expression y ov<ria. 

1. 28. oao irroxte, sc. c^ct, to be supplied out of exovra. 
irpoaaiWorra, ' begging an alms of the army/ 

310 NOTES. 

1. 32. £ir\^£aTo. Notice the middle voice, as expressing 
an action done upon one's self. 
1-33* 4>u'\aKoi. See on II. § 1. 1. 9. 

1. 34. t£ Ikcikou, SO to Ik Kvpov irpooraxOtv. 

iv ^KdoTj) {{<&<»=:' each time the procession passed,' 
lit. at each going forth. 

1. 40. Trpo<rrJKorra, ' related/ 

1. 43. toaKkaUiv, supply </" as subject. 

1. 46. £ni Y^pao$ ouSw, the same words in II. 24. 486. 
Kal Tairra . . . KpoiaoK. In this sentence, both oonlciy 
and hatcpvtiv depend really, though not grammatically, on 
X£ycT<u. 'It is said that these things pleased him; it is 
said that Croesus wept;' but this construction is confused 
by the insertion of a>s before Ararat. See for same con- 
struction IV. § 8 ad fin. Then there is a difficulty about 
cjs dir€V€t\B€VTa, On the analogy of similar sentences in 
Herodotus, we might supply rJKovoc, 'when [he heard] these 
things reported by the messenger, [it is said] that they 
seemed to him to have been well said/ Or perhaps, 
1 [it is said] that these things, as reported by the messen- 
ger, seemed/ etc. 

1. 49. i-Kunt6\uvos f from eVicnrecr&H, in its simplest sense 
' following/ ' accompanying/ 

1. 51. cotcX6cik, 'stole into his heart/ 

1. 52. t6v ri, 01 ircuoa, like rwv arvpirorfav oi avbpa sup. 
ot t&v diroMujAcVwy. The present tense keeps its full 
force ; ' those who were in the way of death ; ' or actually 
'being slain/ for the massacre had begun. 

1. 53- Amcrnfaain-as, agreeing with rivhs, the subject to 
Syftv 9 understood. 

1. 54. ot jictmSktcs, < those who went for him/ Cp the 

common use of ficrcpxcaSai. 

1. 57. evBa, i. e. iraph Ka^vo^. tou XoiiroG. See Curt 
§ 426. 


€x«k ouS^k PtaioK, ' enduring no severities.' 
1. 58. iroXinrpt]Yp)K^€iK, 'to be over-busy/ This is a 
sort of euphemism for ' promoting revolt/ like the familiar 
phrases, ve&repLfav, ' novas res struere! 

dir Aa0c, ' would have got back/ airo\apBdv€i,v, of taking 
again what is your own. There was once a dispute, in 
the time of Demosthenes, between Philip and the Athe- 
nians, turning on the point whether he should be said 
bovvcu or dirodovvai, in the case of certain possessions to 
which they laid claim and which he was willing to cede ; 
cp. Matt. 22. 17, 21: but here Psammenitus would only 
have been a satrap, for he was not said fiavtkcvav but 


1. 60. iw, (=&v /focrtXcW), depends upon roia-i ye natal, 

but the relative was forgotten after the parenthesis, and so 
the demonstrative auiw is introduced. 

1. 63. dmcrrcts fjXw, ' was caught disaffecting/ 

§ 3. 

1. 7. 6 Al0iov|r, ' the Ethiopian king.' So we find, in a 
corresponding sense, 6 Av86s, 6 Mrjfos. 

1. 8. KaT&rrai, predicate, ' as spies/ 

1. 10. iroXXou irpoTiploi', 'valuing very highly:' lit. pre- 
ferring beyond much ; the genitive is used because of the 
comparative force in the verb. See on I. § 3 rbv hv nao-i 

Tvpdvvouri irpocTifj.v)<ra \i€yd\<*)V xpr)\L&T(t)V cs \6yovs iXfolv. 

1. 17. outw cuircWos, 'as easily as this/ Here we must 
suppose the Ethiopian king draws the bow with scarcely 
an effort. 

1. 19. ttXtJ0€i uireppaXX<Sfi€KOK, SC. tovs AiOionas. So 
nomas uwepjSaXXoficvoff tg> tn/f«, Hdt. 2. 175* 

1. 21. cm v&ov TpdireiK tiki is used by Herodotus in the 

312 NOTES. 

sense of ' in animum inducers alicui* l to put it into any 
one's mind/ So noutiv ewl v6ov, Hdt. i. 27. 

1. 22. irpoaKT&oOoi ttj tainw, ' to acquire in addition to 
their own/ 

1. 23. Toicri TJKouo-i, sc. the messengers who had come, 
and who were then in his presence. 

1. 25. ciirdWoy. Notice the 1st aor. forms etna, eitrdfu?*, 
as well as the 2nd aor. commonly in use, cwiw, fiV^v. 

1. 26. SoXcpoi}?, oo\cpa,=' unreal/ 'sham;' the garment 
had not its natural colour. Cp. the Latin use of 'fiicatus! 

1. 28. to> xpwro&K <rrpeirr&K clpwTo, [sc. avrovs\ y 'he 
asked them about the necklace/ Double accusative is 
used with verbs of asking, Curt. § 402. 

1. 30. tok k6<j\mv seems to mean here, ' the way of wear- 
ing them/ 

1. 37. tacipero, from intfaaOai, used for the more com- 
mon word eVrepwrai/. 

1. 38. fiaKpdraTOK, a predicative addition, =' at the long- 
est/ Cp. 6T€oi<n t&v iOvtav aXiupoujx iv€Tvy\av€ y Hdt. 2. 1 02. 

1. 40. irupw. We should gather from this that the 
Ethiopians were unacquainted with the cultivation of corn. 

They lived on Kpea i(frda kcu irofta yaka. 

1. 43. K<SirpoK. They must have explained to the king 

about the manuring of crops. 

1. 44. oW^epoK, quite literally, ' picked [themselves] up/ 
1. 45. tooto faoouodai, ' were beaten in this point/ rovro 

is equivalent to the ' internal object/ sc. rqvfo ?j<roxu> iaa. 

See Curt. § 400 foil. 


1. 3. \6yov Iouto 8ods,=' having considered/ lit. rendered 
account to himself. 

1. 5. ota. Curt. § 587. 6. 

1. 6. 'EW^wk, who formed, as was stated above his 

CAMBYSES IN EGYPT. IV. §§ 3, 4. 313 

1. 9. frir&pii'c, ' separated/ ' drafted off/ 

1. 11. £|aKBpairo&icrafili'ous. The case of the participle 
does not follow that of the object of Ikct&Xcto, but is 
attracted into the case of the subject to Ipirpvjo-ai. 

ypr\oTt\p\.ov. The famous temple of Jupiter Ammon 
was built in the Libyan desert, in the Oasis of Sywah, as 
it is now called. 

1. 15. otitic^ Ix^pcfa differs very little from crma,= 
* everything in the way of food/ ' connected with food/ 

So ra ovaparuv ex^eva, Hdt. I. 120. Here firiXeureu' is 

joined with a personal accusative, as v&»p piv aneXiwt, 
Hdt. 7. 21. 'All that they had in the way of food had 
failed them.' 

1. 16. Kal rk dirb£uyia, ' even the beasts of burden failed/ 

1. 17. yvwripaxieiVf^z' priori suae senientiae repugnare! 
The translation, 'changed his mind/ gives the general 
sense, but it loses the graphic expression that implies the 
struggle with the previous opinion. 

1. 18. M, 'after/ 

1. 22. +cijA|i<H',=the sands of the Libyan desert. 

1. 23. hn SotrfBos, ' from every ten/ 

1. 32. "OaaiK tt6\iv. The word *Oaois is probably no- 
thing more than an attempt to express in Greek letters 
the Egyptian word 'Wah/ a 'dwelling/ or 'inhabited 
spot/ The city and its surrounding scenery probably 
lay near the modern El Kharjeh in the larger and more 
southerly of the two Oases, in the desert of Sahara. 
Sn pi) ='«/>i'/ See Curt. § 633 b. 

!• 35» X^yeTot . . . Iirci&i) . . . Uvai. In oratio obliqua it 
is not unusual for temporal conjunctions to be followed 
by an infinitive, instead of by a finite verb. 

1. 38. (jlcto^u kou fidXuiTa, 'had got pretty nearly 

1. 39. optcrroK, 'breakfast/ 

314 NOTES. 


1. 2. *Am$, the sacred calf at Memphis, was peculiarly 
consecrated to Phthah, the Egyptian God of Light, and 
was worshipped in a splendid court of his own. The 
appearance of the sacred calf, which was recognised by 
certain marks .or distinguishing features, was the signal 
for a festival of great rejoicing. The calf was supposed 
to enshrine the soul of Osiris, which, when one calf died, 
migrated into the body of another. We may suppose that 
there had been a long period during which no sacred calf 
had been found to satisfy the requirements of the priests, 
and now the citizens of Memphis were just celebrating 
his appearance. 

1. 5. Join irdyxu with KaTa84£as, 'being strongly of 

1. 6. \ap\u6irwa, ' were making these demonstrations of 
joy because of his ill-success.' 

1. 8. 8x1,=' why.' 

1. 10. T&re §k, 'but were doing so then/ 

1. 12. SicL xP^ 0U - See Curt. § 458 c. 

1. 18. ou X^o-cif, 'it should not escape his notice/ that 
is, 'he would soon see, whether a tame god had come 
among the Egyptians/ The Persians, who neither built 
temples nor erected statues of their gods, would have little 
sympathy with so gross a form of animal-worship as this. 

1. 24. ycXdaas, 'with a burst of laughter/ See Curt. 
§ 496, obs. for the force of the aorist participle. 

1. 26. toioutoi, predicative. Geo! is the subject of the verb. 

1. 27. £irafoiT€s,=here al<r6av6pcvoi 9 'feeling/ 

1. 28. y&wTa, ' a laughing-stock.' 

1. 29. toiox TauTa TrpTJo-CToucn, ' those whose business is 
to do this/ 

1. 33. &iKai€oiro, 'were punished/ lit. got their deserts. 

1. 36. XdGprj KapPuacu. See Curt. § 415 ad fin. 



1. 2. top Itijml . . . Kai ol. Cp. Hdt. 3. 31 afoX^c^, Ttf #eal 

ovvotKte Ka\ %v ol mr dfKpoTepcov ddeXcpeTj. When to a relatival 
sentence a second clause is appended which requires a 
different case of the relative, the construction sometimes 
changes from the relatival altogether to the demonstratival. 
See Curt. § 605 c. obs. 

1. 9. tt\€<Ws irpoo-K&oOcu, ' art over and above devoted/ 
top'jrrPrexaspes; top &€,=Cambyses. 

1. 14. 01 ow&poH' i6vTwv y i ipsi adsidentium! 

1. 16. irpds top iro/rlpa, 'in comparison with his father/ 

1. 17. £kcipou, i.e. all his father's possessions. 

1. 18. ity 6<£Xao-o-ap must mean the S.E. portion of the 
Mediterranean ; and the reference is to the successes of 
Cambyses on the Syrian and Phoenician coasts, and in 
the island of Cyprus. 

1. 31. <f>dVcu, imperatival infinitive, ' Say/ 

1. 35- fc^... ivevpe&qvai. See IV. § 4. 1. 35. 

1. 41. £iri<ncoira, 'truly/ 'accurate/ lit. on the mark. 

1. 43. top 6cop, perhaps Apollo, god of archery. 

V. The Story of Polycrates. 


1. 2. p€p<i>\xim. So Kai ovrca *A\KftcuoviBcu £0wa0rj<rap ava 

ttiv 'EXXaSa. Similar to this is the use in Attic of jtc/h- 


1. 3. !6oa€i€,='/«?r£w*// Cp. Horn. II. 6. 2 XBvae paw. 

1. 6. €+€pc Kdt TJyc. In this common phrase, expressive 

of the various ways of ' annexing' the property or persons 

316 NOTES. 

of enemies, it will be seen that Ayci? belongs strictly to 
animate things that are carried off; $4p€iv to inanimate. 

ZiaKpimv, ' making no distinction with regard to/ and 
so ' exempting.' 

tw y&p +tX<j», ' for he said that he should gratify his 
friend all the more by giving back to him what he had 
taken, than by not having taken anything at all.' So owe 
4wri"> m the same sense, Hdt. i. 16. 

1. 9. dpcupi^iccc, the corresponding form in the passive 

in Ionic is dpaiprjfiai for jjprjpai. 

Iv &€, ' and besides/ =' atque in his eliam! Frequent 

in Sophocles, as O. T. 27 iv 8' 6 7rup<p6pos debs a-Kq^as (kavvu. 

1. 1 2. ScScfiifoi. They worked, as prisoners, ' in chains.' 
1. 13. kch k«s, 'and somehow or other the great pros- 
perity of Polycrates was not unnoticed by Amasis, but it 
was a matter of anxiety to him/ lit. Polycrates prospering 
did not escape the notice of Amasis. Curt. § 590. 

1. 20. 4>Qov€p6v. See the remark of Solon, I. § 4. 1. 6, 
on the jealousy with which the gods regarded excessive 
power or prosperity. 

kcu k«s pouXojjuu, 'and indeed I would prefer for 
myself (as well as for those for whom I care) to have a 
measure of success {tvrvx^w ™), in part of my fortunes, but 
in another part to meet with failure, and in such wise to live 
out my days, with alternations of luck rather than with 
uniform prosperity.' Notice in this sentence rb pep and 
t6 8c as accusatives of reference with evrvx^ip, the use of 
fj after Povkopm as implying a preference ; so in Homer 

II. 1 . 117 pooXop,' eya> \abp a&p eppevm fj arroKea-Ocu. The 

words kch r&v to icV)8a>fi<u are added quite parenthetically 
without affecting the construction, as we see by the use of 
irpr)<r<ra>v in the next clause, which can only refer to aurd*. 
1. 24. Xfyw, 'by report/ 'in story.' 
ofta dKOifras. Curt. §591. 

STORY OF POLYCRATES. V. §§ i, a. 317 

1. 27. ^porruras t6 &v, ' having considered whatever you 
may find to be most precious in your eyes [rot], and over 
the loss of which you will be most sorry at heart/ In 
the mood of dXyVjo-cis the idea is expressed that the se- 
lection has been made and the loss accepted. 

1. 30. Sicws p.Y)ic£ri j|(ci. Curt. §. 500. 

1. 31. n&ird toutou, « henceforward/ a further explanation 
of #6V 

1. 32. Tp^iru tw, r in the way suggested by me, apply 
some remedy.' He talks as if the €\m>x»i was excessive, 
or plethoric, and actually required ' curing/ 


1. 3. dcrrjGftT), from dada>, (a<nj=* loathing/) 

1. 5. X1600. Curt. § 408. 3. 

1. 9. dpayaycip, ' bid them launch out [sc. vca] into the 
open sea/ 

1. 10. TTcpwXdfui'os, 'having taken off;' properly of 
removing something that envelopes. Thus the gold that 
was removable from the Phidian statue of Zeus is called 
by Thucydides mpiaiprrov. 

1. 1 3. <rup4°pj) ixri 70 ' ' treated it as a calamity/ 

1. 17. xu)pr\<ravr6s oi toi5tou, (more commonly gapci? 
evrvxevs), 'when this had succeeded for him/ sc. the 
granting of his request. 

1. 23. 8iir\6), is an irregular feminine from durXoor. 

1. 31. tbv hk w$ &njX6c, 'but when it came into his 

1. 32. t& irouf)o , ai'T<£ piv ota icaTaXcXap^iccc. A double 
relative sentence = ' quae facienti qualia sibi accidissent ;' 
in English idiom, ' what he had done and what had be- 
fallen him/ Cp. Soph. Elect. 751 of tpya &>d<ra« ota Wv 

3 1 8 NOTES. 

xava koko. Notice the form XeXa/S^icte as distinct from the 

Attic €iXi;<£a. 

1. 33. is Atyuinw £ir&T]K€, 'put it into [the messenger's 
hand] for Egypt/ i. e. to go to Egypt. So Hdt 5. 95 

AXkcuo? (v fjJXti Troirjcras imriBti is MvtlXtjvtjv. 

I.36. iKKopiaax^ 1 eripere,' 'to rescue/ Cp. Ps. 49. 7 
'No man may redeem his brother, nor give to God a 
ransom for him/ 

1. 39. koI tA diropa\X€i,=' 1/2002 quae proiicit. 9 
1. 40. StaXiicaOai fyxvix\v. Like rats leaving a sinking 
ship, Amasis begs to break off friendship with a doomed 
man. This selfishness was exhibited by Greek gods as 
well; for we read how a protecting power would with- 
draw his aid from a chieftain in the field when he knew 
the day was going against him. The apology made for 
Amasis will hardly carry conviction with it. Grote (vol 
iv) suspects that the truth of the story is that Polycrates, 
with characteristic faithlessness, broke off his friendship 
with Amasis, finding it suitable to his policy to court the 
alliance of Cambyses. 

§ 3. 

1. 1. uirapxos, equivalent to 'satrap.' 

1. 4. f«£T(Hoi>, means properly ' random,' * thoughtless/ 
and thus stands, by a sort of euphemism, for ' abusive/ 

1. 9. Mu-poprfTca, is the accusative in apposition with 
oupopa, ' whose name was " Mitrobates/' ' 

yojios, (notice the accent), is the technical term for 
a satrapy. Dascyleion is on the Phrygian coast of the 
Propontis. In Hdt. 3. 90 this satrapy is called vo^m 


1. 10. ToiiTous resumes again the two accusations 'Oootrqr 
and Itipoyp. This construction is called ciFavdkrrfns 're- 

STORY OF POLFCRATES. V. §§ 2-4. 319 

£k \6ywv, < the quarrel arose from their talk/ 
Kpivo\UvQ)v f gen. absol., ' as they disputed/ 

1. 12. irpo^potra, ' challenging him/ 

<r& yap. See Curt. § 626. 6. d. 'What! art thou 
in the number of brave men ?' 

\6yo$=the ' reckoning* or ' tale/ 

1. 15. twk tis iirixupiwv. See note on II. § 1. 1. 12, and 
elsewhere. The insurgent is of course Polycrates. 

1. 17. -nj 6ircp MatrfVSpou, sc. in Caria: to distinguish it 
from the Magnesia in Phrygia, on Mount Sipylus. 

1. 20. v6os. His design is told in the following words. 

1. 22. Mipuos. With regard to Minos of Crete, (Cnossus 
or Gnossus being a famous and ancient city in that island), 
Thucydides says, (1. 4), 'Minos was the earliest known 
possessor of a navy; and he made himself complete 
master of the sea about Greece ; and had control of the 
Cyclades, and was the first colonist of most of them/ 

1. 24. dKOpo)Tnr|tif|s Y^fa serves to mark off the mythic 
age, to which Minos belonged, from the 'historical times' 
of Polycrates. Minos passed as a demi-god ; at any rate 
he claimed Zeus for his father. 

1. 30. koto, ' on a par with/ 

1. 33. ^KKojuaas, ' having got me and my treasures safely 
away, keep some of them thyself, and some of them suffer 
me to keep/ 

1« 35« €u>€K€k xp t )^ 1w - Like the common phrase tovtov 
y ci/«ca,=' as far as money is concerned/ 


1. 2. Koi kw$. See on V. § 1. 

1. 5. 16vtcl irpocrS6iufioi', ' was expected/ 

1. 7. irXV KdpTa ppax^os, from neuter &paxi> t used as a; 
substantive, ' except a very shallow [piece] just round the 
extreme edges.' 

320 NOTES. 

1. 9. KaTaS^aas. Before the invention of locks for 
boxes, they were usually corded and secured with a knot. 
Odysseus (Od. 8. 447) is said to have fastened his trea- 
sure-chest with a knot which Circe taught him how to 

1. 11. iroXXd, adverbial, 'though the prophets, and his 
friends too, vehemently dissuaded him.' 

1. 13. afr&s faciimi, his own journey is thus distinguished 
from the mission of Maeandrius. 

irpds 8d, ' and, what is more/ (' praeterea'). He did so 
* although his daughter had seen a vision.' 

1. 17. iraiTow| tyipcTo, lit. 'became of every sort:' like 
Proteus, turning himself into various shapes to effect his 
purpose. A graphic phrase to express ' tried every means/ 
' nihil non tenlavii.' We might render it by a metaphor, 
equally graphic, though of very different origin : * left no 
stone unturned/ The sense of the phrase thus being 
equivalent to, ' she tried/ or, ' she entreated/ the infinitive 
jjl^i diro$T)p)o-<u follows naturally. 

1. 19. £ir€+T)fi.£€To, ' uttered her boding words after him/ 
<f>i7/ii7, ' a voice/ has also the meaning of the omen con- 
nected with any utterance, whether bad or good. The 
adjectives dkfnipot and dvo-Qrjftos illustrate this. 

1. 21. Irrvnkla touto, viz. his safe return, although it 
implied her enforced maidenhood. 

1. 22. Join pouXcoOcu . . . ^ £oT€fnja6ai, the clause intro- 
duced by ^ follows directly upon Poiikco-Oai in the sense of 
1 mallei and not upon ir\&>. We should rather expect irok- 
\6v than 7rAea>, as there is no real comparison between two 
different periods of time : butTrXc© here takes its colouring 
from the general tone of the sentence, which is the com- 
parison between virginity and orphanhood, with a pre- 
ference for the former. 

1. 25. iv Be W|, like npos 8c, sup. ' alque in his etiam! 


1. 28. t&v kot kwrbv, 'of his contemporaries/ See Curt. 
§459. B. b. 

1. 30. 8™ tfiss'mri.' Curt. § 633 b. The Sicilian 
despots alluded to are the brothers Gelo and Hiero. 

1. 32. fj.eyaXoirp&rciaf, accusative of reference, Curt. 

§ 404. 

1. 33. ouk d£wj$ dmiY^o-ios, 'in a way not fit (i. e. too 
horrible) to recount.' 

1. 36. I6vras £\cu6lpou$. The participle gives the reason, 
s that they were free/ 

1. 38. iroictffj.ei'os etxc One might say, hr avbpcm6btav 

\6y<p cVoiccro, or e?x € - But here e?x € gives rather the sense 
of ' continuing to do it:' as, above, e'x* eroipas. 

1. 41. dml§ aurfe, ' as he himself exhaled moisture from 
his body/ The drops which the sun drew from the sur- 
face of the exposed body served as a sort of anointing 
(xpUvdai), and thus the warning of the dream came true. 

VI. The Story of Zopyrus. 


1. 2. ircpl ttoXXou iroi&Tai, ' sets great store on/ lit. places 
above much, Curt. § 466 B b. 

1. 3. iroXXou tijmuto, genitive of price. 

1. 6. t$ rb irp6o-o), lit. ' are honoured up to an advance 
of greatness ; ' this is really equivalent to two ideas ; sc. 
' honoran/ur, et adinsignem magnitudinis gradum evehuntur! 

1. 8. €i 8' IuiitA?, ' unless he should go over to them as 
a deserter, having disfigured himself/ This may serve for 
a translation, but grammatically «' 8* introduces a fresh 
protasis, the apodosis of which is not express^* ''Wfe 


322 NOTES. 

did not think he could gain the city in any other way; 
but if he should desert to them [he thought he might 

1. 9. lv £\a$p<J irotT]o-dp,€W)s, 'making light/ sc. of the 
self-sacrifice and pain. 

1. 10. XwpaTCH XwpTjy. See Curt. § 400. a. This par- 
ticular use of the verb with accusative of identical form is 
called by grammarians 'figura etymological 

1. 12. jiaaTiywcrag. We might expect /lariyaxrdfievos, 
as the action was performed on himself; but the participle 
is assimilated in voice with diroTap&i' and ircputcipas. 

1. 16. 8 ti irouqa-aiTa, as we should say, * For what deed V 
lit. having done what ? The accusative is governed by 

XcDprjcaiTO, to be supplied from 6 Xa/Sqcrdftci'Off. 

1. 17. o6k <foTi outos di^jp, ' such a man exists not, save 
thee/ Cf. Horn. Od. 6. 201 ovk fotf o$w avfjp, oi>& «r- 
(T€Tai, ovBe y€W)Tai. For this force of or* firf see above 

v. § 4 . 

1. 18. «&€ 8ia6cimi, 'so to treat/ lit. to put in such a 

1. 19. auT&$ eyw ^jiewurdy, SC. ra8e epycurpai. 

1. 21. KOToycXai', not uncommonly used in Herodotus 
with the dative. Elsewhere it is found with the genitive. 

1. 25. irapcumqo'orrai, 'surrender themselves/ lit. come 
over to our side. 

1. 26. ^irXaxras, lit. 'sailed away from.' We may 
translate, ' taken leave of your senses/ 

1. 28. ircpieiSes, sc. noir]<ravTa y t wouldest not have suf- 
fered me to do it/ ncpiopav gets this notion from the 
idea of looking round or beyond something, instead of 
looking straight at it : so ' to be careless about ' * make 
light of/ ' overlook/ 

bf £|4€u>uToC PaXtSpci'os. This phrase is supposed by 
some to mean, ' having taken it upon myself/ i. e. on my 

STORF OF ZOPYRUS. VI. §§ 1, 2. 333 

own individual responsibility. It is more likely an ex- 
tension of the expression h 6vp6v ™ /3oX\e<rdai, common in 
Herodotus, and resembling the Homeric h <^>€<rl pdXkco 
o-jjo'i, II. 1. 297. Translate then, ' having pondered it with 
myself alone/ Schweighauser renders, 'Secum solo deli- 
berare. Rem in animo suo ultro citroque iactare! 

1. 29. V pk\ twk u&v &€TJ<rr], * unless there be a want of thy 
(co-operation)/ 'Nisi ea quae sunt tuarum par Hum mihi 
defuerint.' The same construction is seen in the com- 
mon phrase 7roXXou for. 

1. 30. alpiopev, he speaks as if the taking of Babylon 
were already beginning. 

ws «?x w > ' j us t as I am *' 
1. 35. dird towttjs c$ ScKdTrjK, ' on the tenth day from this/ 

1. 36. ttjs &iro\\u|j.lnr)§, lit. 'of which perishing there 
will be no account/ i. e. that part of the army which can 
best be spared, ' the loss of which is of no importance/ 

1. 41. ihrciTci', the Ionic form for «r«ra. Cp. cWkcv and 


Kdnaov. Herodotus uses Karifav both transitively 
and intransitively. 

1- 43* ^x < * r,w > imperative, -=■' gerant.' 

tw tyMvouvrwy (&rXo>v), 'defensive weapons/ Fut. 
particip. act. from apvva>. 

1. 44. touto, sc. t6 iyxeipi&tov. kav has the force of an 
imperative, Curt. § 577. So kcXcucik below. 

1. 51. paXa^dypT] is a key which catches (aypct) the pin 
(Pakavos), that passes through the door bolt (pox^*)- 
When the pin is lifted the bolt can be moved backwards 
or forwards. 


1. 1. im<rrp€<^6\i.€vos } i. e. turning round, like a man who 
fears that he is being watched or pursued, 

T 2 

324 NOTES. 

1. 3. kotA tooto, ' at that spot,' SC t»v Trvpycov. 

1. 5. tis e it] . . . ot€u 8c6|ieras. This combination of 
direct and indirect interrogative pronouns is common in 
Homer. Cp. Od. I. 171 tis mSfe? els avbp&v, v60l trot irokis 
^8c toktJ€s I 6inroiY)§ y €7rl w^s eXrjXvOas ; 

1. 8. tA KoiKd, 'the general assembly/ Cp. ra reXy, 
meaning ' the magistrates/ 

1. 9. KaToiKTilcTo, ' made his complaint/ 

1. 11. 8uSti (nifj.pouXcucrac.. The infinitive follows btfot 
because the sentence is in oratio obliqua. Cp. Hdt. 3. 

55 Ttfiav Sapiovs e(f>rj bi6ri raxfnjvai ol top irdmrop drjfioaitj xmb 

1. 12. licel t€. Notice the Epic use of tc, which is here 
not copulative, but only emphatic. Cp. o«fe re in Attic. 

1. 13. tjica) fj.e'yurroi' &yaQ6v. Cp. for a similar expres- 
sion, Hom. Od. 3. 306 t<S be ol oyboarcp KCtK^f t^XuOc Kos 

, 0/3€OT65='came as a curse/ 

1. 17. 8ic£<$ou§, 'ins and outs/ The whole of the sun's 
track is called 17 r)\iov bufabos, Hdt 4. 140. So here 
btigoboi PovXtvpaTGiP mean ' Viae et rationes constltorum! 

1. 22. twk Alero o-<f>cW, 'what he asked of them/ dcWAu 
is used with genitive of person and thing. Cp. *cu <nv 

beofiai fir) beeaBcu dvofxcov, Hdt. 1.8. 

1. 27. -rods x i M° u s> those thousand men that Darius was 
to post on the tenth day at the gate of Semiramis. 

1. 29. irapcxrfpci'oi', 'making his deeds as good as his 

1. 32. *iu\€£<£|i€i>os, 'having picked out' some of the 
Babylonians : partitive genitive, Curt. §412. 

1. 35. iv crnSjicuTi ctxoi', 'had his name ever on their 
lips/ a\viovT€$ is a necessary addition, for the phrase b 
crrrf/iao-t exuv may be used where the subject of conver- 
sation is in disfavour: as, e.g. Miltiades, Hdt. 6. 136 

*A0rjvaloi be ck Ilupov MaXtioStiv diroi/oor^cravTa ei^oy cv ar6pa0U 


1. 39. irdrra ^ Zwirupos, as we say, ' Zopyrus was every- 
thing* or ' all in all/ 

1. 41. direS&cKTo, ' constitutus erat? (anobeiicvvvai). 

§ 3. 

1. 6. &ri)K€, from My pi. 

1. 8. Zeds BrjXos. Bel (Baal) was the name of the Sun- 
god worshipped by the Babylonians. Herodotus gives a 
description of his temple in B. 1. 181. 

1. 10. IpaOoK irpoScSopcpoi, ' learned that they had been 

L n. t& Sci/Tcpo?, b.c. 519. The first capture by Cyrus 
(b.c. 538) is described above, III. § 8. 

1. 1 2. touto piv . . . touto Sc, see note on I. § 2. 

1. 13. lrcpieiXe, ' diruitj lit. * circumcirca sustulit! 

VII. Darius and the Scythians. 


1. 3. l£6v -rot . . . iroi&ii', ' when it is in thy power to do 
the opposite of this/ rw%€ is equivalent to tov del (f>€vyeiv. 
€£6v, absol. accus., see Curt. § 586. 

1. 5. cru Be . . . fJ.(£x€o6ai, apodosis to el fiev yap. So 
below ei di avyyiypaMTMcu . . . <rv oc ikde. paxwdcu has the 

force of the imperative. 

1. 8. yf[v t€ koI 38wp. To bring presents of earth and 
water was equivalent to making complete submission, 
symbolising the surrender of every possession. 

1. 12. fcfifrcpoV ti €i|w irotTJo-ag, 'have I done anything 
more unusual/ 

326 NOTES. 

1. 13. on &, 'but the reason why I do not at once give 

1. 16. AXw'tj, (dXt'<r#cof*ai), refers to Arrca, and KOpg, (K«p»), 

to yf) 7r«l)vT€VfjL(pri m ' In fear for which, lest they be taken 
or ravaged, we might lose no time in joining battle with 
you/ TaxtfTcpop (in Attic 6ao-<ror) means 'sooner* than 
we otherwise should. 

1. 17. es tooto, i. e. to battle. 

1. 21. cit€ Kal ou, and not prj, because ov is closely 
bound up with the single word /xax^peda. So ct & ravra 

OV 7TOlTjaOV(Tl } Hdt. 7- 9* 

1. 22. Vrt ^H^as \6yos atp£r), ' nisi nobis ratio suaseriil 
Similar formulas in Herodotus are &>s *fu) yvaprj aip&i, and 
ov&c \6yos alpeei followed by accusative and infinitive. 
mp€tf=lit. ' catch/ or, 'convince.' 

1. 25. 'Iotii), ('Eorta, Vesta), possibly in the cult of this 
goddess the Scythians show themselves as fire-worship- 
pers in some shape or other. 

1. 28. dm, 8c tou, ' and in return for thy saying that 
thou wast my master, I bid thee "go hang/" itXaicir 
Xeyw is like \aipeiv X£ya>. Cp. Horace, Sat. 1. 10. 91 l iubto 

§ 2. 

1. 1. tc*Xos, used adverbially, like apxyv, ' at last/ 

1. 5. rbv v6ov, ' the import/ 

1. 8. rb IBikei, ' what the gifts intend to tell/ Cp. Hdt. 
6. 37 rL dcXei to tiros elvai ; 'Quid sibi vult hoc verbum ? 

1. 11. ciKd&w. This participle can agree neither with 
Aapciov nor yv&firi, but it follows a construct™ ad sensum as 
though the words had run Aap&os Zyvv. 

1. 12. rbv auToy d^Gpwirw, Curt. § 436 b. 

I. 14. oticc, Ionic fotm fox *qu«, (coc©). 


tous SI 6urro&$, 'and the arrows they surrender, as 
(representing) their own means of defence/ 

1. 1 5. Aapcup, ' by Darius.' More usually vnb Aapclov. 

1. 16. owftTT^Kce, 'clashed.' See III. § 11 ad init. 

1. 17. t£jv t6v YA&yov ko.t€\6vtq)v. See Introd. to Chap. 
VI. (Story of Zopyrus). 

1. 25. T€Tay|i&own, not to be confounded with the gen. 
absolute. It is the so-called dativus commodi. 'A hare 
ran right through into the midst for the Scythians;' or, 
as we should say in familiar language, ' the Scythians had 
a hare run down the middle of their lines.' The same 
dative is used even of inanimate things in Homer. Cp. 

Od. 9. 149 Kcktraoyjin di wjucrl KaOeiXofieu iarla noma. 
1. 26. 8i//)i$€, from biat(T(T(t>. 

1. 28. porf xp€wiLivQ>\r=zPoG>vTG>v. A favourite periphrasis 

in HerodotUS, SO tcoifup xpfjaBai and dprrayfj xprjadai. 

1. 30. irpds Totforrcp, sc. his nearest attendants, with 
whom he commonly conversed. 

1. 33. 6s &v ootws, 'since then these things do now 
seem so to be in my judgment also.' With BoK€<Snw 

Supply TOVToav. 

1. 37. X&yw f|m<rr<£fM|i', 'knew by report.' 
diropiT]K twk foZp&v. Not, as it would ordinarily mean, 
' the difficulties these men are in,' but ' the impracticable 
nature of or 'difficulty of dealing with.' So Hdt. 4. 

46 Sjcv&u Sfiaxpi re /cat airopot npoa-fAiaytiv. 
1. 40. iKKauaarras, ' having lighted up.' 
1. 41. -rods doOcKconiTous Is, 'feeblest for enduring.' 
1. 42. ^airaT^cravTag. The full meaning of the word 

must be, ' leaving them behind under some false pretence.' 
1. 45. to i\\i.ias ol6v tc 3<rnu i&py&vaoQcu—^uodnos 

possit perdere,' 


3^8 NOTES. 

§ 3. 

1. 3. T&v fy . . . \6yo$. Almost the same phrase as in 

VI. § I (TTpaTirjs ttjs ovdepia corcu &prj aTroXkvfuvrjs, where see 


1. 8. TTf>o<j>d<nos, still in the government of tlvcKcv. 

1. 9. tw KaGapw tou orpaToG, * the effective part of the 

1. 14. o5to> W| . . . $a>rij9, 'raised a far louder noise/ 
rrjs <f>a>prjs seems to be a partitive genitive ; and the con- 
struction must be distinguished from the ordinary Uvai 


1. 16. kotA x^FW ' in the same place/ ' on the [original] 

1. 19. tA Ka'nfyKoiTa, 'suitable words,' of explanation 
and entreaty. 

VIII. Story of the Peisistratidae. 


1. 1 . twk iraprfXuy. The men of the coast, consisting 
mainly of merchants and sailors, were led by the Alcmae- 
onid Megacles, son-in-law of the Sicyonian tyrant Clei- 
sthenes ; Lycurgus was the leader of the men of the plain, 
the occupiers of land on the banks of the Cephisus* 
Peisistratus espoused the cause of the men of the moun- 
tains, who were for the most part tillers of the soil, vine- 
dressers, or shepherds. 

1. 4. KaTa<f>poni]cras has not here its usual force of 
'despising/ but stands simply as a stronger form of 
(fipoveeiv, as KaraBoKeeiv (in Herodotus) of SoKeeiv. Trans- 
iate, 'pondering over,' and so 'fornvvw^ testis upon/ 


1. 6. t<£ \4y*>, 'avowedly.' He pretended to be the 
champion of the mountaineers ; he really was aiming at 
the sovereignty. 

1. 10. 8tj0€K, like Lat. l scilicet j has an ironical force, 
= ' forsooth/ 

1. 12. Mcyap&$. The Megareans had possessed them- 
selves of Salamis, and the expedition here alluded to was 
undertaken for its recovery. Nisaea was the harbour of 

1. 20. Tijx&s, ' offices/ * magistracies.' 

1. 21. £irl Toiai KaTcoreokri, 'maintaining the existing 

§ 2. 

1. 1. t6ot6 <t>ponr)o-an-€s, ' consentienies ;' ' having made 
agreement together/ 

1. 3. ovtw \Uv loxc, * this is the way he got possession 
of;' referring to his first success. 

1. 6. £k ^tjs,=' denuo! So we have c£ vorepijy, ef airpwr- 


1. 7. irepic\aui'<Sji€i'os, ' hard driven/ ' agitatus! 

L 8. 01 -d\v Quyaripa, 'his daughter/ The enclitic is 
drawn out of its natural place by the influence of the 

1. 9. 2x €lK ywcuKo, ' to have to wife/ 

tm tt| Tvpavvihi, l on the condition of [holding] the 

1. 1 1. £m tjJ kcit&o, ' with a view to his return/ sc. from 
banishment. So ol kclti6pt€s. 

1. 12. Haiaviii. The hamlet Paeania belonged to 
the Pandionic tribe ; it was situated on the eastern side of 
Mount Hymettus. 

1. 13. jiiyaOos,' in height wanting only three s^t^Iiwsi 
four cubits/ lit. leaving short three spax&. * 


330 NOTES. 

1. 16. irpo&larrcs . . . ^\owra, 'having shown her, i.e. 
taught her how to assume a carriage, such as she was 
sure to look most attractive, with.' 

010V ti is governed directly by exowra, and efrirpeir^- 
oraTOK is an adverb qualifying (jxiveto-dai. 

1. 24. ^fioos, the outlying hamlets, in contradistinction 

^e > *» tt - 
OL ev T<lj> €UTT€l. 

§ 3. 

1. 2. ircpiciirc, ' treated/ So rprixcm ircptcowovro. 

1. 4. diraXXdao-cTo. This took place 549 B.C. The first 
exile belongs to the year 555 b.c, the return to 550 b.c. 

1. 9. 01 Ik too aoreos. We might expect ol iv t£ 5ot«, 
but the word dmKorro is to follow, and the writer wishes 
to speak about the Athenians in the city, coming out of 
the city, which would be expressed in full, ol eV r$ aarei «c 
rod aarcos dniKovro. But the Greek idiom is able to make 
a sort of concentrated form of these two statements, by 
shifting a clause that should naturally go with the verb 
into close connection with the article. As a result of 

which we get ol ck rov aoreos orcuriSrrcu. Cp. Hdt. *j. 37 

O tyXiOff €Kkl7TO)V TfJV CK TOV OVpdVOV cdpTJV aObcttnfS TjP. 

1. 11. irpo Acu6cpiT)s, where we should expect the con- 
junction rj. See Curt. § 454 c. 

1. 18. KaTtoVras, 'the returning exiles.' Cp. sup. eirl 
17} KaTo&p. So KaTcpxopai, in Arist. Ran. 1165. 

1. 19. is t6ut6 owioVres, ' eundem in locum congressi, (sc 
cum hoste)y l meeting them/ 

1. 20. ria\\T]vi&os, ' of Pallene ;' this was one of the 
hamlets in the neighbourhood of Athens, near Acharnae, 
between Pentelicus and the northerly spur of Hymettus. 

1. 21. I0€iro oirXa, ' piled arms;' equivalent to c took up 
* position/ 


1. 25. 0<S\os, 'the cast of the net* has been made. 

L 26. olfufjorauox, ' will sweep in/ olpav is used for the 
swoop of a hawk upon a dove in II. 22. 140. 

1. 28. crvWaffov, exactly corresponding to the Latin 
equivalent, ' having comprehended/ 

1. 30. apurroK. The mention of dice-playing and the 
siesta (vnvos) makes it probable that apurrov is here not 
the early Homeric breakfast, but the mid-day lunch, which 
became the practice in later times. The early breakfast 
was called eucpctrurpos. 

1. 3 1 . jiCT€$£rcpoi, ' some of them ; ' this is further divided 
into ol fiiv and ol &. 

1. 35. |x^t€ . . . tc, equivalent in meaning to ' non solum 
non . . . sed etiam? With this use of the conjunctions cp. 

Hdt. 5* 49 °" T€ yty °* fiapfiapoi dkKifjLoi clai, vp-cis T6 es ra 

fieyurra avffKerc aperijs. Here, the design of Peisistratus is 
not only that the Athenians should never rally again, but, 
more than that, that they should be dispersed. The 
optative which follows imrexvarcu must be explained from 
the fact that hnrcxwrai is really the historic present. 

L 36. Toife ircuSas, three in number. 

1. 43. r&y jj,^ o6t<S0€k, sc. from the silver mines at 
Laurium ; the revenues that came in cmb 2rpvp6vos must 
be the proceeds of the gold mines in Thrace. 

1. 46. 'A\KfAcua>vt&€a>, sc. Megacles. The Athenians who 
had fallen were, of course, from the number of the ol ck 



1. 3. ivapy€<ndrqv, l most vivid/ used in Homer, Od. 4. 
841, of visions that were clear and unmistakably real. 

1. 5. T&raepa, sc. B.C. 514-510. Herodotus evidently 
does not adopt the popular view, celebrated by the Greek 4 

332 NOTES. 

lyrists, that Hannodius and Aristogeiton were really the 
deliverers of Athens. He would rather accredit the Alc- 
maeonidae with that work. 

1. 6. irpoT^pt) governs the genitive Uava$rjvaia>y, 'in the 
night before the Panathenaea/ 

riava(h)val(j>v. The greater Panathenaea, celebrated 
every four years, was the grandest of the Attic festivals, 
and was held in honour of Athena Polias. It was said to 
have been instituted by Erichthonius, and remodelled by 
Theseus, on the occasion of his uniting the scattered 
commonalty of Athens. The feast lasted four days, and 
the most splendid feature in it was the grand procession 
on the last day. 

1. 8. ot ImaT&vTa, * standing over him/ 

1. io. T\tj0i. Notice the intentional jingle in the first 
line, which has thus been rendered in Latin, * Fortiter haec 
leo fer, quamvis /era, quando ferendum est.* 

1. 12. $aycpd$ fy uirepTi0^i€Kos, 'he openly submitted it' 

1. 13. dTreiircijwKos, ' having sought to avert/ lit having 
refused, or said No! to, viz. by performing expiatory 
sacrifices. The details of the whole story are given in 
Thuc. 6. 54-58. The time of the Panathenaea was 
chosen, because then the citizens might appear in arms. 

§ 5. 

1. 3. ^ctfyorres. See § 3 ad fin. 

1. 5. Join TT€ipu|^Ko«ri KcnrA t6 \v\uphv, < though trying 
with might and main/ 

1. 6. irpoalirratoK, ' met with sore disaster/ 

1. 7. A€i<|ni8pioK was an insignificant place, on one of the 
spurs of Mount Parnes, that separates Attica from Boeotia. 
and near the hamlet of Paeania. It was no doubt an 
«nr«x l(r f l ° s > ^k e ^*- °^ k^> ^ Decelea. 


1. 10. *A\j4>iktv6vwv. This word is probably the same as 
dp(f)iKTiov€s, or the * dwellers round about/ These asso- 
ciations of neighbouring tribes, to promote mutual inter- 
course and to protect a common temple, were of very 
early origin. The most famous of these associations was 
the Amphictyonic League, that had its meetings near 
Thermopylae in the autumn, and at Delphi in the spring, 
at which meetings representatives from various states, 
called Pylagorae and Hieromnemones, attended. Bjesides 
pledging themselves to certain acts of international comity, 
the representatives undertook to protect and preserve the 
temple at Delphi. This temple had been burned down 
in b.c. 549, and the Alcmaeonidae rov vr\6v fuoOoGrroi 
££oiico&op]o-ai, 'contract for the building of the temple:' 
' templum conducunt aedificandum! 

1. 12. xf w II Jl ^ TWI ' € " fJKOKTes. See on I. § 2. 1. 17. 

1. 14. iraprf&eiypa is the 'specification/ which the con- 
tractors had to carry out. 

t<£ t* aXXa, xat . . . £§eiroiT)<rai', lit. ' both in other 
respects . . . and also they built its front,' etc. This is a 
short way of saying, ' they exceeded the specification in 
many points and also in this that they built,' etc. It is 
worth while comparing with the form of sentence, Hdt. 

6. 21 'ABtjvcuoi \m€paxBfo , 6ivT€s rj) MiXrjrov dXaxret, rfj T€ 
SKXtj 7roXXa^5» *<" &*l KCLl iroirjcravri &pvvix<(> bpapa MiXrjrov 
oKomtiv . . . e&ifjiioMrav piv. 

1. 15. (ruyK€i\i&v6v <r$i, 'when it had been agreed on 
between them/ accus. absol., Curt. § 586. 

ntupiKos Xi0os seems to have been a common kind of 
marble, greatly inferior to the Parian. 

§ 6. 

1. 3. Sku>s ZkQoikv=:' guofits advenirent! £*«>? being equi- 
valent here to 6k6t€. 

334 NOTES. 

1. 4. xpx]<r6^€voi. The middle voice means 'oraculum 
cansulere* ' to get an oracle uttered for oneself; ' the active 
xpa» is 'oraculum cdere;' of which the direct passive is used 

Cp. pavT€Vfiara 6. tov& £)(pVja0r) v&yuaros. 
TtpofyipGiv—' obiicere.' 

1. 6. TTp6+avrov is used here as a noun, in the sense of 
the more ordinary \6yiov or Bcorrponiw. 

1. 10. irpcapuTcpa, 'more important/ Similar is the use 
of the.verb irpo-pcvcaBai, and with it may be compared the 
Latin ' antiquius! 

1. 12. d-n^0t]<rc, transitive aorist, 'disembarked.' 'Pha- 
lerum is the most ancient, as well as it is the most natural, 
harbour of Athens. It is nearer than Piraeus to the city, 
and the Cephisus and Ilissus, between which Athens is 
placed, lead into it. The Piraeus seems not to have been 
used as a port till the time of Pericles/ Rawlinson. 

1. 15. aurous is equivalent to Q£<radkoi>s, suggested by 


1. 16. koikt) vcupi), ' a public vote/ 

1. 17. frnros, fem., in the collective sense =' cavalry/ 

1. 19. lf&T)xa^aTo, so Herodotus gives ^SouXfaTo for cfZov- 

\ovto and airucearOy iyipearo, etc. 

1. 24. Karipiav Is, 'cooped them up into/ i. e. drove 
them back upon. 

1. 26. dir^XXa|€, 'so fared/ lit. came off. 

Ta<t>al, in the plural, is sometimes used for the burial 

place of one person : SO *Afui<ns eraser) iv tjjo-i rcufnjo-i Hdt. 
3. IO. Cp. Soph. Aj. 1090 is Ta<f)ds. 

1. 27. 'AXwirticai, one of the hamlets of Athens on the 
N. E. of the city. 

1. 35. 6s etxoK='^ ves/igio,' 'at once/ 

1. 38. ncXcujYiKw, i. e. the Acropolis, which the Pelasgi 
were said to have fortified for the Athenians. 




1. i. icai . . . l£€Z\ov=' tieu/iquam eiecissent Pisistraiidas 

1. 2. ^jreBpY], Attic tyibpaj—'obsidio.' 

1 5. Join &k diraWckraorro, ' after a few days ' siege they 
would have departed, had not an event occurred/ This 

would be the most natural way, viz. el firj avvrvxlrj eireycvcro, 

instead of which a new sentence is begun, wv 8e awrvxiri 

K. T. X. 

1. 7. uir€KTi0^fji€Kot, 'in the act of being removed.' 
1. 10. iirl fuo6a> Tourt T&youn. The construction seems 
very uncertain : apparently eVl governs tckvoio-i and pivOti 
is in predicative apposition ; the whole clause meaning, 
' they surrendered themselves on condition of [recovering] 
the children as their pay, on those terms which the 
Athenians liked, viz. that they should quit/ 

^w ot<ri is neuter, and does not agree in any way 

with TCKVOtCTi. 

1. 14. TpirJKorra. Peisistratus seized the sovereignty 
b.c. 560, and died b.c. 527, having reigned nearly seven- 
teen years out of the thirty-three. Hippias reigned 
fourteen years before the death of Hipparchus (b.c. 514), 
and four afterwards. He was expelled b.c. 510. 

IX. The Battle of Marathon. 


1. 1. KcU)<rrpiov. The Cayster rises in Mount Tmolus, 
and, passing through the fertile plain between Tmolus 
and Messogis, empties itself into the sea b^ 3L\ShesN&» 

33<S NOTES. 

1. 2. AmKotro, sc. at Sardis. 

1. 6. t6 St jji^i XerjXaTrjo-ai. The subject to the sentence 
is t6%€, l this prevented their sacking the city after having 
taken it/ 

1. 7. 2ox€ has the force of ' cohibuiL' 

1. 8. KaXctfuitu. ' In Eastern capitals the houses are 
still rarely of brick or stone. Reeds and wood constitute 
the chief building materials. Hence the terrible confla- 
grations which from time to time devastate them/ Raw- 

1. 11. httvlpero, 'spread over/ In Aesch. Ag. 485, used 
of ' growing encroachment/ In Hdt. 3. 133, of 'a spread- 
ing and devouring ulcer/ 

1. 13. AiroXap^*' 1 ' 6 ?- The Ionic forms from Xafifbba 
retain the p in several instances, instead of changing to 17, 
as Xdpyfropaiy \c\afipai, {\dfi(f>$r]v. Translate here, ' cut off 
on all sides/ 

1. 14. For 5ot€ with participle (as here &<rrc vc^ofi/ww), 
see Curt. § 558. There is a similar use with a* and 


1. 16. riaicTwX<$K. The gold-dust of Pactolus was cele- 
brated at an early period; cp. Soph. Philoct. 393 6pc<rrkpa 

Ta, & top pcyap IlaKTcokbv et^pvo-ov pefttc?. By the time of 

Augustus it appears to have been exhausted. 
1. 19. 6 &£, sc'Epfios, 'empties into the sea/ 
1. 26. 6tt6 KificTa,=',ra^ nocteml 

1. 27. Zrfp&is. This plur. nom. is written also Sdp&et 
and 2dp§**?. 

1. 28. KuPrjpT). This ' great ' or ' sacred ' mother of the 
gods was worshipped in various places and under different 
forms. She was the representative of the generative 
powers of nature, and the orgies that accompanied her 
worship were notorious for licence and excess. In Phry- 
gia. she was known as Ma. In the times of Hannibal she 

BATTLE OF MARATHON. IX. §§ 1-3. 337 

found her way to Rome under the title of Magna 

t& oKvpn^cKoi, 'making a pretext of which/ So 
Hdt. 5. 30 o-Krjyfrw iroicvpcvos. Herodotus probably mis*- 
interprets the motives of the Persians here. No doubt 
the destruction of Greek temples was dictated by the true 
iconoclastic spirit of the Persian religion. 



1. 3. cruXXoy^i, 'coalition;' properly, ' collecting of troops.' 

1. 4. X^yerai, impers. ' it is said.' 

1. 6. KaTairpot§€o6ai, from 7rpoi£, 'a free gift;' irpouca, 
' freely/ i. e. with nothing to pay. ' Knowing that the 
Ionians would not get scot-free/ ' would pay dear.' 

L 7. fierd &£ takes up irpara fA€P. 'And next, when he 
had learned it.' 

1. 9. direiycu, ' shot/ (dQirjfit). The idea was that the 
arrow carried a message up to heaven. By Zevr Hero- 
dotus means the Persian Ormuzd. ' The Greeks identify 
the supreme god of each nation with their own Zeus. Cp. 
Hdt. 1. 131 ; 2. 55, etc.* Rawlinson. 

1. 11. iKyevivQai jxoi, • mihi contingat! The Greek 
idiom sometimes employed a sort of exclamatory infini- 
tive in an optatival sense. Cp. Horn, Od. 17. 354 Zev 

ava, Trj\cpax6v pot iv avbpa<riv oXfiiop ctfai, | kclI ol irdvra yivoitf 
ocraa (frpealv rj<n ficvoivq, Aesch. S. C. T. 253 ^ €0 ^ *°X*™f ph 
fi€ BovKeias rvj^lv. 

1. 14. jj^fAveo. A form of the imperative implying a 
present, not in use, /ifftvo/uu. Cp. p€pv&p(6a 9 Hdt. 7* 47> 
Horn. Od. 14. 168. 


1. 1. iv aol Ian, 'it lies with thee/ ^ 


338 NOTES. 

1. 2. Xiirlofai, middle voice, ' to leave a memorial for 

1. 4. Xcurouox, the present tense, because the effect is 
still lasting of what they left hehind them. 

1. 5. l£ 08=' ex quo J 'from the time when/ 

1. 7. &&okt<u, ' it has been decided,' sc. by the Persians. 

1. 8. otij ri &m, 'it is able;' lit. it is just the sort [of 
city] as to, etc. 

1. 10. is <ri ti, ' to thee in a way,' ' to thee more or less.' 

1. n. TrpayjjwiTWK is genitive after icupos, which is the 
object to *x €iV ' 

1. 14. SXirojAcu, 'I expect,' used of fear as well as of 

1. 16. fyhk crufj,p<ji\u>fA€K, 'but if we engage before any 
unsoundness finds its way among some of the Athenians, 
if the gods give us fair play, we are able to be victors in 
the engagement.' 

1. 21. irpocrOi), 'give your adhesion.' Cp. Hdt. 2. 120 

ry \6ycp r<p \ex$€vri, irpoariOcpai. 

1. 23. diitxrireuS&'iw, ' dissuadentium;' t^k t&v dutxnrcu- 
$6nwv, SC. yv&fiqv. 

1. 24. tov cyw KaT&c£a dyaQ&v. Curt. § 598. 2. 

1. 27. ^KCKopwro, 'it was settled.' 

1. 28. ^ "yi^SjxTj I<t>cp€, ' sententiaferebat* ' eo tendebat* 

1. 29. irpuTarr|tY| ttjs fm4py)s, 'the presidency of the day/ 
sc. ' dies quo quis praesidet concilio? The command in chief 
devolved each day upon a different general. 

1. 30. Soc^yos, concessive, ' though he accepted it.' 


1. 1. ir€ptt)\0€, 'it came round,' in rotation. 
1. 2. Sclidc. The right wing was the special post of 
honour ; the danger of the position consisted particularly 

BATTLE OF MARATHON. IX. §§ 3, 4. 339 

in the defenceless condition of the right side, the shield 
being carried on the left arm. The Polemarch took the 
post as representative of the King, whose place it had 
been in ancient times. 

1. 6. i&hiKovro at 4>u\al, ' the tribes came in succession 
as they were numbered, keeping close to one another/ 6$ 
dpi6fiioiTo, refers to the order assigned every year by ballot 
to the tribes, according to which they were to furnish the 
prytanies for the year. It was the prytany of the tribe 
Aeantis on that day, so that they occupied the right wing. 
' The democratical arrangements of the Cleisthenic con- 
stitution prevailed in the camp no less than in the city 
itself. Not only was the army marshalled by tribes, but 
the tribes stood in their political order/ Rawlinson. 

1. 8. &n$ Taints y<£p. The meaning implied by yap is 
something like this, 'the Plataeans must have rendered 
signal service in this battle, for from that day forth/ etc. 
The enclitic <r+i, which is thus put early in the sentence, 
belongs grammatically to Kcn-wxcru. 

1. 10. ireKTenipujx. The allusion is probably to the great 
Panathenaic festival. The use of tivdytiv in the sense of 
'celebrating' seems to come from the 'leading up' of 
processions, etc., to the temples, which were commonly 
built on ' high places/ 

1. 12. yiyeoOcu, depends upon icarev^erai. 
1. 14. t6 OTpaT&irc&OK ^lo-oujicfOf. The word rb orpar6- 
ir&ov represents here the whole, of which rb pJkv picrov and 
r6 be Kcpas are the subdivisions. Accordingly, instead of 
using the genitive absolute rod arparvirkbov i^urovpivov, the 
writer, by an anticipative apposition, attracts the main 
subject into the same case as the two subdivisions, which 
are the subjects to eyiWo and tpp<oro respectively. For a 
similar apposition cp. Hdt. 3. 95 rb 81 xpvo-foi/ TpurKaifoKa- 

otcutiov \oyi(6pcvov rb y^rjypa tvpiVieerai civ k.t.X. r Yx < axv^a^% 

Z 2 

340 NOTES. 

' The Athenian army being made equal in length with 
the Persian, the centre of it was but few ranks deep; 
and here the army was weakest: bat each wing was 
strengthened with a depth of many ranks.' That is to 
say, the Athenians and Plataeans, with only 11,000 men, 
had to present a front all along the Persian line ; and as 
the principle of all Athenian tactics was to throw their 
main strength upon the flanks, it followed of necessity that 
the centre of the army was very shallow. They seem to 
have entertained the English notion of meeting die enemy 
with ' the thin red line.' 


1. i. As ©ut^toicto, ' when [the battle] was set in array. 1 
An impersonal passive. 

1. a. Airctdrjo-oK, ' emissi sunt? (acphj^u). 

1. 3. 1\<rw. The verb is attracted here into the num- 
ber of the predicate arabun, instead of being in direct con- 
cord with the subject, rb peralxjuop. 

1. 6. ivi+epov, ' charged them with/ ' attributed to them.' 

1. 7. The use of koa before *6yxy is not copulative, 

but merely emphasises nayxy, as elsewhere in Herodotus, 

kcu Kdpra, or frequently in Attic, km now. Cp. Horn. OA 

I. 318 kcu fiaka KaXbv (\a>v. 

It has often been doubted whether it was possible for 
troops to run for a mile before engaging ; and we majr 
doubdess regard it as a singular piece of perilous daring. 
But it must not be forgotten that, owing to the constant 
practice of gymnastic exercises, the Greeks may be said 
to have been always ' in training/ Miltiades saw that the 
quicker his troops got over the intervening ground, the 
less they would be likely to suffer from the rain of arroirs 
poured upon themby \iv& Psisian archers. 

BATTLE OF MARATHON. IX. §§ 4, 5. 341 

1. 16. M^W. Herodotus uses this word often as con- 
vertible with 'Persian.' With the sentiment here ex- 
pressed Cp. Aesch. PerS. 23 rayol II« p<r&v . . . (pofapol pi» 

tdftp, ib. 48 <f>o&cpav Syjnv irpocribevOai. But the statement 
of Herodotus is a plain exaggeration. 

1. 19. ZcUai. The system of the Persians seems to 
have been to mass their strongest troops in the centre. 
The Sacae, inhabitants of the N. E. of Bactriana, were 
famous horsemen and archers. 

1. 23. !w, from «M». They joined their two wings, their 
centre having been, as it were, cut out and driven inland, 
and with these combined troops they fell upon the centre 
of the Persian army. 

1. 27. irup oItcok. So Hector cries to the Trojans, D. 

15* 7l8 o"<T€T€ irvp, ap.a 8* avrol doWees Spvvr avTrjv. | vvv 
ryuy iravToav Zevs a£iov %pap cb&Kt | vrjas cXccv. 

1. 31. dir& B' ZQave, tmesis for aniBav* be. 

1. 33. The ctyXaoTOK, ('aplustre'), was the sweeping curve 
with which the wood-work of the stern ended. This 
curve rose considerably above the vessel's level, and was 
generally richly decorated. 

tV x € <f a dtaroKoircis. Curt. § 404. Cynaegirus was 
a brother of Aeschylus the tragedian. 

1* 37* HcLvaKpovadiievoi, ' having pushed off from land.' 
The verb cannot have its more usual meaning here of 
* backing water/ as Cynaegirus would have been unable 
to seize the afacurrov of a ship, unless the stern had been 
pointing landwards. 

L 38. <f>(%cu, ' to get the start of/ Sunium is the south 
promontory of Attica. 

1. 39. atriT| Za^e, 'the charge was maintained;' ftr**, 
' held good/ Lat. ' obtinuit! 

1. 40. 'AXkjm&uwiS&ik. This partisanship would be due 
to the connection of the Alcmaeonidae with Hv^Saa. 

342 NOTES. 

afoods £!rwoT|(KjK(H, 'that they, sc. the Persians, hit upon 
this device.' The method of signalling with the surface 
of a polished shield was the same as the modern practice 
of sending a flash from a mirror to a distance. 

1. 44. 6$ iroSwK cIxok, ' quantum pedibus valebant! Cp. 

Hdt. 8. 107 «ff Ta\€OS €IX€ €KdOTOS. 

1. 47. i£ 'Hpait\T)tou. Their camp at Marathon had been 
pitched in a precinct of Heracles ; and again, after march- 
ing the twenty-six miles between Marathon and Athens, 
they encamp in another precinct sacred to the same hero, 
in Cynosarges, a grassy spot on the south-east side of the 
city towards the llissus. 

1. 49. uircpai6>f>T)04'T€s ♦aXrjpou, 'lay to off Phalerum/ 
A graphic word for ships out at sea ; lit. floating above. 

1. 50. &KaKa>xeu€iK, (sc. rag vrjas), seems to mean lit 
' having checked the course of their ships out at sea/ We 
may render, ' hove to.' 


1. 1. AT)f&<£f>T)T£. Demaratus, king of Sparta, had been 
banished through the intrigues of his colleague Cleomenes, 
and welcomed by Darius with a friendliness that was not 
altogether disinterested. Herodotus represents him as 
sincerely attached to the Persian cause ; but, according to 
Justin, his patriotism made him but a false friend to his 
patron; inasmuch as he kept the state of Lacedaemon 
informed of the projects of the Persian king. Justin calls 
him l amicior patriae post fugam quam regi post beneficial 

1. 6. With uiro\k€ylou<n supply fie. 
ou yAp . . . ofoi . . .ouk. ^otaft ita v^R&tacLQf negatives 
with an accumulative fotcfc. 

THERMOPYLAE. X. §§ i, a. 343 

1. 8. irpds l<nript]s. Curt. § 467 B b. 

1. 9. (j,^| £6rrc$ &p0juoi,='if they be not agreed,' 'raw 
fuerint inter se Concordes* 

1. 10. t& dir& ceo, * the [opinion] coming from you/ i. e. 
your view. 

1. 1 3. tj&onfj is used by a sort of zeugma with xpfaopm. 
We should rather expect irpbs fjdovrjv Acyeiv, or some such 

1. 14. ouhiv ot dT]$6rTcpoK, meaning, 'he should expe- 
rience no loss of favour.' 


1. 2. £irei&?| &\i)(H)% 'since thou biddest me keep 
wholly to the truth, speaking in such a way as that one 
may not hereafter be detected by thee of lying.' 

1. 3. tA is the accusative of 'internal object,' Curt. 
§ 401, equivalent to A ^evfoa yevbdfjxvos. The use of pj)» 
instead of the simple negative ov, may be accounted for 
by the fact that the passage has somewhat the character 
of a final sentence ; as though the words had run ovra 

\eyovra aart fxrj yfr€v86fi€v6v riva dAoxrecr&u. 

1. 9. tous AwpiKous x<£p°u$- He means those regions of 
the Peloponnese where the Dorian race preponderated. 

1. IO. Ipxopai \l£o)V, SO cpxpfAcu (ppdcruPy Hdt. 3. 102. Cp. 

the French l je vats dire. 9 

1. 12. ouk con 3kws, 'it is not possible that/ 

1. 14. *al V . . . 4>poy&xri, 'even though all the rest of 

the Greeks join thy side/ Cp. Hdt. 9. 99 ol sdjuoi ro 

EXkrjvoov £<pp6v€ov. 

1. 16. iJk tc y&p tijxoti, ' for should they ha.^^v\» , vs&& 
the field, only a thousand in numbex! 

344 NOTES. 


1. i. «tipe{fJKc, Met pass.' 
L 2. AiroSpfjacofaiy from turodtdpatriea. 
1. 8. frrnrroK, iir€arfi<ray f Air^Xouvor. The force of these 
tenses is to suggest repeated attacks and defeats. But 
the Medes * were unable to dislodge them, though they 
suffered terrible losses.' This means that not even the 
most reckless expenditure of life enabled them to take the 

1. 1 1. acOpoiroi . . • &ySpc$, Cp. Livy 27. 13 ' Ita concio 
dimissa fatentium sese increpitos, neque illo die virum 
quemquam in acie Romana fuisse praeter unum ducem/ 
1. 12. %C 4)p4")S> 'right through the day/ 
1. 13. Tptjx^ TTcpiciiroifo, ' were roughly handled.' 
1. 15. &$a\>&Tou$. The 'Immortals' were 10,000 picked 
Persian troops ; so called, because their number was al- 
ways kept up exactly to that sum ; and if one man died, 
his place was instantly filled. 

1. 16. KaTcpyao-cSfACKoi, 'sure to make short work of 

1. 17. ofoiv irkiov tylpovro, 'gained no more success 
than,' etc. 

1. 21. irX^Oci xrf<r<urO<u> 'to gain any advantage from 
their numbers/ 

1. 22. aXXa tc diro$€iKKup«foi . . . nal $€uycctkov, i.e. 
' among other exhibitions . . . they pretended to take to 
flight/ We should rather expect the parallel to be given 
by two participles or two finite verbs, than by a combi- 
nation like this. &tj0€k gives the sense of ' pretence/ 

1. 24. 3k«s, with the independent optative, has the 
meaning of indefinite frequency. 



THERMOPYLAE* X. §§ 3, 4. 345 


1. 26. KaTaXaffcPai^i&cKoi, 'just as they were being 

L 27. frir&rrpc^oK ok. See Curt. § 494,. obs. 1. 

!• 30. Join ouScv irapa\aj3ei>, * to secure nothing ;' so 
that -rijs Icrfoou is left dependent on nupeapevoi. 

1. 32. icai-a i-Aca, 'by divisions/ 

1. 33. irfxxr&oiox, 'assaults/ 

1. 37. 16vtu)v refers to 'EXXqww, as does also <r$ca$, but 
Amo-aires to the Persians. 

1. 41. iv\Up€i f 'in turn,' =' sua quisque vice' 


L 1. S Tt xrf"*™ 1 * ' how he shall deal with/ 
1. 10. irepl Xuxwc &$ds. Before the invention of clocks, 
the times of day or night were named by various phrases 
like this. So in Homer, ' dinner-time/ for midday; * ox- 
loosing time/ for evening, and below § 6 is ayoprjs irkrj- 


1. n. &Tpair6s. The localities may be best seen by 
reference to accompanying sketch map, and the course 
of the path Anopaea traced from the Asopus to the town 
of Alpenus, ' the first Locrian town on the side of the 

1. 14. Anopaea (&W) means only 'high-pass/ The 
change of coast line, and the altered course of the rivers 
must be taken into account if we are to understand how 
Thermopylae was a narrow pass. 

1. 23. tyuXcuraoK. See § 3 ad fin. 

1. 26. ^ koto £<r|3o\i) is the pass by the shore. 

1. 27. ford iw cipYjTCH, 'by those by whom it was said 
[to be guarded]/ 

1. 28. uiroScgdpcKoi, 'having pledged themselves/ or, 

romised to Leonidas/ 

34 6 NOTES. 

1. 29. <r$ca$, sc. the Persians. Join evador £8c. 

1. 33. dFi& tc «$papov, tmesis, * started up. 9 

1. 43. K<SpupPos, 'crest,' 'rounded top.' 

£iu<rn£/A€Hoi, in a sense frequent in Herodotus, ' be- 
lieving that the attack was directed principally (dpxjjp= 
originally) against them/ 

1. 47. ol 8c, i. e. the Persians, took no further notice 
of the Phocians, but passed by them and began the de- 


1. 2. tA ipd, more commonly rh ot^ayta, e the victims.' 
1. 4. em &€, 'and besides/ or, 'and next;' taking up 

ITp&TOP fl€U. 

1. 5. en yuicrds, ' brought the news while it was still 

1. 6. Tpi-roi &£, Tpiros generally introduces a climax= 
' third and last.' 

1. 9. o6k £w, ' were not for permitting/ 

1. 10. SuucpideVrcs, 'having separated' ~ ( soluto conciliol 

1. 16. ouk cuirp£ir€*<i>s ?x€ik. This construction follows 
from some participle like vofxifav, easily supplied from 
KTjMpcvos. l Thinking that it was not seemly for him and 
his Spartans/ etc. 

1. 17. &pxV> adverbial; as above, § 4. 1. 43. 

1. 19. 6r)|3aioi. The Thebans had been the first to offer 
earth and water to Xerxes, and they were probably unwilling 
combatants at Thermopylae, and thus they are described 
as being detained as hostages. Perhaps the eager readi- 
ness of the Thespians was not unconnected with their 
jealousy of the Thebans, in whose possible disgrace they 
may have seen their own chance of heading the Boeotian 

THERMOPTLAE. X. {{ 4-6. 347 


1. i. oiroyScfc. Xerxes is described, B. 7. 54, as pouring 
these ' libations ' from a golden cup to greet the rising 

1. 3. irXTjSwpTjy. See note on \vxwav a<f>a\, § 4 ad init. 

1. 11. ?pupa. This wall was at the eastern end of the 
defile. The Phocians had built it to resist any encroach- 
ment from the Thessalians. 

1. 13. oufifuayoircs is in exact parallelism with \mc£i6vrcs, 
but having been assimilated to it in case it causes a violent 
anacoluthon, for it refers only to the "eXXijw and not at 
all to the ttoXXo! t&v fiapfidpw. A genitive absolute would 
have removed the difficulty. 

1. 20. X<5yos toC AiroXXuplKou, ' reckoning of the lost' 
With £nxo-n£jA€voi the Greeks become once more the 
subject of the sentence. 

1. 23. irapaxp€W|ji€Kot, sc. rolcn <ra>fta<rip f 'recklessly sacri- 
ficing themselves in their desperation/ 

1. 24. With dWorrcs cp. Horn. II. 20. 332 AtVIa, tis <r 
&dt 0eS>v arcovra jeeXcuct | avria Hrjka&vos vncpOvpoto fxax^aOai ; 

1. 27. iirvQ6\ir\y. These names were all inscribed on a 
pillar at Sparta, which was still standing, 600 years after 
the event, in the time of Pausanias. 

1- 35- <rw*<rrr\Ke€, 'was still being waged;' ' commitfe- 

1. 43. T010-1 . . . irepieouo-at, ' those of them who still had 
them (sc. ai fjLdx al P ai ) remaining/ 

1. 45. l£ ivavrli\s ^iri<nr<Sfi€Koi=r < ex adverso iwoadentes! 

1. 55. iv dXoytfl iroieupcfoj', ' making of no account/ 

1. 62. aoToo Tari-Tr) rjjircp, 'just on the very spot where/ 

1. 63. irp^repoK fy ' who had fallen before those who 
were dismissed by Leonidas had gone/ 



Frag, i.* 

1. i. "Apu ' in honour of Ares/ 

1. 2. KUKiaun, (isvveauri), 'helmets/ property of skin or 

1. 4. KpuirrouHK iracrardXois, ' hide the pegs ' they hang on. 
fl-ao-ouAoir is for vao-o-akovs, the Aeolic dative plural of 
O declension always ends in -oun. 

1. 5. KouXai. This diaeresis is like the Homeric ojxouos 
for 6poios. 

1. 6. oirdOai, properly wooden blades used to press 
down the woof at the loom. Here the word is used for 
' swords/ which are called XakK&ucai, because the citizens 
of the Euboean Chalcis were famous workers in metal. 

L 7. ^pyoK. The ' work ' they have undertaken is war. 
The reader must be careful in this and in the 
following Aeolic odes and idyll to notice that the 
system of accentuation presents a remarkable contrast 
to the ordinary rules of Greek accent. In Aeolic the 
most general rule is that the accent must be thrown as far 
back as the quantity of the final syllable will allow. 

Frag. 2. 

1. 1. &ow£n)|u, Aeol. for dowcrc*. By oTdcrur he means 
' direction/ lit. position. 


1. 6. ircp-^xei. Tmesis for [£>€/?-€*«, of which irep is 
the Aeolic form. The water in the hold is over the 

L 7. 1<£8t]\ok= diddrjkop, lit. 'with the light showing 
through/ =' in rents.' 

Ode 1. 

1. 1. The epithet irouuXlOporos is taken as parallel with 
such words as evdpovos, xpv<r60povog. Others regard it as 
an Aeolicism for iroucikfypow, <j> and 6 being interchanged. 
This prepares us better for bokfakoKe. 

1. 3. pc . . . OCfioK. The common construction of <rxnpa 

Kaff SkoV Ka\ fJL€pOS. 

1. 5* K&TlpOTa=*al fatptodi. 

1. 6. The meaning in dtoura is simply that of ' hearing;' 
IkXucs adds the idea of ' listening ' as well. ir^Xui=r^Xo<rt, 
With the sentiment cp. Aesch. Eum. 237 kXv« dc koi irpfo- 
a>$cv &v 6(6s. 

1. 11. 6p<W^a?0€po$. Notice the unusual synizesis 

1. l6. &V)8T€ = dq Oi/rc. 

K<£Xifj|jit=*caX€a). Notice the indicative in orafio obliqua. 

L 18. i-fra. Here the goddess begins speaking in her 
own person. 

1. 1 9. fuus=p$?, from pan. In verbs in -a» the 2nd pers, 
sing, of present is written in Aeolic with iota adscript not 

1. 20. dSuoljci. For a&uceei, a&urcu So in Alcaeus we 
find tto6t\(d. 

1. 22. a\Xo. Aeolic accentuation for dXX«k, introducing 
the apodosis, = ' yet/ So #X€i is written fox <^Ck«.. 

350 NOTES. 

Ode 2. 

1. 5. yeXauras, Aeolic for yeXaoivas. 

1. 7. €m%ov=€idov t cv standing for ef, as in evade. 

1. 8. otibkv cjxu^as clicci, ' not a sound of voice comes from 
my lips/ 

1. 9. Kap-!aY€=*arcayc. The initial digamma in Fcayt 
prevents elision. 

1. 1 1. fanrdTCOTi, irregular dative from &nra, Aeolic for Sppa. 

1. 13. ftp** in Aeolic is feminine. 

1. 14. fiypci stands for aipcl. 

1. 15. T€.Qv&K1\V for T€0VOK€lV t infill, from TcBpOKCO Or T60*j}lCa>, 

a new present in a> derived from the perfect. So dcdot'xa, 

6X170 Imfoiiiji', ' to want but little.' 
1. 16. SXXa. If this reading be right, it is for t|Xc^, 'mad.' 

THEOCRITUS (Idyll 28). 


This Idyll of Theocritus is written in Aeolic dialect, 
and is identical in metre with some of the verses of Al- 

Caeus, as e. g. prjbcv ak\o (frvrevtrfls 7Tp6rcpov bivbpiov dfinfKa), 

with which we are familiar through Horace's translation, 
' nullam, Vare, sacra viie prtus sever is arbor em? The verse 
is variously described as ' Versus Asclepiadeus maior,' or 
* Tetrameter choriambicus catalecticus cum basi/ 

1. 1. Join B&poK yukchJik, ' a gift for women.' 
1. 3. Qtp<T€i<ra=0ap(Tov(Ta, from a form in ~/u, d/pa-17/u. 
uf4dfmj=<5/io/jT€«, 'accompany/ The city of Neleus 

is Miletus. 
1. 4. KaXdpa. Perhaps, like the Romulean palace in 

Virg. Aen. 8. 654, this temple of Aphrodite had a roof 


of straw. Notice the lengthening of the first syllable in 
dirdXu, as if the it were doubled. 

1. 5. tuiBc, 'thither/ 

1. 6. TW lies as it were loosely between the two finite 
verbs ; it is in apposition grammatically only to the subject 
of TcpifrofiM, and it governs Nwcatav. 

1. 9. S&pop . . . oTrdor<r6|X€K, * we shall bring as a gift to the 
hands of Nicias* wife.' With Niiuda aXoxos cp. ' Priamei'a 
coniunx* Ov. Met. 13. 513. 

1. 11. vhdnva, i.e. 'clear as water,' 'transparent/ 

1. 12. He wishes that the ewes may offer their fleeces 
for shearing twice in the year to meet the needs of Theo- 
genis, who is such a busy spinner that one yield of 
wool would not be enough. 

1. 15. 'For I should not like to send thee, being from 
our land, to the home of an awkward or idle dame/ 

1. 16. lacrav seems to be the true Aeolic form for ofoav, 
as if the participle was declined on the scheme of cfr, foaa, 
tv, instead of &v, ofoa, Zv. 

1. 18. ptfcXoK. He means Syracuse, founded by Archias 
of Corinth, b. c. 734. 



Idyll i. 

In this Idyll, Thyrsis, a shepherd, sings, at the request 
of a goatherd, the tale of the death of Daphnis, and 
receives as a prize a goat and a curiously-wrought cup. 

1. i. ASrf n, 'sweet is the whisper of yonder pine,' ex- 
pressed here as h &m dvolp, ' the whisper and the pine.' 

1. 3. pcT& flaro, suggested by the word ovpio-fes, for 
Pan, the Arcadian shepherd-god, was inventor and master 

Of the pipe (crvpcyf). 

1. 4. alxa, i.e. e? jecstcfc. Notice that the Doric kg for 
*c is always long, tea. 

1. 5. Kai-oppci, ' comes ; ' lit. flows down, expressive of 
an easy coming. Cp. Hon Od. 1. 28. 28 'multaqui 
merces, wide potest \ tibi defluat! 

1. 6. djxA£t]s. When it is old enough to be milked 
the flesh may be supposed to be growing coarse. 

1. 7. rb . . . iftup. Equivalent to tj t6 /carafes rrjvo vdwp 
cotip t Karaketperai. 

1. 9. ouSa, rarer form for 8tv. 

1. 11. tC %l. Here begins the apodosis. 

1. 12. ttotItcU' Wvpfyav^ 1 per nymphas te obsecro! 

1. 13. <&s, here local, =' where this sloping knoll is.' 

1. 15. t6 jxcaauPpiK^, 'in the noon tide/ 

1. 18. (Sua. The nose was looked upon as the seat of 

anger, as Od. 24. 3 19 ava pirns Be oi rjbri I dpifiv fUpos irpofrv^f, 

Pers. Sat 5. 91 ' ira cadat naso. 9 


L 20. firl rb v\iov, ' to the highest rank ;' lit. higher 
than others. 

1. 21. npi^jiru. There were statues in the spot, repre- 
senting Priapus and a group of Naiads. 

1. 24. Join itotI Xp6fUK IplaZuv. 

1. 25. is Tpls, 'thrice/ 

1. 27. k€k\u<t\iIvov. Such a cup, being made of porous 
wood, had ' a wash of wax ' over its inner surface to make 
it waterproof. Cp. Ov. Met. 8. 670 ' pocula flaventibus illita 
certs, 1 

1. 28. iroT&rSoK, i. e. 7rpo<r6(ov, ' smelling of/ i. e. fresh 

i. 29. Kiororf?. A form of the variegated ivy is here 
meant, Hedera chrysocarpa. It is ' spangled over ' with 
the brilliant yellow of the helichrysum, one of the varieties 
of the immortelles, (Gnaphalium stoechas^) 'And the 
tendril winds along the ivy leaves («ir avrov [mo-oifo]) 
looking gay with orange berries.' This sort of ivy has 
such coloured berries. Compare Virgil's imitation, Eel. 
3. 39. On one of the spaces enclosed by this carved 
wreath is the group of the girl and her lovers in alto 
relievo. Their gestures are so life-like that the poetical 
description proceeds as though the figures actually moved 
and spoke. 

1. 39. toTs &€ p£ra, ' along with these/ i. e. besides. He 
proceeds now to describe groups in other open spaces on 
the cup. 
• 1. 40. 1% P6Xok, ' for a cast.' 

1. 41. Krff&Kom t6 Kaprepbv, 'working with might and 
main/ Similarly yuLw . .. o6^Kos,=7ravrl r&v yviav vBvni 
o<rov coti. 

1. 45. TtnQbv <Wok chrwOcK, ' only a little way off/ i. e. 

rotrovrov 8idorrr}fia, oaov rvrBhv . . . okiyov. 

1. 46. piPptOcK. This description is partly borcora*^ 


354 NOTES. 

from the Shield of Achilles, Horn. H. 18. 561 oraQvkjjai 

fieya fipidovacw dXcorjv. 

1. 49. t&k Tpu£ipov, SC. <rra<fw\fiv. 

1. 51. $<m, 'says' (i. e. such is the evident meaning of 
his sly face) ' that he will not quit the boy before he set 
him down breakfasting upon dry fare/=breakfastless. 
The fox is going to rifle his wallet aKpariCofUu is properly 
to take a morning dram of neat wine, hence to ' breakfast' 
The boy seems to be making a sort of little hand-net, 
with which to catch the locusts that are nibbling the vine- 

L 55- typte. ' pliant.' 

1. 56. AioXik^. There does not seem to be much 
meaning in the epithet ' Aeolic.' Perhaps the correction 
alokixov may be right, in the sense of ' splendid/ from 

al6\os, as mtppixos from irvppos. 

1. 57. Tfi, « for it.* 

1. 58. Tufxfcis, sc. fyros, a ' cheesecake/ or ' round of 

1. 59* Jom TTOTl-0lY€l'==ff/JO0 , C0iy€V. 

1. 60. t« . . . dpcaatjiay, ' therewith I should very willingly 
make you (rv) happy/ 

1. 62. KooTi tu KcpTO(jL^», * and I'm not making fun of you/ 
i. e. I am quite in earnest. 

1. 63. IxXeXdOorra, factitive aorist, as in Horn. II. 2. 600, 
' that brings forgetfulness/ 

1. 65* &$la=^dcca. 

1. 66. See Virg. Eel. 10. 9; and Milton's * Lycidasl 
The nymphs were not in Thessaly, nor by the Sicilian 
streams and hills. 

1. 80. cJir6\oi=oi guttoXch. 

1. 85. [aTcuora, ' in quest of thee.' 

1. 87. dS^a yekdoiaa, like Horace's ' dulce rideniem! 

1. 88. KaTcux^o, ' tV\ou didst boast that thou ^roaldst 


overmaster Love/ lit. give a throw to; metaphor from 

1. 92. K€jA€crcraT&, 'spiteful/ 

1. 93. tJSrj y&p +pd<r&fl, ' What, dost thou think that our 
sun is utterly set ? ' 

1. 94. *x\v 'At8a=/cai iv Aidw do/*^. 

1. 96. Aphrodite is boasting of her success against the 
shepherd Daphnis. He retorts upon her, 'Thou wast 
once a shepherd's slave, when thou didst submit to the 
love of Anchises/ ' Is not a shepherd said to have [over- 
come] the Cyprian goddess ? ' Some such verb as joit- 
maxvvai must be supplied. Daphnis purposely omits it, as 
having an unseemly meaning. Then he cries, ' Go back 
to Ida, back to your shepherd-love/ 

1. 97. Kinrcipos, 'galingale.' 

1. 98. 58€= < here/ 

1. 100. xw8«^s=^at o *A8a>vis,he reminds her of another fa- 
voured shepherd, whom he calls dipaios, * of youthful prime/ 

1. 103. 3-irws oroap. The conjunction with the indie, 
fut. with the force of the imperative. ' Go and confront 
Diomede again/ who once had wounded Aphrodite on the 
battle-field, II. 5. 336. 

1. 106. w &v Spca. The £ is shortened before a vowel, 
as ' Te Corydon VAlexi,' Virg. Eel. 2. 65. 

1. 108. 'Ap^doiora, a fountain near Syracuse, where is also 
the river Xhymbris. 

1. 114. AuKato), a mountain in Arcadia, near 'Mount 

1. 116. 'EXCkos f\piov. The tomb of Helice was in Arca- 
dia. Helice, daughter of Lycaon, and mother of Areas, 
(AvKoow'fys), was metamorphosed into a bear, and placed 
among the constellations. 

1. 123. ,¥w to. At Daphnis* death the whole face of 
nature should change. 

a a 2 

356 NOTES. 

1. 124. Koyufotu, 'jloreat.' 

L 125. IroXXa, 'reversed' Cp. Ov. Trist 1. 1. 5 'omnia 
naturae praepostera hgibus ibunt? 

L 126. IXjcot, ' drag down/ ' harry/ 

L 127. yapfoiurTo, ' carmine certent! 

1. 130. Xtm XtXocvct, cp. Ov. Her. 12. 4 l tunc quae dis- 
pensant mortalia fila sorores Debuerant fusos evoluisse meas! 

L 131. far, 8C.'Ax*porrot. 

1. 138. AZyiXos was the name of an Attic deme, famous 
for its figs. 

L 140. Geujai, ' Look you ! ' Doric imperative from a form 

$cuofuu=:0T)iofiai or Bfaoftai. 

1. 142. Kuraai&a, the name of the she-goat that was to 
be part of the prize. 

1. 143. ofi |jl^| crKifmurciTc, lit. ' Will you not " not skip f" 
=mind you don't skip. 

Idyll 2. 

1. 1. KWfKJurSw, 'I am going to serenade/ The present 
has here almost the force of a future. 

1. 3. rb Kakbv irc^iXap^w, ' dearly loved/ 

1. 5. Kopin|rr), 'butt/ 

1. 7. irapKuirroiara, ' peeping out/ 

1. 9. irpoyimos, ' under-hung ; ' the prominence of 
the chin would look all the uglier in company with the 
snub nose. 

1. 10. ti\vG> %k, 'and I plucked them from yonder spot, 
whence thou didst bid me pull them/ Cp. Virg. Eel. 

3- 7- 

1. 14. £ rh iruK<fo$j), 'in which thou art enveloped/ 
The ivy and the fern form a screen to the grotto in which 
Amaryllis sits. 


1. 15. vuv Zyvw. 'Nunc scto quid sit Amor* etc. Virg. 
Eel. 8. 43. Spufiw means, ' in the wild wood/ 

I. 1 7. 1% faniov olxpiS= < od ossa usque, 9 

I. 18. Ku&voQpu. This was regarded as a beauty. 

1. 21. TiXai XctttA, 'to tear to fragments/ like rvrOa 
xedfav, Od. 12. 388. 

1. 23. ttaXuKcaai, sc. pob&v, 'rose-buds/ 

1. 24. Before this verse comes a pause. The shepherd 
waits to see if Amaryllis will show herself. But she makes 
no sign ; so he bursts out with his cry of distress. 

t£ 6 SiWoos ; with this hiatus cp. II. 5. 465 h W en 

KT€lV€<rOai €CL(T€T€ ' 

L 25. nt\vu, ' from yonder spot.' Cp. Virg. Eel. 8. 59. 
Qn these cliffs stands Olpis * watching ' the course of the 
tunny shoals, and shouting or signalling to the fishermen 
below; exactly as one may see done on the Cornish 
cliffs during the pilchard fishery. 

1. 27. t<5 yc . . . T£ruKT<u, 'thy feeling about it is one of 

1. 29. ou&c rh . . . c£cfj,apc£i'0T), 'not a bit would the love- 
in-absence leaf lie close and make a smack, but without 
more ado it withered straight away against my warm arm/ 
Others read voTCfid$aT<S ti irXaTayijaaK, 'lay close after 
making a smack/ The practice of this Phyllomanteia, or 
leaf-sorcery, consisted in laying a poppy or anemone leaf 
over the joined thumb and first finger of the left hand, or 
flat upon the surface of the arm. A smart blow was then 
given to the leaf, which should retain its place and give 
back a sharp clear sound. Such a result was of happy 
omen in love. It seems here that the leaf would not lie 
flat for the blow, but curled up with the heat of the arm. 

1. 30. awT«s='just as it was/ 'at once/ 

1. 32. Trapai0<fcns, from napa-paiva>, is said to mean a 
' gleaner; ' lit. one who ' walks with ' the reapers. 

gfi NOTES. 

1. 33. fycctfuu, ' am devoted.' 

1. 35. pekaw6xpm$. This is to add a fresh sting to 
Amaryllis. She not only has a rival, but a successful 
one, and not only successful, but ugly. Cp* Virg. Eel. 
2. 42. 

1. 37. &Wct<u, 'quivers/ 'jerks.' Cp. Plant. Pseudol. 
1. 1. 105 'nisi quidfuturum est: ita supercilium salitJ 

1. 40. 'linrofi&T|s. The story goes that Atalanta would 
wed no one who could not outstrip her in the race ; and 
the lover who was adventurous enough to try, and who 
failed, was to be put to death. Hippomenes, as he ran 
with her, dropped in her way some golden apples from the 
garden of the Hesperides, and while Atalanta paused to 
pick them up, Hippomenes won the race and the lady. 

1. 42. &$ . . . Iporra. The idea of the repetition of in 
is the coincidence of the three acts. Virgil imitates the 
form of sentence in ' ut vidi, ut pern,, ut me mains abskdit 
err or I Eel. 8. 41. 

1. 43. McXdfjiTrous. Neleus, king of Pylos, had a fair 
daughter, Pero, beloved by Bias ; but she was not to be 
won by any one who could not bring the wild herds of 
Phylacus from the Thessalian ridge Othrys. Melampus 
succeeded in doing so on behalf of his brother Bias, who 
then made Pero his bride* See Od. n. 287 foil. 

1. 47. eirlirX&y XiWas, 'to a height of frenzy.' 

1. 48. &T€p pcurSobo, ' puts him not away from her breast/ 
i. e. she still clasps the dead body. 

1. 50. Endymion was laid to sleep by the Moon, that 
she might kiss him in his slumbers. 

Iasion, see Od. 5. 125, was beloved by Demeter and 
was initiated by her into the mysteries which were hidden 
from the profane. v 

1. 52. AXy&», pronounced as two syllables only. 

I 53. *&€, * here/ 


1. 54. ws ffclXi, ' May this be to thee as sweet honey 
down thy throat ! ' The pitiless maid will rejoice to hear 
of her lover's dismal end. 

Idyll 3. 

1, 3. X^OTOfJLCis, i.e. rcpyfis t6 \aop=\T)iov. irXaiwzs 
nXri<riov. ' Thou dost not cut the swathe along with thy 
fellow/ He asks him what figure he will make by midday, 
if he is so far behind already, and if he only nibbles at his 
swathe, instead of cutting it clean. 

1. 11. xaXeiroy, 'it's a dangerous thing to give a dog a 
taste of the hide/ Meaning, that if he once begins he 
will never leave it. ' Ut cams a corio nunquam absterrebitur 
unctoj Hor. Sat. 2. 5. 83. 

1. 12. ^WaTcuos, 'it's nearly eleven days since I have 
been in love/ 

1. 13. 4k m0w. A similar proverb in Plautus, Mil. Glor. 
3. 2. 23 'Alii ebrii sunt, alii poscam ('swipes') potitaniJ 

1. 14. ToiyapToi, 'therefore it is that right at my very 
doors everything lies untilled from the day of sowing/ 
Virgil makes his love-sick swain show a different kind of 
negligence : ' semiputata tibifrondosa vitis in ulmo esf,' Eel. 
2. 70. 

1. 15. iraiW, * girls/ d nokufMna='jilia Polybotae! 

1. 16. Ajidrrcaai, dat. plur. of particip. from afida>. 

1. 18. prfms. He probably calls her a cricket, because 
she had been described as singing to the mowers. It is 
not unlikely that there is a further allusion to the skinny 
figure of the girl. xP°^ T(U * s interpreted by the scholiast 

as (rvyxpowKr^trerai km avyKoifirjdrjaeTai. ' She shall be your 

close bedfellow through the night/ 
1. 19. ouk auTos, 'not alone/ 
1. 20. d<f>p<$m<rro$, 'reckless/ 

360 NOTES. 

1 22. &p.p<£\eu, (avaPakov), like awucpowrov, is exactly 

' strike up.' 

1. 26. Ivpav, because of her swarthy complexion. 

1. 27. We may translate fieXtxXwpo^, 'olive/ 

1. 28. Ypa-nrd. The MkivQos, which may be a sort of 
iris, was supposed to have marks on its petals like Al ai, 
which was easily read as al al, alas ! Cp. Ov. Met. 10. 215 
' Ipse suos gemilus folds inscripsit, et Ai Ai Flos habet in- 
scriptum.' The common story was that Apollo created the 
flower so marked from the blood of his dead favourite 

1. 29. tA irp&ra, ' reckon as first flowers in garlands/ 

1. 30. kuthtov. Virg. Eel. 2. 63. 

1. 31. Y^pwos- The crane follows the plough to pick 
up the insects turned up by the share. 

1. 33. XP^ 01 * ' our statues in gold should be dedicated 
to Aphrodite.' The statue of the girl should have apples, 
roses, and flutes ; and his, a new robe, and scarlet slippers 
on both feet. 

1. 36. dorpdyaXot, i.e. as smooth and white as ivory dice. 

1. 37. t&v Tp6irov y 'thy mien.' 

1. 38. Poukos, 'this herdsman;' alluding to the man who 
has just finished singing. His musical powers had come 
upon them as a surprise. 

1. 40. t« mSyupos. He laments his useless ignorant age. 
He has grown a long beard, but all in vain, for what wit 
have advancing years brought him ? He cannot sing any- 
thing of his own : he will give them the song of Lyti- 

1. 45. (tukikol Fig-tree wood was valueless. ' Truncus 
eram ficulnusy inutile lignum' Hor. Sat. 1. 8. 

1. 46. d Tojid. The cut ends of the sheaves are to be 
set facing the north or west wind, that the draught might 
pass through them and ripen the grain in the ear. 


1. 48. 4>€uy€K, infin. with the force of <£evy«Va>. 

1. 51. t& ttaupa, 'through the heat of the day.' 

1. 53. ih mciK, 'his drink;' so rb <j>ayciv, 'food.' The 
stingy overseer did not cook the lentils tender, lest the 
workmen should eat too many. Therefore to ' boil the len- 
tils better ' means not to be so close. ' Splitting cummin 
seed ' is the same process as ' skinning flints.' 

1. 57. Xifjwjp&K, ' starveling.' 

Idyll 4. 

1. 1. <&s XP^HN ' quam sero (ades).' 

1. 2. Spr) Si^poK, ' see to a chair.' Soph. Aj. 1 165 (nreva-op 

Kotkrjv Kcmtrov riv IBclv T«Se. 

1. 4. dXcfjidTu = rjkefiarov. Gorgo sinks breathless on a 

1. 5. oxX«, gen. absol. 

1. 6. KfNjmScs, ' soldiers' boots,' and so ' soldiers.' Others 
understand the line only to refer to the gentry in their 
best boots and cloaks. 

1. 7. !itaoTlpa>, ' too far.' 

1. 8. TaG(P, ' this is all that addlepate['s doing].' 

irrfpapos = naprjopos. 

1. 13. o& \4yti dir^Cf. Zopyrion, the enfant terrible, 
evidendy suspects what the ladies are alluding to; so 
Gorgo has to say, ' she doesn't mean Papa/ 

1. 14. -mfrmaK, 'by'r ladye/ ir&rvia is Persephone, who 
was worshipped especially in Sicily. 

1. 15. Xfyop.cs, 'we talk of everything as happening 
" the other day." ' 

1. 16. (tko.vq.% 'huckster's booth/ 

1. 17. Tpiaicai&eicdTnixus, 'a long lubber,' -who has 'tnoie 
inches than brains/ 

3&1 NOTES. 

L 18. rmMi <f igci, ' is just in the same way/ 4i*p«5, 
cp. Hot. £p. i. 15. 31 l permdes ei kmfesias haralknaupu 

L 19. *»i« & p*x i l »*» * bought yesterday five fleeces 
for seven drachmas, mere dog's hair, pickings off c4d 
knapsacks, a mass of dirt, trouble on trouble.' 

1. 24. iw 6X0m#, (gen.), sc. oum. 

L 25. &r ftc*. This is an attraction for £ «&«, rwmr ol 
caret, ' what you have seen, of that you may speak.' The 
form of sentence reminds of *s S&or *k tiimnp. A use of 
the aorist similar in meaning to c£r«* may be given from 

TheOCT. Id. 12. 25 ^r yap to &uqp, tv per aflXnftcy cv^w 

l$i)icas. The force of nu before idoura is emphatic, ' you 
who Aozv seen/ 

1. 26. dcpyotf, ' idle people have always holiday-time ;' 
but, she means to say, I have plenty to do before we can 

1. 27. t5 rapa, 'take up this cloth.' It was lying on 
the ground ; and as the maid is slow in her movements, 
Praxinoa says, ' Do the cats want to go to bed again ?' 
including the lazy puss of a servant 

1. 30. & U apapa ^pci, ' but she's bringing the soap/ 

1. 32. faoia Scots. She means ' I have had a wash such 
as it is/ 

1. 35. »&«w. ' Quanio pretio descendit tibi de tela ? * At 
what price did you get it from the loom ?' 

1. 36. pvav, genitive of price, not after the comparative 
nXtov, which is followed by #. 

1. 37. toi« 8* Ipyois, 'I've set my whole heart on that 
bit of work/ 

1. 38. KaTA Yv<fyfcew='*.# animi sentential 

1. 39. ml, itaXoK clires, 'rightly said!' 

1. 40. MoppS ! ' Bogey's there !' They have no idea of 
taking Zopyrion with them, to be a general nuisance, and 


to get trodden on. So he is to stop at home with the 
maid and play with the dog. 

1. 47. 6 T€it<£f. Ptolemy Philadelphus had succeeded 
to a rule less disturbed by external war than in the time of 
his father Ptolemy Soter. He had therefore leisure to 
give to home matters, and among them to the organizing 
of a police for the protection of people in the streets from 
the tricks of the Egyptian thieves and rogues. 

1. 49. i% &w&ras K€KpoTapiwH= ' ex fallaciis conflaH! 

1. 50. IXeioi, ' bog-trotters ;' if the reading be right, it 
may refer to the dwellers on the low ground round the 
Nile. Others read cpivo), ' useless,' like ' fig-wood/ 

1. 51. TTToXejuoTcu. Horses for a tournament, or military 

1- 53- iruppte, 'the chestnut/ 

1. 54. SiaxpTjactTai, ' the horse will kill the man who is 
leading him/ 

1. 56. omodcy, sc. T&v unrav. We have got behind them, 
and they have gone to their right place. 

1. 57. owaycipofAcu, ' am recovering myself/ 

1. 62. icaXXurra iraiSuK, 'my pretty maid/ 

1. 64. Woman's curiosity finds out everything; even 
about the marriage of Zeus with Hera, which neither their 
parents nor the gods were aware of. 

1. 67. Eutychis is Gorgo's maid, ir&rcx ^np&rex*' 

1. 70. €i ti yeVoio euSaipw, something like our, .' if you 
hope to be spared !' The bystander with great gallantry 
takes the ladies under his charge. 

1. 73. &QeQv(f=:a>OovvTai. 

1. 74. els <8pas KiJir€iTa=' in hunc annum et plures,' Hor. 
Od. 1. 32. 3. 

!• 75- XP*) "™- For the genitive see Curt § 427, 3. 

1. 76. 0idi€u, < push your way/ 

1. 77. eVSoi voaai, ' all we want are inside, a& tiaaVscAar 

364 NOTES. 

groom said when he shut the door behind his bride/ 
Praxinoa, however, means by cVSoi srao-cu, ' now we're all 

1. 78. ir&raye S8c [<re] = ' hue accede! 

1. 81. YprfppaTa are the figures embroidered on the 

1. 87. irarf<rao0\ These are the words of a bystander 
whose ears are dinned with the ceaseless chatter of the 
women. He says, ' they will murder everything with their 
brogue.' irkaTcuurpbs is the use of the broad Doric fi. The 
monotonous coo of the rpvyuv gave rise to the phrase 

Tpvy6vos XdkioTcpos. 

1. 89. pa is a mere exclamation, like our ' bah !', and 
seems to have no connection with ' earth !' or any such 

1. 90. irao-dfji€Kos, 'Give your orders where you are 
master:' lit. when you have got possession, give your 

1. 91. KopiyOicu. Syracuse was founded by Archias of 
Corinth; and Bellerophon was son of the Corinthian 
King Glaucus. 

1. 94. p,f) +ot), (optat. aor. 2), 'May that man, O Per- 
sephone, never be born!' etc. The priestesses of Per- 
sephone were called iicXuro-cu. 

1. 95. ivhs means King Ptolemy, or perhaps her own 

p,^ fioi. Perhaps the simplest way to explain this 
doubtful expression is to supply xotWa with kckc&v and to 
render, l Pray don't pass the strike over an empty vessel.' 
A measure when full of grain was levelled by the strike, a 
piece of flat wood ; and to use the strike with an empty 
vessel would apdy represent labouring in vain. 

1. 98. dpioTcuac rbv idXepov, 'won the prize in the 
dirge.' The construction is like vueav 'OXufurui. If Xir&xti' 


be the right reading, it must be the name of the man 
commemorated in the song, which would then be called 
'The Sperchis/ as the lament for Linus was called 
' Linus/ nipva-iv, ' last year/ has been conjectured as a 

1. 99. SiaOpunrcTai, ' makes amorous gestures/ 
1. 100. Golgi and Idalion are Cyprian towns, where 
Aphrodite was worshipped ; Eryx, a mountain in Sicily. 
1. 103. Join paXaitat iroSas, ' soft-footed/ 
1. 106. Auwaia. Di6n6 was mother of Aphrodite. 
1. 107. BcpcKiKT) was wife of Ptolemy Soter, and mother 
of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and Arsinoe, who is called 

BepcvtKcia dvydrrjp, with which compare UoidvTios vios, or 
TcXa/Liowto? 7rais. 

1. 112. dmSpa irapaKctTcu, 'before thee are set ripe 

1. 113. Quick-growing herbs and flowers set in pots — 
or, as here, in silver baskets — were called 'Abavidos tajnoi. 
See Plat. Phaedr. 276 B. They were intended to sym- 
bolise how ' man cometh up and is cut down as a flower/ 

1. 115. The confectioners had prepared all manner of 
delicate pastry, ' mingling [the perfumes of] all sorts of 
flowers with white meal ;' some were honey cakes ; some, 
fritters fried in oil, and many of them in the shape of 
birds and beasts. 

1. 116. pa\€upu)=aX€vp6>. 

1. 119. ^pt0o^T€s and not ppldourai is the Ms. reading : 
the change makes the construction simple enough; but 
if ppidowcs be retained, it will be necessary either to sup- 
pose that some verses are lost, or to join ppi6ovrcs with 

a-Kidbes like <j>akayyc? eXfroftfi/oi, U. 16; or oXocbraros, odpTj, 
Od. 4. 

1. 1 20. In the foliage of the ' bowers ' were figures of 
Cupids, that seemed just to be trying their groww\% ^\s^« 


L 122. Join 

L 124. Jm gtm ^ i 

L 126. The ashen of Ifflrfns. famed for its purple 
dye, and the shepherd of Samos, will say, * Mine is die 
couch that is laid for fair Adonis.' I sent the wool that 
made it. 

L 129. iyaplpfe, sc. Adonis, 'bri d egro om .' 

L 130. en •*. -B^ps l labra Uli odJmc circumfUam, xax// 
sc with the down of a s proutin g hair ; nothing that could 
scrub or prick. 

L 133. The figure of Adonis will be taken next morn- 
ing to the shore and sunk in the sea. 

1. 140. n«pp©s=Neoptoiemus. 

L 141. AamaXu*r€s= the sons of Deucalion, — HeDen 
and Amphictyon. 

L 142. &cf>a, 'the head-men.' 

L 143. ess *6*to, ' till a fresh season come.' 


Lament over Adonis. 

1. 8. ArtjJ, (aviata), 'pams/ 

1. 9. Xcht&k diro+Jx wK ? ' gasping with feeble breath.' 

1. 10. KapKjj, ' are set/ in the sleep of death. 

1. 12. Ofdaicei, with the force of a perf. tense, *is dead.' 

dvoum, * bring back/ ' restore/ 
1. 14. t—'quod; 'that/ 
1. 18. Join %€ivbv (opoorrai. Others read kcuw with 

1. 24. 'AaauptoK, loosely used for Svpiov, the worship of 
Adonis being especially in vogue in Syria. 
J. 25. ctpa aiuptro,' the dark robe she wore floated open 


to her waist/ The common reading is alfm ^©peiTo, ' the 
dark blood welled up/ sc. from the wound of Adonis 
against Aphrodite who was clasping him. 

1. 27. 'AWffii, 'in honour of Adonis/ • So in Alcaeus, 

Frag. I Tr&ca 8* "Apy tceKoafjtrjrcu oreya. 

1. 43. Kixeiu—MX", follows the Epic form, a(s 0cfo for 

1. 46. ToctorouToi' o<tok, ' so long as/ 

1. 47. ' Let thy breath from thy soul flow deep into my 
mouth and my heart, and let me drain that sweet love- 
potion from thee, and drink in love's last draught, and let 
me treasure this kiss as though it were Adonis himself/ 

1. 57. a€a<50T)jjLai, 'I am dismayed/ Al. <re fopevfxat. 

1. 58. ir<50os, the sense of ' loss ' has taken the place of 
the sense of ' desire/ 

1. 60. kcot&s, her girdle, wherein lay the secret of her 

KUKaycts, with sense of past tense, like Bwutkis sup. 
' Why didst thou go hunting ?' 

1. 69. The meaning is that the thickets are but a rough 
bed for the delicate Adonis; let him lie on Cytherea's 

1. 75. \kfipov=z ( thy darling.' 

1. 78. \& pkv . . . Ss W=* one . . . and another/ 

1. 79. d$€, ' brake/ venting his wrath on the weapons 
that were the indirect cause of death. 

1. 85. 4£eK&acra€, * proticiens dtssipavit. 1 

1. 91. AvaKXeiotatK, ' seek to call him back/ 

1. 92. liraciSouriK, 'seek to charm him by spells/ 

1. 93. ou p&K duic £0&ei, 'not indeed that he is not fain/ 
Ki&pa is ' the daughter ' of Demeter = Persephone. 

1. 95. els Itos, when the festival comes round again. 

368 NOTES. 


Epitaphios Bionis. 

This Idyll was composed by Moschus, a younger con- 
temporary of Theocritus. The same poet was author of 
two longer idylls of an Epic character, called Europa and 
Megara. In this 'Epitaphios' we constantly find the 
caesura in the hexameter falling after the first short syl- 
lable of the third foot ; e. g. arovaxciTC | pairai, xXac'otre | 

top, pvpcade J Koi, etc. The grammarians call this the 
'weak or feminine caesura,' roprj Kara rpirov rpox<uov. 
Hermann (Elem. Doct. Metr. 337) says, 'Propfer lent- 
/a/em haec caesura mollibus argumentis accommodatissima est. 
Ita fere ubique earn usurpa/am videos in Moschi Epi/aphio 

1. 1. ArfpLOf ufcup, sc. the rivers in Sicily, which was in- 
habited by a Dorian race. 

1. 5. tA ir^yOipa, used adverbially, like rh p-cadpfipivov, 
Theoc. 1. 15, 'dolefully/ 

1. 6. tA a& yprffipaTa. So Theocr. 10. 28 & ypama 
vaKivBos, the flower that seemed to have the marks Ai 
AI on its leaves. 

1. 9. &$<Sf€$, i. e. drjdoves. 

1. 10. 'ApcOouras, a spring i\ear Syracuse, Theocr. 1. 117. 

1. 14. XTpup,<Wi. The vision of Orpheus comes before 
the poet's mind (inf. 18), and suggests the idea of the 
river Strymon in Thrace, the home of Orpheus. 

1. 16. &ciW. The subject is Bion. 

1. 17. OlaypiBcs. Oeagrus, king of Thrace, was father 
of Orpheus and Linus. The muses are here called 
Oeagrides, as if sisters of Orpheus. 

1. 18. BioToyicus, i. e. Thracians. 

1. 21. £pT)paiaiGriri', used proleptically. They axe called 


' deserted,' because now Bion is dead and visits them no 

1. 22. jjlAos \aQalov. The kingdom of Pluto is the 
' land where all things are forgotten/ 

1. 28. at iea(f tfXay KpaiaScs, (sc. vvftijxii), ' the woodland 
nymphs of the fountains.' 

1. 29. yirro= cycvero. 

1. 32. IpuK for €ppi^€ f ' shed/ 

1. 33. prfXaiK, ' from the ewes/ 

1. 34. ouicfn, yip Sci, ' «0» 012V0 0/wj est> melle tuo ex- 
stincto, aliud carpere.' piXi-ros tou aou is equivalent to 

' thy SWeet SOng/ rfjv p.€\iyr)pvv 6xra. 

1. 37. a<Sai = ^tbVi, from rfioai/. The story of Arion 
illustrates the love of the dolphin for music : and, generally, 
it is represented as a creature fond of man, and ready to 
do him service. 

1. 40. Alcyone, wife of Ce'yx, threw herself into the sea 
for grief at her husband's shipwreck. The gods, in pity, 
changed husband and wife into sea-birds. 

1. 41. The KtjptfXos is another bird of the Halcyon tribe. 
Cp. Alcman, Frag. 1 2 jSaX* 89 jSaXe (utinam) Kqpvkos etrjv, 

I Of r eirl KVfxaros civOos a/x' akicvovco-o-i irorrjrcu. \ vrjXeycs 
tyrop €\(ov, dXi7rop(f)vpos clapos Spvis. 

1. 43. Memnon, son of Eos, and king of the Aethio- 
pians, fell by the hand of Achilles at Troy. His mother, 
Eos, changed his Ethiopians into birds, and they fluttered 
crying round his tomb. 

1. 49. dXXd Kal 6ji€i9=' vos saltern, columbae. 1 
!• 53- iTK€i€i, sc. f] ovpiyg, ' still breathes of/ 
L 55. ipelaai, * to set his mouth thereon/ (cpet'da). 
1. 56. &€(jT€pa=' second prize/ supply 30Xa. 
1. 58. raXdTeia. The eleventh idyll of Theocritus tells 
how Cyclops serenaded the sea-nymph Galatea, and 
failed to win her love. 


370 NOTES. 

I.62. XcurapcVa, i. e. \T)aap*vrj, (XavAzw), l oblital 'for- 
getful of the billow/ 

1. 63. ^<5as. If this reading be right, we must render, 
' she still watches thy kine :' i. e. feeds them, though then- 
master is dead. It is probable that we should read 
fioav; meaning, that she sits on the desolate shore 
' waiting to hear thy cry, or shout of welcome.' 

1. 69. t6=&, SO that t6 <f>ikao-€P=zb <f>tkafia <f>tkcur€P, 'the 

kiss with which she kissed/ etc. 

1. 72. MAtjs. The river Meles, near Smyrna, is called 
4 most musical/ because both Homer and Bion were born 
on its banks. The river had two losses to mourn, the 
death of Homer and of Bion. 

1. 73. KaXXi&rras <rr6pa, the poet is spoken of as the 
mouthpiece of the muse. 

I.77. ire^iXapiwi, 'beloved by/ 'dear to/ 6s jicV, 
more usually 6 i**v . . . 6 &. 

1. 78. nayoaiBos Kpfyv\s, sc. Hippocrene. 

1. 79. TW&aploio OuyaTpa, Helen, Achilles, and Mene- 
laus are named here as being the principal characters in 
the Iliad. 

1. 81. kcikos Sc, i. e. Bion, in distinction to Homer. 

1. 83. ASc*a, an irregular Doric accus. for ddw, ffivv): 
cp. Theoc. 20. 44. Here it seems to stand for. fj^uw. 

1. 88. Ascra, a town in Boeotia on Mount Helicon, the 
birthplace of Hesiod. 

1. 89. *YXch, Moschus seems to mean Hylae, a town in 
Boeotia upon lake Hylica: but Cynoscephalae is generally 
given as Pindar's birthplace. 

1. 91. T^iok. Anacreon was born at Teos in Asia 

1. 92. dm 8c lair+ous, i. e. avrl 2air^>oG? lUkiyparw, 

'instead of Sappho's songs, Mitylene (in Lesbos, Sappho's 
home) still warbles thine/ 


11. 94-99. These verses, which are scarcely intelligible, 
are probably interpolated to supply a lacuna existing in 
the text of the oldest Ms. 

1. 1 01. Auo-okik&s. Moschus was a Syracusan by birth. 
Probably he lived afterwards in the Southern part of 
Italy (Magna Graea'a). 

1. 103. ic\apoi"6po$. Moschus, as a pupil of Bion, 
claims for himself an inheritance in pastoral poetry. 

o pc ycpaipuK. If the reading be right, this should 
mean, ' with which honouring me, whilst thou didst be- 
queath to others thy wealth, thou didst leave me thy 
song.' Perhaps we should write, apii* ycpatp&v. 

1. no. 6mr6r€ irpaTa= ( cum semel! 

1. 112. ircmiKao'fjL^os, Mapped in/ 

L 113. ISo£ck, L e. the nymphs have determined to be 
content henceforth with the croaking of frogs. 

1. 117. iroioK, 'What poison could touch thy lips with- 
out being sweetened thereby ?' 

1. 119. ftt^uycK uSdy, i.e. tyov<ros Ijv, 'had no soul for 

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